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epilepsy comorbidity

Andrew Zillgitt, Abdullah Alshammaa, Muhammad Salim Kahn, Sarah Madani, Salman Zahoor, Ellen L Air
•Complications from standard ATL are uncommon and the use of post-operative corticosteroids may reduce complications.•Following standard ATL, FMSE was present after treatment with corticosteroids that resolved after blood sugar control.•After epilepsy surgery, corticosteroids should be used cautiously in people with comorbid diabetes mellitus.
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Sungtae An, Kunal Malhotra, Cynthia Dilley, Edward Han-Burgess, Jeffrey N Valdez, Joseph Robertson, Chris Clark, M Brandon Westover, Jimeng Sun
Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) are at high risk of morbidity and mortality, yet their referral to specialist care is frequently delayed. The ability to identify patients at high risk of DRE at the time of treatment initiation, and to subsequently steer their treatment pathway toward more personalized interventions, has high clinical utility. Here, we aim to demonstrate the feasibility of developing algorithms for predicting DRE using machine learning methods. Longitudinal, intersected data sourced from US pharmacy, medical, and adjudicated hospital claims from 1,376,756 patients from 2006 to 2015 were analyzed; 292,892 met inclusion criteria for epilepsy, and 38,382 were classified as having DRE using a proxy measure for drug resistance...
November 6, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Alana Gomes de Souza, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, João Victor Souza Oliveira, Denia Alves Albuquerque de Souza, Iardja Stéfane Lopes, Michele Albuquerque Jales de Carvalho, Klistenes Alves de Lima, Francisca Cléa Florenço Sousa, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Danielle Macedo, Marta Maria de França Fonteles
Kindling is a model for studying epileptogenesis and associated neuropsychiatric conditions. The antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) presents anti-kindling properties, but some severe neuropsychiatric events, especially depression, have been associated with its use in epileptic patients. The positive modulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors emerged as a potential target for the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Here, we investigated behavioral and neurochemical effects of liraglutide (LIRA), a GLP-1 receptor agonist, alone or combined with LEV in mice subjected to PTZ-induced kindling...
November 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Alberto Verrotti, Pasquale Striano, Giulia Iapadre, Luca Zagaroli, Paolo Bonanni, Giangennaro Coppola, Maurizio Elia, Oriano Mecarelli, Emilio Franzoni, Paola De Liso, Federico Vigevano, Paolo Curatolo
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe epileptic encephalopathy with a prevalence of 1-2% of all patients with epilepsy. It is characterized by multiple pharmaco-resistant seizure types, including tonic, atypical absences and tonic or atonic drop attacks, and the presence of electroencephalographic abnormalities, such as slow-spike waves and paroxysmal fast rhythms. Intellectual disability, behavioural and psychiatric disorders are common comorbidities; these disturbances have a multi-factorial pathogenesis...
October 26, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Martin Elisak, David Krysl, Jitka Hanzalova, Kamila Volna, Christian G Bien, Frank Leypoldt, Petr Marusic
PURPOSE: Epileptic seizures are a common manifestation of autoimmune encephalitis, but the role of neural antibodies in long-term epilepsy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of neural-surface antibodies (NSAbs) and antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHOD: Patients with an electro-clinical diagnosis of TLE and a disease duration longer than one year were included...
September 17, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Martha Sajatovic, Kelley Needham, Kari Colón-Zimmermann, Nicole Richter, Hongyan Liu, John Garrity, Eleanor R Ryan, Norma Storer, Valeria Harper
AIMS: Comorbid mental health conditions (MHCs) such as depression and anxiety are common in people with epilepsy. Targeted Self-Management for Epilepsy and Mental Illness (TIME) is a behavioral program that targets mood symptoms in adults with epilepsy and comorbid MHCs. Building upon positive findings of a randomized controlled study to establish the efficacy of TIME, the Community-TIME (C-TIME) initiative assessed the implementation feasibility and pre-/post-outcomes of this new evidence-based epilepsy self-management intervention in a community setting and in collaboration with key stakeholders...
October 29, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Mansur A Kutlubaev, Ying Xu, Maree L Hackett, Jon Stone
Comorbid epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) represent a serious challenge for the clinicians. However, the frequency, associations, and outcomes of dual diagnosis of epilepsy and PNES are unclear. The aim of the review was to determine the frequency, correlates, and outcomes of a dual diagnosis. A systematic review of all published observational studies (from inception to Dec. 2016) was conducted to determine the frequency, correlates, and outcomes of dual diagnosis. We included studies of individuals of any age reporting a dual diagnosis of epilepsy and PNES...
October 29, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Alexander Tan, Kimberly Goodspeed, Veronica Bordes Edgar
OBJECTIVES: Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by insufficient expression of the TCF4 gene. Most cases are characterized by severe intellectual disability, absent speech, motor delays, and autism spectrum disorder. Many have abnormal brain imaging, dysmorphic facial features, and medical comorbidities: myopia, constipation, epilepsy, and apneic spells. The present case study expands existing understanding of this disorder by presenting a unique phenotype with higher cognitive abilities and fewer medical comorbidities...
October 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
R Maarten van Dijk, Valentina Di Liberto, Matthias Brendel, Ann Marie Waldron, Christina Möller, Franz Josef Gildehaus, Barbara von Ungern-Sternberg, Magdalena Lindner, Sibylle Ziegler, Rainer Hellweg, Peter Gass, Peter Bartenstein, Heidrun Potschka
OBJECTIVE: In patients with epilepsy, psychiatric comorbidities can significantly affect the disease course and quality of life. Detecting and recognizing these comorbidities is central in determining an optimal treatment plan. One promising tool in detecting biomarkers for psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy is positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: Behavioral and biochemical variables were cross-correlated with the results from two μPET scans using the tracers [18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) and 2'-methoxyphenyl-(N-2'-pyridinyl)-p-18 F-fluoro-benzamidoethylpiperazine ([18 F]MPPF) to explore potential biomarkers for neurobehavioral comorbidities in an electrically induced post-status epilepticus rat model of epilepsy...
October 28, 2018: Epilepsia
Julia Canzian, Barbara D Fontana, Vanessa A Quadros, Talise E Müller, Tâmie Duarte, Denis B Rosemberg
Epilepsy is characterized by abnormal and recurrent hyperexcitability in brain cells. Various comorbidities are associated with epilepsy, including irritability and aggressive behavior. Aggression is a negative effect observed in epileptic patients that may be harmful to other individuals, impairing social relations. Thus, developing novel experimental models to assess behavioral phenotypes that may comorbid with neurological disorders are of great interest. Here, we investigate whether pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) increases aggression in zebrafish following a single exposure...
October 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hayley C Gorton, Roger T Webb, W Owen Pickrell, Matthew J Carr, Darren M Ashcroft
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of self-harm in people with epilepsy and identify factors which influence this risk. METHODS: We identified people with incident epilepsy in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, linked to hospitalization and mortality data, in England (01/01/1998-03/31/2014). In Phase 1, we estimated risk of self-harm among people with epilepsy, versus those without, in a matched cohort study using a stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In Phase 2, we delineated a nested case-control study from the incident epilepsy cohort...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Jamie K Capal, Christopher Carosella, Elora Corbin, Paul S Horn, Rebecca Caine, Patricia Manning-Courtney
OBJECTIVES: The association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy is well-known. Abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) results have been reported in patients with ASD without a history of seizures. However, little is known about the relationship between abnormalities on EEG results and the core features of ASD. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the presence of epilepsy and/or abnormalities on EEG results and disease-associated impairments in young children with ASD...
October 16, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Cheryl Shoubridge, Robert J Harvey, Tracy Dudding-Byth
The IQSEC2- related disorders represent a spectrum of X-chromosome phenotypes with intellectual disability (ID) as the cardinal feature. Here, we review the increasing number of reported families and isolated cases have been reported with a variety of different pathogenic variants. The spectrum of clinical features is expanding with early-onset seizures as a frequent comorbidity in both affected male and female patients. There is a growing number of female patients with de novo loss-of-function variants in IQSEC2 have a more severe phenotype than the heterozygous state would predict, particularly if IQSEC2 is thought to escape X-inactivation...
October 17, 2018: Human Mutation
Elana F Pinchefsky, Andrea Accogli, Michael I Shevell, Christine Saint-Martin, Myriam Srour
AIM: Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with congenital cerebellar malformations (CCMs) remain poorly defined. We aimed to assess whether specific neuroimaging features in CCM patients correlate with neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHOD: Hospital records and neuroimaging of 67 children with CCMs were systematically reviewed. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between specific imaging features and neurodevelopmental outcomes. RESULTS: CCM categories were distributed as follows: 28 percent isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=19), 28 percent global cerebellar hypoplasia (n=19), 15 percent Dandy-Walker malformation (n=10), 13 percent pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH, n=9), 9 percent molar tooth malformation (n=6), 3 percent rhombencephalosynapsis (n=2), and 3 percent unilateral cerebellar malformation (n=2)...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Federica Frigerio, Giulia Pasqualini, Ilaria Craparotta, Sergio Marchini, Erwin A van Vliet, Patrick Foerch, Catherine Vandenplas, Karin Leclercq, Eleonora Aronica, Luca Porcu, Kimberly Pistorius, Romain A Colas, Trond V Hansen, Mauro Perretti, Rafal M Kaminski, Jesmond Dalli, Annamaria Vezzani
Epilepsy therapy is based on drugs that treat the symptoms rather than the underlying mechanisms of the disease (epileptogenesis). There are no treatments for preventing seizures or improving disease prognosis, including neurological comorbidities. The search of pathogenic mechanisms of epileptogenesis highlighted that neuroinflammatory cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (Tnf-α)] are induced in human and experimental epilepsies, and contribute to seizure generation in animal models...
November 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Sara Gasparini, Ettore Beghi, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Massimiliano Beghi, Vincenzo Belcastro, Klaus P Biermann, Gabriella Bottini, Giuseppe Capovilla, Rosa A Cervellione, Vittoria Cianci, Giangennaro Coppola, Cesare M Cornaggia, Pasquale De Fazio, Salvatore De Masi, Giovambattista De Sarro, Maurizio Elia, Giuseppe Erba, Lucia Fusco, Antonio Gambardella, Valentina Gentile, Anna T Giallonardo, Renzo Guerrini, Francesca Ingravallo, Alfonso Iudice, Angelo Labate, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Adriana Magaudda, Laura Mumoli, Costanza Papagno, Giovanni B Pesce, Eugenio Pucci, Pietrantonio Ricci, Antonino Romeo, Rui Quintas, Chiara Sueri, Giovanna Vitaliti, Riccardo Zoia, Umberto Aguglia
BACKGROUND: The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a diagnostic scheme for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The debate on ethical aspects of the diagnostic procedures is ongoing, the treatment is not standardized, and management might differ according to the age groups. OBJECTIVE: To reach an expert and stakeholder consensus on PNES management. METHODS: A board comprising adult and child neurologists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, pharmacologists, experts in forensic medicine and bioethics as well as patients' representatives was formed...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
C Wolfson, S-M Fereshtehnejad, R Pasquet, R Postuma, M R Keezer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our objective was to study the association between the presence of a neurological disease and the comorbidity burden as well as healthcare utilization (HCU). METHODS: Using baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), we examined the burden of five neurological conditions. The CLSA is a population-based study of approximately 50 000 individuals, aged 45-85 years at baseline. We used multivariable Poisson regression to identify correlates of comorbidity burden and HCU...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Dulaney A Wilson, Braxton B Wannamaker, Angela M Malek, Anbesaw W Selassie
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular comorbidities of epilepsy such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are associated with myocardial infarction (MI). Little data on the development of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons with epilepsy (PWE) are available, with inconsistent findings regarding the association between epilepsy and subsequent MI. A higher risk of MI among adults (without prior MI) following epilepsy diagnosis compared with that among controls was hypothesized...
October 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Juan Pablo Orozco-Hernández, Juan Felipe Quintero-Moreno, Daniel Stiven Marín-Medina, Aníbal Valencia-Vásquez, Hans Carmona Villada, Angélica Lizcano, José William Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) account for most of the burden of epilepsy, and they have poor prognosis in seizure control, higher morbidity, and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to develop a prognostic model of drug resistance in adult patients with generalized epilepsy from Colombia. METHODS: In this case-control study of patients with generalized epilepsy, patients were separated into two groups: one group with DRE (cases) according to the new International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition after a complete evaluation performed by an epileptologist and the other group without DRE (control)...
October 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jashobanta Sahu, Pradeep Pankajakshan Nair, Vaibhav Wadwekar, Rajeshwari Aghoram
PURPOSE: In our personal experience, headache is a frequent complaint in Persons with epilepsy (PWE) receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), carbamazepine (CBZ) in particular. There is hardly any systematic study on AEDs-associated headache. We assessed the association of new-onset interictal headache in PWE with CBZ compared with other AEDs and factors associated with it. METHODS: Two thousand PWE on AEDs were screened, and 165 persons having new-onset interictal headache were identified...
October 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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