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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151070/circadian-rhythms-of-melatonin-and-cortisol-in-manifest-huntington-s-disease-and-in-acute-cortical-ischemic-stroke
#1
A Adamczak-Ratajczak, J Kupsz, M Owecki, D Zielonka, A Sowinska, Z Checinska-Maciejewska, H Krauss, S Michalak, M Gibas-Dorna
Recent studies indicate disruptions to the circadian system in brain injury and neurodegeneration. The results, however, are often not consistent and limited by measurement of only one circadian marker and by infrequent sampling rates. In this study, we examined diurnal rhythmicity in different stages of Huntington (HD) disease and in patients with acute moderate ischemic stroke (AIS) outside the retinohypothalamic pathway by evaluating serum concentrations of melatonin and cortisol at twelve timepoints. All study participants were subjected to the same study protocol of 12-hour light/dark cycle and controlled room conditions...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140897/psychological-and-psychophysiological-effects-of-recuperative-music-postexercise
#2
Costas I Karageorghis, Andrew C Bruce, Suzanne T Pottratz, Rebecca C Stevens, Marcelo Bigliassi, Mark Hamer
PURPOSE: Few studies have examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of recuperative music following exhaustive exercise. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of two music conditions compared with a no-music control on psychological and psychophysiological recovery processes post-exercise. METHODS: A randomized, fully counterbalanced, crossover design was used. Core affect, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured before exhaustive exercise, immediately after, and in 10-, 20-, and 30-min intervals during passive recovery (21 women and 21 men; 20...
November 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111782/circadian-profiles-of-progesterone-gonadotropins-cortisol-and-corticotropin-in-cycling-and-postmenopausal-women
#3
Anne Caufriez, Rachel Leproult, Georges Copinschi
Little is known about the regulation of temporal variations of progesterone over the 24-hr span in young cycling women as well as in postmenopausal women. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between diurnal variations of progesterone and diurnal variations of hormones of the gonadotropic and corticotropic axes, and to provide further information on the source of progesterone secretion under physiological conditions. Twenty-four-hour hormonal profiles were explored under well-controlled laboratory conditions in 10 healthy women (21-36 yr old) with normal ovulatory cycles during early-mid follicular and late luteal phases, and in 8 healthy postmenopausal women (48-74 yr old)...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110806/masturbation-to-orgasm-stimulates-the-release-of-the-endocannabinoid-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-humans
#4
Johannes Fuss, Laura Bindila, Klaus Wiedemann, Matthias K Auer, Peer Briken, Sarah V Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Endocannabinoids are critical for rewarding behaviors such as eating, physical exercise, and social interaction. The role of endocannabinoids in mammalian sexual behavior has been suggested because of the influence of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists on rodent sexual activity. However, the involvement of endocannabinoids in human sexual behavior has not been studied. AIM: To investigate plasma endocannabinoid levels before and after masturbation in healthy male and female volunteers...
November 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106702/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-suppression-after-treatment-with-glucocorticoid-therapy-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#5
REVIEW
Niki Rensen, Reinoud Jbj Gemke, Elvira C van Dalen, Joost Rotteveel, Gertjan Jl Kaspers
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids play a major role in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, supraphysiological doses can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis suppression resulting in reduced cortisol response may cause an impaired stress response and an inadequate host defence against infection, which remain a cause of morbidity and death. Suppression commonly occurs in the first days after cessation of glucocorticoid therapy, but the exact duration is unclear...
November 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076960/effects-of-combined-strength-and-endurance-training-on-physical-performance-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-young-women
#6
Heikki KyrÖlÄinen, Anthony C Hackney, Riikka Salminen, Johanna Repola, Keijo HÄkkinen, Jari Haimi
Cardiovascular fitness has decreased and obesity has increased in youth-adults world-wide during the last ten years. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find out optimal exercise training programs for improving physical performance and health outcomes, especially, among sedentary women. Subjects were 25-30-year-old females with very low physical activity, and 65 % of them were overweight (BMI >25). They performed endurance and strength training three times a week for nine weeks. Independent strength training and instructed endurance training by indoor cycling were prescribed...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071449/preliminary-studies-on-haematological-and-plasmatic-parameters-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-held-under-day-night-temperature-variations
#7
Ana C Matias, Laura Ribeiro, Ravi L Araujo, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira
This study aimed to evaluate to what extent diel water temperature oscillations over a short period of time (41 h) affected haematologic and plasmatic parameters of gilthead sea bream. Sea bream juveniles (160 fish; 177.2 ± 20.9 g) were divided in two homogenous groups, experimental and control. The experimental group was exposed to water at 22.3 ± 0.6 °C between 5 a.m. and 5 p.m. and to colder water from 5 p.m. to 5 a.m. (temperature variation of 8.6 ± 0.3 °C) during 41h period, whereas for the control group, water temperature was maintained constant (22...
October 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068243/evidence-for-disruption-of-normal-circadian-cortisol-rhythm-in-women-with-obesity
#8
Zain A Al-Safi, Alex Polotsky, Justin Chosich, Lauren Roth, Amanda A Allshouse, Andrew P Bradford, Nanette Santoro
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of comorbidities encountered in obesity, including the relative hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that we and others have observed. We sought to examine serum cortisol profiles throughout the day and evening in a sample of normal weight women and women with obesity. In this cross-sectional study, regularly cycling obese (n = 12) and normal weight (n = 10) women were recruited. Mean serum cortisol was measured by frequent blood sampling for 16 h (8am-midnight) in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle...
October 25, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051997/effect-of-repeated-abstinence-on-chronic-ethanol-self-administration-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#9
Daicia C Allen, Steven W Gonzales, Kathleen A Grant
RATIONALE: Abstinence-based approaches to treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly prevalent, but abstinence from chronic drinking may exacerbate subsequent levels of alcohol intake in relapse. OBJECTIVE: Use a non-human primate model that encompasses a range of chronic voluntary ethanol drinking to isolate biological responses to repeated cycles of imposed abstinence as a function of baseline voluntary alcohol drinking levels. METHODS: Over a 26-month protocol, young adult male rhesus macaques were first induced to drink alcohol and then given continuous access to 4% (w/v) ethanol (n = 8) or water (n = 4) for approximately 14 months, followed by three 28- to 35-day abstinence phases, with 3 months of ethanol access in between...
October 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048182/differences-in-mood-and-cortisol-by-menstrual-phase-during-acute-smoking-abstinence-a-within-subject-comparison
#10
Samantha C Carlson, Alicia M Allen, Sharon S Allen, Mustafa al'Absi
There is evidence that smoking-cessation success differs by menstrual phase and sex hormone levels; however, the biological mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. One possibility is that variation in cortisol throughout the menstrual cycle and early smoking abstinence may be partly responsible. The goal of this secondary-data analysis was to conduct a within-subject examination of the effects of menstrual phase and smoking abstinence on salivary cortisol and mood. Data are from a controlled crossover trial, in which participants completed 2 testing weeks during their follicular and luteal phases...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981384/the-effects-of-a-korean-ginseng-ginst15-on-hypo-pituitary-adrenal-and-oxidative-activity-induced-by-intense-work-stress
#11
Shawn D Flanagan, William H DuPont, Lydia K Caldwell, Vincent H Hardesty, Emily C Barnhart, Matthew K Beeler, Emily M Post, Jeff S Volek, William J Kraemer
The effect of GINST15, an enzyme fermented ginseng supplement, on hormonal and inflammatory responses to physical stress in humans is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the constitutive and stress-induced effects of GINST15 supplement on hypo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and antioxidant activity in addition to muscle damage. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 163.81 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 177.4 ± 5...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977777/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-its-role-in-exhaustive-exercise-induced-changes-in-female-rat-ovulatory-cycle
#12
Abeer F Mostafa, Shereen M Samir, Reham M Nagib
INTRODUCTION: Exhaustive exercises can cause delayed menarche or menstrual cycle irregularities in female. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are incorporated into a wide range of benefits in many physiological systems. AIM OF WORK: aimed to assess the role of ω-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the deleterious effects of exhaustive exercise on female reproductive system in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: virgin female rats were randomly divided into four groups (12 rats in each): Control group (C), Omega 3 (ω-3) group treated with DHA, exhaustive exercise group (Ex), and exhaustive exercised rats treated with DHA...
October 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972481/-population-and-cluster-approach-to-assessment-of-reproductive-health-of-women
#13
M Gulzoda, F Khalimova, F Shukurov, A Gulin
The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of using a population approach to assessing the risk of reproductive health disorders in women of childbearing age. We observed 240 clinically healthy women aged 20 to 43 years, half of them lived in the Middle Black Earth region of Russia, and 120 women lived in Tajikistan. The study identified population differences in women with different ethnic backgrounds and regions of residence according to a set of genetic, hormonal, and immune signs. All women underwent venous blood sampling for the purpose of HLA typing by molecular genetic analysis and determining the range of normative values ​​of hormonal and immune status parameters...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963883/acute-physical-exercise-in-humans-enhances-reconsolidation-of-emotional-memories
#14
Dharani Keyan, Richard A Bryant
Increasing evidence suggests that when a memory is reactivated through retrieval, it becomes temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, which can consequently update or strengthen the memory. Physical exercise has been shown to modulate the maintenance of fear memories in animals following memory reactivation. This study investigated the effect of intense exercise in modulating the reconsolidation of trauma memories. Fifty-four undergraduate students watched a trauma film depicting the aftermath of a highway car crash...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946788/the-hepato-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-renal-axis-mathematical-modeling-of-cortisol-s-production-metabolism-and-seasonal-variation
#15
Kamau Pierre, Naomi Schlesinger, Ioannis P Androulakis
Cortisol dynamics are governed by the integration of influences from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and metabolic enzymes, such as the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) family, which are highly expressed in hepatic and renal tissue. The coordinated regulation of cortisol dynamics is essential for the maintenance of a healthy state, and aberrant cortisol circadian rhythms are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. The duration of the light-dark cycle, or photoperiod, which regulates SCN activity, varies seasonally, and the shorter photoperiod winter season is associated with elevated cortisol levels, peak inflammatory disease incidence, and symptom exacerbation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941409/a-comparison-of-steroid-profiles-in-the-testis-and-seminal-vesicle-of-the-catfish-heteropneustes-fossilis
#16
Radha Chaube, Surabhi Mishra, Rahul Kumar Singh
In the present study, distribution of steroid hormones (estradiol-17β (E2), testosterone (T), corticosteroids and progestins) in the testis and seminal vesicles (SV) of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis were investigated in two seasons (pre-spawning and spawning phases) of the reproductive cycle. The data showed that the levels of the steroid hormones varied significantly in both reproductive phases and exhibited organ-related differences. Sex steroid levels were highest in the pre-spawning phase and lowest in the spawning phase...
January 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911135/is-it-me-or-my-hormones-neuroendocrine-activation-profiles-to-visual-food-stimuli-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#17
Yardena Arnoni-Bauer, Atira Bick, Noa Raz, Tal Imbar, Shoshana Amos, Orly Agmon, Limor Marko, Netta Levin, Ram Weiss
Context: Homeostatic energy balance is controlled via the hypothalamus, whereas regions controlling reward and cognitive decision-making are critical for hedonic eating. Eating varies across the menstrual cycle peaking at the midluteal phase. Objective: To test responses of females with regular cycles during midfollicular and midluteal phase and of users of monophasic oral contraception pills (OCPs) to visual food cues. Design: Participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging while exposed to visual food cues in four time points: fasting and fed conditions in midfollicular and midluteal phases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890443/stress-and-sex-does-cortisol-mediate-sex-change-in-fish
#18
Alexander Goikoetxea, Erica Todd, Neil Gemmell
Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal, morphological) are well studied...
September 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811748/salivary-diagnostic-markers-in-males-and-females-during-rest-and-exercise
#19
Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Carlene Starck, Deborah K Dulson, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Saliva is a useful diagnostic tool for analysis in sports, exercise and nutrition research, as collection is easy and non-invasive and it contains a large number of analytes affected by a range of physiological and pathological stressors and conditions. This study examined key salivary electrolytes and stress and immune markers in males and females at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva from 20 healthy, recreationally active participants (8 males and 12 females) was analysed for flow rate, osmolality, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), α-amylase activity and cortisol during both rest and moderate intensity (70% peak power) cycling exercise in a randomised crossover design...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#20
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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