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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221962/acute-stress-throughout-the-memory-cycle-diverging-effects-on-associative-and-item-memory
#1
Elizabeth V Goldfarb, Alexa Tompary, Lila Davachi, Elizabeth A Phelps
Acute stress can modulate memory for individual parts of an event (items), but whether it similarly influences memory for associations between items remains unclear. We used a within-subjects design to explore the influence of acute stress on item and associative memory in humans. Participants associated negative words with neutral objects, rated their subjective arousal for each pair, and completed delayed item and paired associative recognition tasks. We found strikingly different patterns of acute stress effects on item and associative memory: for high-arousal pairs, preencoding stress enhanced associative memory, whereas postencoding stress enhanced item memory...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210563/relationship-between-the-cortisol-estradiol-phase-difference-and-affect-in-women
#2
Karyn Geralyn Butler
Affective disorders impact women's health, with a lifetime prevalence of over twelve per cent. They have been correlated with reproductive cycle factors, under the regulation of hormonal circadian rhythms. In affective disorders, circadian rhythms may become desynchronized. The circadian rhythms of cortisol and estradiol may play a role in affective disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore the temporal relationship between the rhythms of cortisol and estradiol and its relationship to affect. It was hypothesized that a cortisol-estradiol phase difference (PD) exists that correlates with optimal affect...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209229/the-scent-of-attractiveness-levels-of-reproductive-hormones-explain-individual-differences-in-women-s-body-odour
#3
Janek S Lobmaier, Urs Fischbacher, Urs Wirthmüller, Daria Knoch
Individuals are thought to have their own distinctive body odour which reportedly plays an important role in mate choice. In the present study we investigated individual differences in body odours of women and examined whether some women generally smell more attractive than others or whether odour preferences are a matter of individual taste. We then explored whether levels of reproductive hormones explain women's body odour attractiveness, to test the idea that body odour attractiveness may act as a chemosensory marker of reproductive fitness...
September 12, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172954/women-with-high-estradiol-status-are-protected-against-declarative-memory-impairment-by-pre-learning-stress
#4
Martin I Antov, Ursula Stockhorst
Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory. Factors contributing to whether stress aids or impairs memory are timing of the stressor, memory stage, form of memory studied, and sex of the subjects. The female sex hormone 17-beta-estradiol (E2) has widespread effects in the brain and affects hippocampus-dependent memory in animals. In humans, the interaction between stress effects and E2 has not been widely studied. We report data from a healthy sample divided into 3 hormone-status groups: free-cycling women in the early follicular phase (low E2, low progesterone [P4]), or during midcycle (high E2, low P4), and men...
August 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171634/a-study-on-ghrelin-and-lh-secretion-after-short-fasting-and-on-ghrelin-levels-at-periestrual-period-in-dairy-cattle
#5
Thomas Markos Chouzouris, Eleni Ntovolou, Constantinos A Rekkas, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Lambrini V Athanasiou, Georgios S Amiridis
In two experiments, we studied a) the changes of LH secretion in heifers under different feeding schedules, and b) total ghrelin concentration at estrus in cows and heifers. In experiment one, synchronized heifers were allocated in 3 groups (R, regularly fed controls; F, fasted; and F-F fasted - fed). One day after the completion of the estrus induction protocol, group F and F-F animals stayed without feed for 24h; thereafter, feed was provided to R and F-F cattle; 2 hours later GnRH was administered to all animals...
September 1, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148606/washing-free-displacement-immunosensor-for-cortisol-in-human-serum-containing-numerous-interfering-species
#6
Ponnusamy Nandhakumar, Al-Monsur Jiaul Haque, Nam-Sihk Lee, Young Ho Yoon, Haesik Yang
Simple and sensitive competitive immunosensors for small molecules are difficult to obtain, especially in serum containing numerous interfering species (ISs) with different concentrations. Herein, we report a washing-free and sensitive (competitive) displacement immunosensor for cortisol in human serum, based on electron mediation of Os(bpy)2 Cl2 between an electrode and a redox label [oxygen-insensitive diaphorase (DI)] (i.e., electrochemical-enzymatic redox cycling). The anticortisol IgG-DI conjugate bound to a cortisol-immobilized electrode is displaced by competitive binding of cortisol in serum and diffuses away from the electrode during incubation; therefore, the concentration of the displaced conjugate near the electrode becomes very low, even without washing...
September 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143557/iugr-impairs-cardiomyocyte-growth-and-maturation-in-fetal-sheep
#7
Sonnet S Jonker, Daniel Kamna, Dan Loturco, Jenai Kailey, Laura D Brown
Placental insufficiency causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a common complication of pregnancy. In skeletal muscle, IUGR reduces fetal myofibril size, reduces myoblast proliferation, and reduces expression of genes in cell cycle regulation clusters. The myocardium is striated like skeletal muscle, and IUGR also reduces cell cycle activity and maturation in cardiomyocytes, despite cardiac output preferentially directed to the coronary circulation. We hypothesized that cardiomyocyte growth restriction would be accompanied by similar changes in cell cycle regulation genes, and would reduce cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, number, maturity and size...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143282/effect-of-estrous-cycle-phase-on-vulvar-orbital-area-and-muzzle-surface-temperatures-as-determined-using-digital-infrared-thermography-in-buffalo
#8
Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger, Paulo Henrique Yamada, Luiz Gustavo Bicas Barbosa, Marcelo George Mungai Chacur, João Carlos Pinheiro Ferreira, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza de Carvalho, Gabriela Azenha Milani Soriano, Viviane Maria Codognoto, Eunice Oba
The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in the orbital area, muzzle and vulva surface temperatures and progesterone (P4) concentrations during follicular and luteal phases in Murrah buffalo and whether these temperatures are influenced by the weather patterns. Forty cows were submitted to P4-based hormonal protocol. After P4 device withdrawal transrectal ultrasonography and infrared digital thermography were performed daily until day 16 and on days 20, 24, 28 and 32 to follow the ovulation as well as the vulva, orbital area and muzzle temperatures...
October 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130144/yoga-as-a-complementary-therapy-for-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-design-and-rationale-of-the-healthy-active-and-in-control-ha1c-study
#9
Herpreet Thind, Joseph L Fava, Kate M Guthrie, Laura Stroud, Geetha Gopalakrishnan, Marie Sillice, Naama Gidron, Beth C Bock
Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. For most patients, medication alone is not sufficient to achieve glycemic control; attention must also be paid to multiple healthy behaviors including diet, regular physical activity, and stress management. Yoga, a mindfulness practice with emphasis on relaxation, meditation, and deep breathing, may have special relevance to people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Yoga practice may positively affect stress and other self-care tasks that will contribute to improved glycemic control...
August 21, 2018: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129786/primary-pigmented-nodular-adrenocortical-disease-ppnad-as-an-underlying-cause-of-symptoms-in-a-patient-presenting-with-hirsutism-and-secondary-amenorrhea-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Ewa Cyranska-Chyrek, Dorota Filipowicz, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Marta Nowaczyk, Urszula Ambroziak, Sadegh Toutounchi, Łukasz Koperski, Tomasz Bednarczuk, Blazej Meczekalski, Marek Ruchała
Hypercortisolemia in females may lead to menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility, hirsutism and acne. Herewith, we present a 18-year-old patient, who was diagnosed due to weight gain, secondary amenorrhea, slowly progressing hirsutism, acne and hot flashes. Thorough diagnostics lead to a conclusion, that the symptoms was the first manifestation of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). All symptoms of Cushing syndrome including hirsutism and menstrual disturbances resolved after bilateral adrenalectomy...
August 21, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119133/inflammatory-response-24-h-post-exercise-in-youth-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#11
Emmanuelle Rochette, Etienne Merlin, Christophe Hourdé, Bertrand Evrard, Bruno Peraira, Stephane Echaubard, Pascale Duché
The aim of this study was to measure the impact, at 24 h post-exercise, of a single exercise bout on plasma inflammatory markers such as calprotectin, IL-6, sIL-6 R, sgp130 and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).Twelve children with JIA attended the laboratory on three consecutive days (control day, exercise day and 24 h post-exercise), including a 20-min exercise bout on a cycle-ergometer at 70% of max. HR at 8:30 a.m. on day 2. Plasma concentrations of calprotectin, IL-6, sIL-6 R, sgp130, cortisol, ACTH and DHEA were measured on venous blood samples taken every day...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109424/transient-adrenal-insufficiency-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-patients-after-chemotherapy-with-short-course-high-dose-corticosteroids
#12
Weerapat Owattanapanich, Sirinart Sirinvaravong, Kittima Suphadirekkul, Taweesak Wannachalee
Data on the rate of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in patients receiving short-course and high-dose corticosteroids are limited. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence of AI in newly diagnosed, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients after receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone [or prednisolone] (R-CHOP/CHOP) regimen. We enrolled newly diagnosed DLBCL patients who were scheduled to receive 6-8 cycles of R-CHOP/CHOP regimen. One-microgram adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests were performed at the study entry and 3 weeks after each cycle of chemotherapy (CMT)...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091483/effects-of-crowding-and-water-restriction-stress-on-creole-goat-reproduction-in-the-oaxacan-sierra-mixteca-mexico
#13
Mónica Díaz Pacheco, Juan Vargas Romero, Susana Rojas-Maya, Socorro Retana-Márquez
Chronic stress disrupts reproductive efficiency. Yet, the manner in which stress disturbs reproduction in goats is currently unknown. The Oaxacan Mixteca region is one of Mexico's poorest, with high levels of deforestation, high ambient temperatures, and lack of water. Native goats of the Oaxacan Mixteca Region live in these stressful conditions, as well as in overcrowded and water restricted conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of these very stressful conditions on the reproduction of male and female goats...
August 9, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087603/elevated-cortisol-leaves-working-memory-unaffected-in-both-men-and-women
#14
Robyn Human, Michelle Henry, W Jake Jacobs, Kevin G F Thomas
Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as might occur, for example, when the organism encounters a threat to allostatic balance) leads to the release of cortisol into the bloodstream and, ultimately, to altered neural functioning in particular brain regions (e.g., the prefrontal cortex (PFC)). Although previous studies suggest that exposure to acute psychosocial stress (and hence, presumably, elevation of circulating cortisol levels) enhances male performance on PFC-based working memory (WM) tasks, few studies have adequately investigated female performance on WM tasks under conditions of elevated cortisol...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048162/new-and-emerging-drug-therapies-for-cushing-s-disease
#15
Sylvère Störmann, Jochen Schopohl
Cushing's disease is a rare systemic and disabling disease due to oversecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resulting in excess cortisol levels. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult; despite the availability of various pharmaceutical treatment options, there is an ongoing, unmet need for even more effective treatment. Areas covered: The present review aims at providing an overview of available drugs and presenting new developments. Focusing on the pituitary as a target, the review covers compounds targeting pituitary cell signaling or cell cycle control such as heat shock protein inhibitors (e...
August 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025915/metformin-suppresses-growth-and-adrenocorticotrophic-hormone-secretion-in-mouse-pituitary-corticotroph-tumor-att20-cells
#16
Kai Jin, Lunliang Ruan, Jiujun Pu, Ailing Zhong, Fuchao Wang, Song Tan, Hua Huang, Jiamin Mu, Gang Yang
Pituitary corticotroph tumors lead to excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion, resulting in Cushing's disease (CD), which is associated with significant mortality. Standard treatments include neurosurgery, radiotherapy and medical therapy. Both surgery and radiotherapy have undesirable complications and high recurrence rates. At present, there is only one medical option available that targets pituitary adenoma and ACTH secretion, the drug pasireotide. However, hyperglycemia is common during pasireotide treatment...
July 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016990/high-fidelity-discrete-modeling-of-the-hpa-axis-a-study-of-regulatory-plasticity-in-biology
#17
Hooman Sedghamiz, Matthew Morris, Travis J A Craddock, Darrell Whitley, Gordon Broderick
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a central regulator of stress response and its dysfunction has been associated with a broad range of complex illnesses including Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Though classical mathematical approaches have been used to model HPA function in isolation, its broad regulatory interactions with immune and central nervous function are such that the biological fidelity of simulations is undermined by the limited availability of reliable parameter estimates...
July 17, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012209/sick-sinus-syndrome-associated-with-anti-programmed-cell-death-1
#18
Chien-Yi Hsu, Yu-Wen Su, San-Chi Chen
BACKGROUND: Use of anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1) has been successful in treating many types of cancers. Despite its promising efficacy, immune-related adverse events are still a major concern. Immune-related cardiotoxicity, which is rare but fatal, has recently become a focus of attention. Cardiotoxicities including myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, cardiac fibrosis, heart block and cardiac arrest have been reported. Of these toxicities, myocarditis is often accompanied by dysrhythmia...
July 16, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998384/magic-moments-determinants-of-stress-relief-and-subjective-wellbeing-from-visiting-a-cultural-heritage-site
#19
Enzo Grossi, Giorgio Tavano Blessi, Pier Luigi Sacco
We provide an experimental evaluation of the impact of aesthetic experiences in terms of stress reduction (cortisol levels) and wellbeing increase. The test experience is a visit to the vault of the Sanctuary of Vicoforte, Italy. Data have been collected using a double step method. A structured interview in relation to the individual subjective well-being has been administered to a sample of 100 subjects. In addition, a sample of their saliva has been taken, and its cortisol level measured, before and after the experience, and likewise for momentary wellbeing measured on a Visual Analogous Scale...
July 12, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991600/separation-of-circadian-and-behavior-driven-metabolite-rhythms-in-humans-provides-a-window-on-peripheral-oscillators-and-metabolism
#20
Debra J Skene, Elena Skornyakov, Namrata R Chowdhury, Rajendra P Gajula, Benita Middleton, Brieann C Satterfield, Kenneth I Porter, Hans P A Van Dongen, Shobhan Gaddameedhi
Misalignment between internal circadian rhythmicity and externally imposed behavioral schedules, such as occurs in shift workers, has been implicated in elevated risk of metabolic disorders. To determine underlying mechanisms, it is essential to assess whether and how peripheral clocks are disturbed during shift work and to what extent this is linked to the central suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) pacemaker and/or misaligned behavioral time cues. Investigating rhythms in circulating metabolites as biomarkers of peripheral clock disturbances may offer new insights...
July 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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