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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911135/is-it-me-or-my-hormones-neuroendocrine-activation-profiles-to-visual-food-stimuli-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#1
Yardena Arnoni-Bauer, Atira Bick, Noa Raz, Tal Imbar, Shoshana Amos, Orly Agmon, Limor Marko, Netta Levin, Ram Weiss
Context: Homeostatic energy balance is controlled via the hypothalamus, whereas regions controlling reward and cognitive decision-making are critical for hedonic eating. Eating varies across the menstrual cycle peaking at the midluteal phase. Objective: To test responses of females with regular cycles during midfollicular and midluteal phase and of users of monophasic oral contraception pills (OCPs) to visual food cues. Design: Participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging while exposed to visual food cues in four time points: fasting and fed conditions in midfollicular and midluteal phases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890443/stress-and-sex-does-cortisol-mediate-sex-change-in-fish
#2
Alexander Goikoetxea, Erica Todd, Neil Gemmell
Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal, morphological) are well studied...
September 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811748/salivary-diagnostic-markers-in-males-and-females-during-rest-and-exercise
#3
Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Carlene Starck, Deborah K Dulson, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Saliva is a useful diagnostic tool for analysis in sports, exercise and nutrition research, as collection is easy and non-invasive and it contains a large number of analytes affected by a range of physiological and pathological stressors and conditions. This study examined key salivary electrolytes and stress and immune markers in males and females at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva from 20 healthy, recreationally active participants (8 males and 12 females) was analysed for flow rate, osmolality, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), α-amylase activity and cortisol during both rest and moderate intensity (70% peak power) cycling exercise in a randomised crossover design...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#4
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780758/investigation-of-metabolites-for-estimating-blood-deposition-time
#5
Karolina Lech, Fan Liu, Sarah K Davies, Katrin Ackermann, Joo Ern Ang, Benita Middleton, Victoria L Revell, Florence J Raynaud, Igor Hoveijn, Roelof A Hut, Debra J Skene, Manfred Kayser
Trace deposition timing reflects a novel concept in forensic molecular biology involving the use of rhythmic biomarkers for estimating the time within a 24-h day/night cycle a human biological sample was left at the crime scene, which in principle allows verifying a sample donor's alibi. Previously, we introduced two circadian hormones for trace deposition timing and recently demonstrated that messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers significantly improve time prediction accuracy. Here, we investigate the suitability of metabolites measured using a targeted metabolomics approach, for trace deposition timing...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760555/rhythmicity-and-plasticity-of-digestive-physiology-in-a-euryhaline-teleost-fish-permit-trachinotus-falcatus
#6
Carlo C Lazado, Per Bovbjerg Pedersen, Huy Quang Nguyen, Ivar Lund
Digestive physiology is considered to be under circadian control, but there is little evidence in teleost fish. The present study explored the rhythmicity and plasticity to feeding schedules of enzymatic digestion in a candidate aquaculture fish, the permit (Trachinotus falcatus). The first experiment identified the rhythms of digestive factors throughout the light-dark (LD) cycle. Gastric luminal pH and pepsin activity showed significant daily variation albeit not rhythmic. These dynamic changes were likewise observed in several digestive enzymes, in which the activities of intestinal protease, chymotrypsin and lipase exhibited significant daily rhythms...
July 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759834/the-effects-of-intrauterine-infusion-of-peanut-oil-on-endometrial-health-salivary-cortisol-and-interovulatory-period-in-mares
#7
Madeleine L H Campbell, Daniel Hampshire, Lauren E Hamstead, Belinda V Rose, Ken C Smith, Amanda M de Mestre
Intrauterine infusion of peanut oil at Day 10 post-ovulation has been reported to prolong dioestrus in mares. However, the effects of peanut oil treatment on the endometrium and whether the technique is painful have not been assessed. The objectives of this study were, (i) to determine the effect of intrauterine infusion of peanut oil on endometrial health, (ii) to determine whether use of intrauterine peanut oil is painful and (iii) to confirm that peanut oil causes prolonged dioestrus. Six mares aged 3-12 years old were used in a cross-over design with each mare administered both 1 ml of intrauterine peanut oil and a sham treatment on different oestrous cycles...
July 13, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752719/serum-estradiol-concentration-estradiol-to-progesterone-ratio-and-sputum-il-5-and-il-8-concentrations-are-increased-in-luteal-phase-of-the-menstrual-cycle-in-perimenstrual-asthma-patients
#8
A Semik-Orzech, S Skoczyński, W Pierzchała
Background. The results of the research on perimenstrual asthma (PMA) pathophysiology are inconsistent, and the role of sex hormones remains inconclusive. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of serum sex steroid (and other) hormones concentrations on lower airway inflammation of PMA patients. Methods. Thirty-three women of childbearing age diagnosed as: PMA (n = 13), non-PMA asthmatics (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 10) were prospectively followed for 12 weeks over 2 consecutive menstrual cycles...
July 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750061/endocrine-and-aggressive-responses-to-competition-are-moderated-by-contest-outcome-gender-individual-versus-team-competition-and-implicit-motives
#9
Jon K Oxford, Johanna M Tiedtke, Anna Ossmann, Dominik Özbe, Oliver C Schultheiss
This study examined hormonal responses to competition in relation to gender, social context, and implicit motives. Participants (N = 326) were randomly assigned to win or lose in a 10-round, virtual face-to-face competition, in same-sex individual- and team-competition contexts. Saliva samples, taken before and twice after the competition, were assayed for testosterone (T), estradiol (E), progesterone (P), and cortisol (C). Implicit needs for power (nPower) and affiliation (nAffiliation) were assessed with a picture-story exercise before the competition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723842/reduced-neuromuscular-performance-in-amenorrheic-elite-endurance-athletes
#10
Åsa B Tornberg, Anna Melin, Fiona Manderson Koivula, Anders Johansson, Sven Skouby, Jens Faber, Anders Sjödin
INTRODUCTION: Secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (SFHA) is common among female athletes, especially in weight-sensitive sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between SFHA and neuromuscular performance in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Sixteen eumenorrheic (EUM) and 14 SFHA athletes from national teams and competitive clubs participated. Methods included gynecological examination; body composition (DXA);; resting metabolic rate and work efficiency; exercise capacity; knee muscular strength (KMS) and knee muscular endurance (KME); reaction time (RT); blood sampling performed on the 3rd-5th day of the menstrual cycle, and 7-day assessment of energy availability...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713045/cortisol-elevation-post-hatch-affects-behavioural-performance-in-zebrafish-larvae
#11
Carol Best, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Maternal cortisol is essential for cortisol stress axis development and de novo production of this steroid commences only after hatch in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, very little is known about the effect of elevated cortisol levels, during the critical period of stress axis activation, on larval performance. We tested the hypothesis that elevated cortisol levels post-hatch affect behavioural performance and this is mediated by glucocorticoid receptor activation in zebrafish larvae. The behavioural response included measuring larval activity in response to alternating light and dark cycles, as well as thigmotaxis...
July 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705797/cyclical-cushing-s-how-best-to-catch-the-ups-and-downs
#12
Malik Asif Humayun, Tanya Hart, Tristan Richardson
A 68-year-old man with a background of hypertension and type 2 diabetes presented with fluctuating symptoms of muscle aches and pains and tiredness. His initial work-up for the possibility of hypercortisolaemia showed a completely variable pattern, with 24-hour cortisol excretion and serum cortisol post 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test ranging from normal to significantly elevated. A series of salivary cortisol with symptom diary confirmed the cyclical nature of hypercortisolaemia, and his concomitant adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were elevated...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694839/gene-expression-profiling-of-whole-blood-cells-supports-a-more-efficient-mitochondrial-respiration-in-hypoxia-challenged-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#13
Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Azucena Bermejo-Nogales, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Acclimation to abiotic challenges, including decreases in O2 availability, requires physiological and anatomical phenotyping to accommodate the organism to the environmental conditions. The retention of a nucleus and functional mitochondria in mature fish red blood cells makes blood a promising tissue to analyse the transcriptome and metabolic responses of hypoxia-challenged fish in an integrative and non-invasive manner. METHODS: Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were reared at 20-21 °C under normoxic conditions (> 85% O2 saturation) followed by exposure to a gradual decrease in water O2 concentration to 3...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662684/atypical-blood-glucose-response-to-continuous-and-interval-exercise-in-a-person-with-type-1-diabetes-a-case-report
#14
Othmar Moser, Gerhard Tschakert, Alexander Mueller, Werner Groeschl, Thomas R Pieber, Gerd Koehler, Max L Eckstein, Richard M Bracken, Peter Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Therapy must be adapted for people with type 1 diabetes to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia caused by increased exercise-related glucose uptake into muscles. Therefore, to avoid hypoglycemia, the preexercise short-acting insulin dose must be reduced for safety reasons. We report a case of a man with long-lasting type 1 diabetes in whom no blood glucose decrease during different types of exercise with varying exercise intensities and modes was found, despite physiological hormone responses...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619884/effect-of-an-obesogenic-diet-on-circadian-activity-and-serum-hormones-in-old-monkeys
#15
Henryk F Urbanski, Kevin Mueller, Cynthia L Bethea
Like women, old female rhesus macaques undergo menopause and show many of the same age-associated changes, including perturbed activity/rest cycles and altered circulating levels of many hormones. Previous studies showed that administration of an estrogen agonist increased activity in female monkeys, that hormone therapy (HT) increased activity in postmenopausal women and that obesity decreased activity in women. The present study sought to determine if postmenopausal activity and circulating hormone levels also respond to HT when monkeys are fed a high-fat, high-sugar Western style diet (WSD)...
August 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584167/severe-cushing-s-syndrome-due-to-small-cell-prostate-carcinoma-a-case-and-review-of-literature
#16
REVIEW
M S Elston, V B Crawford, M Swarbrick, M S Dray, M Head, J V Conaglen
Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is associated with a variety of tumours most of which arise in the thorax or abdomen. Prostate carcinoma is a rare but important cause of rapidly progressive CS. To report a case of severe CS due to ACTH production from prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma and summarise previous published cases. A 71-year-old male presented with profound hypokalaemia, oedema and new onset hypertension. The patient reported two weeks of weight gain, muscle weakness, labile mood and insomnia...
July 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580147/the-quantification-of-reproductive-hormones-in-the-hair-of-captive-adult-brown-bears-and-their-application-as-indicators-of-sex-and-reproductive-state
#17
Marc Cattet, Gordon B Stenhouse, David M Janz, Luciene Kapronczai, Joy Anne Erlenbach, Heiko T Jansen, O Lynne Nelson, Charles T Robbins, John Boulanger
Recognizing the potential value of steroid hormone measurements to augment non-invasive genetic sampling, we developed procedures based on enzyme-linked immunoassays to quantify reproductive steroid hormone concentrations in brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair. Then, using 94 hair samples collected from eight captive adult bears over a 2-year period, we evaluated (i) associations between hair concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and cortisol; (ii) the effect of collecting by shaving vs. plucking; and (iii) the utility of reproductive hormone profiles to differentiate sex and reproductive state...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515793/does-the-diurnal-cycle-of-cortisol-explain-the-relationship-between-physical-performance-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#18
B Dijckmans, J Tortosa-Martínez, N Caus, G González-Caballero, B Martínez-Pelegrin, C Manchado-Lopez, J M Cortell-Tormo, I Chulvi-Medrano, A Clow
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is a promising strategy to treat and prevent cognitive decline. The mechanisms that mediate these benefits are not fully clear but physical activity is thought to attenuate the harmful effects of chronic psychological stress and hypercortisolism on cognition. However, the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion is complex and it is not known which aspects are most closely associated with increased cognitive function and better physical performance...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511046/effects-of-stress-on-women-s-preference-for-male-facial-masculinity-and-their-endocrine-correlates
#19
Beate Ditzen, Simona Palm-Fischbacher, Lara Gossweiler, Livia Stucky, Ulrike Ehlert
Women's preferences for masculinity in men's faces seem to vary across the menstrual cycle and are assumed to be strongest around ovulation. A number of hormones have been proposed to underlie these subtle cyclic shifts. Furthermore, mating preferences are context-dependent, and stress has been found to alter mate choice, both in animals and humans. Currently, the effects of stress on women's preference for masculinity remain unknown. To examine the hormonal basis and the impact of stress on facial masculinity preference, we tested for within-subject changes in 52 healthy young women who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the placebo-TSST in randomized order in the late follicular and mid-luteal phases of their menstrual cycle...
May 3, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501551/contribution-of-stress-and-sex-hormones-to-memory-encoding
#20
Christian J Merz
Distinct stages of the menstrual cycle and the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels, stress responses, and memory processes critically involved in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. To characterize the interaction of sex and stress hormones on memory encoding, 30 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women were exposed to either a stress (socially evaluated cold-pressor test) or a control condition prior to memory encoding and immediate recall of neutral, positive, and negative words...
May 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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