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epilepsy comorbidity

Metin Dedei Daryan, Betül Tekin Güveli, Sezin Alpaydın Baslo, Kasım Mulhan, Hüseyin Sarı, Zeynep Ezgi Balçık, Dilek Ataklı
The comorbidity of headache and epilepsy is often seen in neurological practice. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, types of, and risk factors for headache in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). We assessed a total of 200 patients and 100 healthy controls in our study. Headache was classified in participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Demographical, clinical features and headache characteristics were recorded. Seizure and headache temporal profiles were noted. Headache was present in 111 (56%) patients and 50 (50%) healthy participants...
January 11, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Beverly J Insel, Ruth Ottman, Gary A Heiman
OBJECTIVE: Mood disorders are the most common comorbid conditions in epilepsy, but the cause remains unclear. One possible explanation is a shared genetic susceptibility to epilepsy and mood disorders. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating lifetime prevalence of mood disorders in relatives with and without epilepsy in families containing multiple individuals with epilepsy, and comparing the findings with rates from a general population sample. METHODS: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to 192 individuals from 60 families, including 110 participants with epilepsy of unknown cause (50 focal epilepsy [FE], 42 generalized epilepsy [GE], 6 FE and GE, 12 unclassifiable) and 82 relatives without epilepsy (RWOE)...
January 10, 2018: Epilepsia
D Subramanian, E Pralong, R T Daniel, A G Chacko, R Stoop, K S Babu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit remarkable comorbidity, but for reasons not clearly understood. To reveal a common pathophysiological mechanism, we here describe and characterize an in vitro epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampus that exhibits common features with in vivo activity in rodent ASD models. We discovered the development of this activity in the CA1 region of horizontal slices after prolonged interictal-like epileptiform activity in the CA3 region that was provoked by incubation in high potassium artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Rosa Michaelis, Venus Tang, Janelle L Wagner, Avani C Modi, W Curt LaFrance, Laura H Goldstein, Tobias Lundgren, Markus Reuber
OBJECTIVE: Given the significant impact epilepsy can have on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of individuals with this condition and their families, there is great clinical interest in evidence-based psychological treatments aimed at enhancing well-being in people with epilepsy (PWE). An evaluation of the current evidence is needed to assess the effects of psychological treatments for PWE on HRQoL outcomes to inform future therapeutic recommendations and research designs. METHODS: The operational definition of psychological treatments included a broad range of interventions that use psychological or behavioral techniques designed to improve HRQoL, psychiatric comorbidities, and seizure frequency and severity for adults and children with epilepsy...
January 3, 2018: Epilepsia
Anna Szucs, Andras Horvath, Daniel Fabo, Geza Szabo, Andrea Kovacs, Peter Halasz
The frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy compromises the quality of life of those affected, further increasing their suicide risk and the high burden of stigmatisation. Out of adulthood epilepsies, mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy carries the highest cognitive and psychiatric risk, making mental health comorbidities its inherent features. The pathomechanism of the epilepsy-related mental health symptoms and conditions appears to be related to undetected subclinical seizures, postictal exhaustion and inhibition, and the non-REM sleep related interictal epileptic activity...
September 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Tomor Harnod, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVE: We would like to exam whether epilepsy patients in Taiwan have a high risk of attempted and completed suicide. METHODS: In this study, we used a subset of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Inpatients (≥ 18 years) who received a new diagnosis of epilepsy between 2000 and 2011 were enrolled in the epilepsy cohort. The epilepsy and comparison cohorts included 68,543 patients and 2-fold controls respectively. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for suicide attempts after adjustment for age, sex, monthly income, the urbanization level, occupation, and comorbidity...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Johan S H Vles, Marlien W Aalbers, Richard F M Chin, Jos G M Hendriksen
AIM: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is more than a muscle disease since there is a higher prevalence of neuropsychological comorbidities. Similarly, the prevalence of epilepsy is increased. Given the nowadays-increasing interest in brain-related comorbidities in DMD, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between DMD, epilepsy, and associated neurodevelopmental disorders in an international sample of DMD patients. METHOD: Using a questionnaire-based study we investigated the occurrence of self/by-proxy reported brain-related comorbidities in a group of 228 DMD patients...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Hyang Mi Lee, Ok Hee Chai, Sang June Hahn, Bok Hee Choi
In patients with epilepsy, depression is a common comorbidity but difficult to be treated because many antidepressants cause pro-convulsive effects. Thus, it is important to identify the risk of seizures associated with antidepressants. To determine whether paroxetine, a very potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), interacts with ion channels that modulate neuronal excitability, we examined the effects of paroxetine on Kv3.1 potassium channels, which contribute to highfrequency firing of interneurons, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Tingting Zhang, Helen Tremlett, Feng Zhu, Elaine Kingwell, John D Fisk, Virender Bhan, Trudy Campbell, Karen Stadnyk, Robert Carruthers, Christina Wolfson, Sharon Warren, Ruth Ann Marrie
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between physical comorbidities and disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked health administrative and clinical databases in 2 Canadian provinces. Participants included adults with incident MS between 1990 and 2010 who entered the cohort at their MS symptom onset date. Comorbidity status was identified with validated algorithms for health administrative data and was measured during the 1 year before study entry and throughout the study period...
January 3, 2018: Neurology
Jocelyn Y Cheng, Jacqueline A French
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the most important issues a clinician must consider whenever selecting and administering antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). There is no available algorithm that identifies how to individualize selection of AEDs. Proper selection and administration can make an enormous difference in both effectiveness and tolerability. RECENT FINDINGS: Many principles of AED selection remain unchanged. Selection of AEDs must be based on understanding of epilepsy syndrome and seizure type, comorbidities, risk of adverse events, as well as on patient characteristics such as age and sex...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
Pierre Szepetowski
Numerous epilepsy genes have been identified in the last years, mostly in the (rare) monogenic forms and thanks to the increased availability and the decreased cost of next-generation sequencing approaches. Besides the somehow expected group of epilepsy genes encoding various ion channel subunits (e.g. sodium or potassium channel subunits, or GABA receptors, or glutamate-gated NMDA receptors), more diversity has emerged recently, with novel epilepsy genes encoding proteins playing a wide range of physiological roles at the cellular and molecular levels, such as synaptic proteins, members of the mTOR pathway, or proteins involved in chromatin remodeling...
December 22, 2017: La Presse Médicale
Bertrand de Toffol, Coraline Hingray, Julien Biberon, Wissam El-Hage
Psychiatric comorbidities are overrepresented in people suffering from epilepsy in comparison to the general population. There is a two-way link between epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric symptomatology is specific in epilepsy, according to the chronology of symptoms in relation to the seizure (inter, pre- or postictal). Easy to use, fast and efficient self-administered questionnaires are available to evaluate depressive (NDDI-E) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) symptoms. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not proconvulsant and can be safely used to treat depressive or anxious disorders...
December 20, 2017: La Presse Médicale
Yichien Lee, Olga C Rodriguez, Chris Albanese, Victor Rodrigues Santos, José Antônio Cortes de Oliveira, Ana Luiza Ferreira Donatti, Artur Fernandes, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Prosper N'Gouemo, Patrick A Forcelli
Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as well as comorbid conditions, displays a close phenotypic overlap in these models. Whether these similarities arise from convergent or divergent structural changes in the brain remains unknown...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Adam P Ostendorf, Satyanarayana Gedela
The effect of epilepsy extends beyond those with the diagnosis and impacts families, communities and society. Caregiver and sibling quality of life is often negatively affected by frequent seizures, comorbid behavioral and sleep disorders and stigma surrounding the diagnosis. Furthermore, the negative effects can be magnified by individual coping styles and resources available to families of those with epilepsy. Beyond the family and immediate caregivers, epilepsy affects local communities by drawing additional resources from education systems...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Adriana Ulate-Campos, Ivan Sánchez Fernández
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and, despite optimally chosen and dosed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), approximately 20%-30% of patients will continue to have seizures. Behavior and cognition are negatively impacted by seizures, but AEDs are also a major contributor to behavioral and cognitive deficits. However, the cognitive and behavioral effect of AEDs in children is insufficiently emphasized in the literature. This review summarizes the cognitive and behavioral effects of AEDs in the pediatric population with the objective of helping pediatricians and pediatric neurologists to select the AEDs with the best profile for their individual patient's needs...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Nancy A McNamara, Erin Marie Fedak Romanowski, David P Olson, Renee A Shellhaas
Antiseizure medications and dietary therapies have associated effects on the endocrine system. We provided an overview of the relationship between epilepsy treatment and bone health in children with epilepsy. Additionally, we discussed the effects of epilepsy treatment on other endocrine systems including thyroid function, growth, reproduction, and weight. The effect of epilepsy on bone health is multifactorial; there are direct and indirect effects of medication and dietary treatments as well as a decrease in physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, decreased vitamin D levels, and additional comorbidities...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Jorge Vidaurre, Jaime Dawn E Twanow
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric comorbidity associated with childhood epilepsy, affecting about a third of children with epilepsy. In contrast, ADHD in the general population occurs in 4%-12% of school-aged children. The cause of this association remains unclear. It is likely that common mechanisms underlie the vulnerability for both executive deficits and epileptogenesis. There are characteristics unique to children with ADHD and epilepsy. The inattentive type of ADHD is more prevalent than the combined presentation in children with epilepsy, while the combined type is more common in the general population...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Lily H Tran, Mary L Zupanc
Children with epilepsy are at risk for a variety of neurocognitive comorbidities. Animal models have increased our understanding about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the association between seizures and these comorbidities. This article starts with an overview of the current data on animal model research, studying the influence of early-life seizures, followed by a summary of potential cellular and molecular mechanisms by which seizures can affect cognitive development. We then describe specific abnormal neuropsychological profiles that accompany specific pediatric epilepsy syndromes...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Katherine C Nickels, Elaine C Wirrell
The term "epileptic encephalopathy" denotes a disorder in which seizures or frequent interictal discharges exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction beyond what would be expected on the basis of underlying etiology. However, many underlying causes of epileptic encephalopathy also result in neurocognitive deficits, and it can be challenging to discern to what extent these deficits can be improved with better seizure control. Additionally, as seizures in these conditions are typically refractory, children are often exposed to high doses of multiple antiepileptic drugs which further exacerbate these comorbidities...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Anne T Berg, Daniel Tarquinio, Sookyong Koh
Early-life epilepsies are a series of disorders frequently accompanied by a broad range of morbidities that include cognitive, behavioral, neuromuscular, and sleep disturbances; enteric and other forms of autonomic dysfunction; sensory processing difficulties; and other issues. Usually these morbidities cluster together in a single patient. Rather than these being separate conditions, all, including the seizures, are manifestations or coexpressions of developmental brain disorders. Instead of viewing epilepsy as the disease and the other features as comorbidities, approaching early-life epilepsies as part of the spectrum of developmental brain disorders could have implications for multidisciplinary care models, anticipatory guidance, and counseling of parents, as well as the design of randomized trials and targeting important outcomes...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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