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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079250/use-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-safety-and-tolerability
#1
Lindsey Thompson, Erin Fecske, Mohammad Salim, Ara Hall
Drug-resistant epilepsy poses a challenge in neonatal patients, especially those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), who have various secondary comorbidities. We present results of four children with a history of drug-resistant epilepsy for whom a ketogenic diet was initiated and used in the NICU. A nonfasting induction into ketosis over 1-2 weeks was utilized, with gradual increases in the ketogenic ratio every 2-3 days. Data were collected retrospectively from a database, which included medical history, daily progress notes, relevant laboratory data, and imaging and diagnostic information...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078614/resistance-exercise-reduces-seizure-occurrence-attenuates-memory-deficits-and-restores-bdnf-signaling-in-rats-with-chronic-epilepsy
#2
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070716/pharmacokinetics-and-saturable-absorption-of-gabapentin-in-nursing-home-elderly-patients
#3
Ghada F Ahmed, Sai Praneeth R Bathena, Richard C Brundage, Ilo E Leppik, Jeannine M Conway, Janice B Schwartz, Angela K Birnbaum
Pharmacokinetic data of gabapentin (GBP) in community-dwelling elderly patients show a significant effect of advanced age on GBP pharmacokinetics due to altered renal function. However, there are no data in elderly nursing home (NH) patients to evaluate gabapentin absorption and elimination. Our objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of GBP in elderly nursing home patients maintained on GBP therapy. This was a prospective pharmacokinetic study in elderly nursing home patients (≥60 years) receiving GBP for the management of chronic pain or epilepsy from seven nursing homes...
January 9, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065794/adjuvant-quercetin-therapy-for-combined-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-comorbid-depression
#4
Tanveer Singh, Taranjot Kaur, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders frequently associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression. The predisposition of tryptophan metabolism towards kynurenine pathway has been reported as one of the plausible reasons for association of depression in epilepsy. Hence, this study was envisaged to evaluate the dose dependent inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme employing quercetin (screened employing in vitro method) with levetiracetam for combined management of epilepsy and comorbid depression...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059648/validation-of-effectiveness-of-keyhole-clipping-in-nonfrail-elderly-patients-with-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysms
#5
Kentaro Mori, Kojiro Wada, Naoki Otani, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Kazuya Fujii, Kosuke Kumagai, Satoru Takeuchi, Satoshi Tomura, Takuji Yamamoto, Yasuaki Nakao, Hajime Arai
OBJECTIVE Advanced age is known to be associated with a poor prognosis after surgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Keyhole clipping techniques have been introduced for less invasive treatment of UIAs. In this study, the authors compared the complications and clinical and radiological outcomes after keyhole clipping between nonfrail elderly patients (≥ 70 years) and nonelderly patients. METHODS Keyhole clipping (either supraorbital or pterional) was performed to treat 260 cases of relatively small (≤ 10 mm) anterior circulation UIAs...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058944/epilepsy-in-hemiplegic-migraine-genetic-mutations-and-clinical-implications
#6
P Prontera, P Sarchielli, S Caproni, C Bedetti, L M Cupini, P Calabresi, C Costa
Objective We performed a systematic review on the comorbidities of familial/sporadic hemiplegic migraine (F/SHM) with seizure/epilepsy in patients with CACNA1A, ATP1A2 or SCN1A mutations, to identify the genotypes associated and investigate for the presence of mutational hot spots. Methods We performed a search in MEDLINE and in the Human Gene Mutation and Leiden Open Variation Databases for mutations in the CACNA1A, ATP1A2 and SCN1A genes. After having examined the clinical characteristics of the patients, we selected those having HM and seizures, febrile seizures or epilepsy...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051218/parental-satisfaction-of-an-assessment-unit-for-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#7
Arwa Ben Amor, Soumeyya Halayem, Maissa Touati, Ahlem Belhadj, Riadh Gouider, Ridha Mrad, Asma Bouden
Background - Based on the recognized principles of assessment of autistic disorders, the child and adolescent psychiatry department in Razi Hospital developed an assessment unit with diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. The aim of this work was to examine its functioning and to analyze the parents' perceptions about the unit services. Methods - We gathered the parental satisfaction about the unit by the means of a hetero-questionnaire. Results - Fifty-two parents of children evaluated within the unit were included...
June 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038393/managing-epilepsy-associated-depression-serotonin-enhancers-or-serotonin-producers
#8
REVIEW
Tanveer Singh, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Depression is one of the major psychiatric comorbidities having a major impact on the quality of life in people with epilepsy (PWE). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as safest therapy for the treatment of depression in PWE. Although administration of SSRIs increases the synaptic serotonin levels, it decreases the overall serotonin synthesis in the brain. Long-term therapy with SSRIs has been reported to decrease serotonin synthesis, which may be the possible reason for lessening of their antidepressant effect over time as well as elevated seizure outcomes observed in PWE...
December 27, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038391/morbidity-and-mortality-of-childhood-and-adolescent-onset-epilepsy-a-controlled-national-study
#9
Poul Jennum, Line Pickering, Jakob Christensen, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is associated with significant morbidities and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the 30-year morbidities and mortality in a national group of patients after a first diagnosis of epilepsy. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), in total, 3123 patients with epilepsy aged 0-5years and 5018 patients aged 6-20years diagnosed in 1998-2002 were identified and compared with, respectively, 6246 and 10,036 persons matched for age, gender, and place of living with randomly chosen citizens from the Danish Civil Registration System Statistics...
December 27, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035782/wonoep-appraisal-biomarkers-of-epilepsy-associated-comorbidities
#10
REVIEW
Teresa Ravizza, Filiz Y Onat, Amy R Brooks-Kayal, Antoine Depaulis, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Andrey Mazarati, Adam L Numis, Raman Sankar, Alon Friedman
Neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with epilepsy. Diagnostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic biomarkers of such comorbidities do not exist. They may share pathogenetic mechanisms with epileptogenesis/ictogenesis, and as such are an unmet clinical need. The objectives of the subgroup on biomarkers of comorbidities at the XIII Workshop on the Neurobiology of Epilepsy (WONOEP) were to present the state-of-the-art recent research findings in the field that highlighting potential biomarkers for comorbidities in epilepsy...
December 30, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031853/lithium-therapy-in-comorbid-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-cycloid-psychosis
#11
Paul Brown, Sridhar Kashiviswanath, Alison Huynh, Naveen Allha, Ken Piaggio, Saddichha Sahoo, Ankur Gupta
The treatment of post-ictal psychosis has foundered on uncertainty in diagnosis of psychotic phenotypes, and equivocal efficacy of first and second generation antipsychotics. This article presents a case history of comorbid temporal lobe epilepsy and psychosis, suggests the applicability of the continental, cycloid psychosis diagnostic conceptualization to post-ictal psychoses, and demonstrates the efficacy of lithium in their treatment. Clinical studies of comorbidity of epilepsy and psychosis offer great potential as a basis for modelling brain-mind relationships, and neuropsychiatric nosology, pathophysiology and treatment...
December 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027373/new-onset-seizure-in-adults-and-adolescents-a-review
#12
Jay R Gavvala, Stephan U Schuele
Importance: Approximately 8% to 10% of the population will experience a seizure during their lifetime. Only about 2% to 3% of patients go on to develop epilepsy. Understanding the underlying etiology leading to an accurate diagnosis is necessary to ensure appropriate treatment and that patients with low risk for recurrence are not treated unnecessarily. Observations: Patients can present with new-onset seizure for a variety of reasons such as acute symptomatic seizures due to acute brain injury or metabolic derangements, or unprovoked seizures that are the initial manifestation of epilepsy...
27, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026919/a-comprehensive-assessment-of-cognitive-function-in-the-common-genetic-generalized-epilepsy-syndromes
#13
A Loughman, S C Bowden, W J D'Souza
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Considered to be benign conditions, the common genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) syndromes are now known to be frequently accompanied by cognitive dysfunction. However, unresolved issues impede clinical management of this common comorbidity, including which cognitive abilities are most affected, whether there are differences between syndromes and how seizure type and mood symptoms affect cognitive dysfunction. We provide a detailed description of cognitive ability and evaluate factors contributing to cognitive dysfunction...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025856/exploring-psychiatric-comorbidities-and-their-effects-on-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#14
Devrimsel Harika Ertem, Ayten Ceyhan Dirican, Agah Aydın, Sevim Baybas, Vedat Sözmen, Musa Ozturk, Yavuz Altunkaynak
AIM: The relation of epilepsy with psychiatric disorders is of great interest to researchers due to its behavioral, social and cognitive outcomes. In this study, we explored psychiatric comorbidity and its effects on quality of life in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). METHOD: Thirthy patients with MTLE, 30 patients with JME and 30 healthy controls were administered structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) to diagnose psychiatric disorders...
December 27, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024199/physical-and-mental-health-comorbidities-of-epilepsy-population-based-cross-sectional-analysis-of-1-5-million-people-in-scotland
#15
Christopher J Weatherburn, Craig A Heath, Stewart W Mercer, Bruce Guthrie
PURPOSE: To measure the prevalence of physical and mental health comorbidities in people with epilepsy in a large population cohort, and to examine the prevalence of depression accounting for other physical comorbidity. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional descriptive epidemiology analysis of primary care electronic records for 1,510,742 people aged 14+ years, examining the prevalence of 39 comorbidities. RESULTS: 12,720 people with epilepsy were identified (prevalence 8...
November 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017648/non-invasive-pet-imaging-of-brain-inflammation-at-disease-onset-predicts-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-reflects-comorbidities
#16
Daniele Bertoglio, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Eva Santermans, Halima Amhaoul, Elisabeth Jonckers, Leonie Wyffels, Annemie Van Der Linden, Niel Hens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
Brain inflammation is an important factor in the conversion of a healthy brain into an epileptic one, a phenomenon known as epileptogenesis, offering a new entry point for prognostic tools. The development of anti-epileptogenic therapies to treat before or at disease onset is hampered by our inability to predict the severity of the disease outcome. In a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy we aimed to assess whether in vivo non-invasive imaging of brain inflammation at disease onset was predictive of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency and severity of depression-like and sensorimotor-related comorbidities...
December 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017580/functional-mri-based-connectivity-analysis-a-promising-tool-for-the-investigation-of-the-pathophysiology-and-comorbidity-of-epilepsy
#17
Fenglai Xiao, Dongmei An, Dong Zhou
Epilepsy has been recognized as a brain network disorder. Therefore, functional MRI (fMRI)-based connectivity is an ideal technique for exploring the complex effects of epilepsy on the brain. Functional connectivity studies have provided insights into the physiopathogenesis of the epileptic network underlying focal epilepsies, genetic generalized epilepsy, and specific epileptic syndromes. An increasing number of studies have focused on the deleterious effects of epilepsy on other brain networks to help to explain cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms...
October 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013000/galanin-contributes-to-monoaminergic-dysfunction-and-to-dependent-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#18
Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Status epilepticus (SE) in rats, along with chronic epilepsy, leads to the development of behavioral impairments resembling depressive disorder and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thus reflecting respective comorbidities in epilepsy patients. Suppressed neurotransmitter tone in the raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) serotonergic pathway and in the locus coeruleus (LC)-PFC noradrenergic pathway underlies depressive- and impulsive-like behavioral deficits respectively. We examined possible mechanisms leading to the monoamine dysfunction in brainstem efferents, namely modulatory effects of the neuropeptide galanin on serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009725/cognitive-decline-and-dementia-in-down-syndrome
#19
Rosalyn Hithersay, Sarah Hamburg, Bernice Knight, André Strydom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease is most likely universal in older individuals with Down syndrome, due to having three copies of the amyloid precursor protein gene, resulting in amyloid-beta plaque deposition. Down syndrome is an important population in which to consider clinical trials of treatments to prevent or delay the development of dementia. However, assessment of subtler cognitive changes is challenging due to the presence of intellectual disability. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research confirmed that older adults with Down syndrome often present with cognitive decline: more than 80% may experience dementia by age 65 years...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005042/-depression-and-epilepsy-comorbidities-pathogenesis-principles-of-therapy
#20
F K Rider, O A Danilenko, M N Grishkina, G V Kustov, R G Akzhigitov, A V Lebedeva, A B Gekht
Numerous trials of last years confirm the bilateral link between depression and epilepsy with mutual complication of both diseases. Depression increases the risk of the first unprovoked paroxysm, worsens the compliance of epileptic patients, leads to decrease of the response both to therapeutic and surgical treatment and to increase of side effects of antiepileptic drugs. Depression is associated with high risk of suicidal behavior and reduces the quality of life level. Depression in epileptic patients is characterized by atypical clinical course in most cases what makes its diagnostics difficult and becomes the reason of the absence of the necessary pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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