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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923157/adjuvant-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-for-combined-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-comorbid-depression
#1
Tanveer Singh, Rajesh Kumar Goel
BACKGROUND: Elevated nitric oxide (NO) levels in the brain have been apparently associated with depression in kindled animals. Owing to the major role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in brain and ineffectiveness of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in restoring nitrosative stress, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the adjuvant nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) with valproic acid for combined treatment of epilepsy and associated depression. METHODS: Pentylenetetrazole kindled animals associated with depression were treated with vehicle, valproate (300mg/kg/day ip), valproate with 7-NI (10mg/kg; 20mg/kg; 40mg/kg)/day ip and 7-NI (40mg/kg/day ip) for 15days...
October 4, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917853/treatment-of-posttraumatic-epilepsy-with-new-generation-antiepileptic-drugs-aeds-our-experience
#2
Lidija Šapina, Marija Ratković
Aim To investigate influence of therapy with new generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in fastening of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) remission comparing to therapy with standard AEDs, as well as the time to remission in the presence of psychiatric comorbidities. Methods The study was conducted during the 1988-2008 period and included 113 patients (47 females and 67 males) with PTE and 113 patients (93 females and 20 males) suffering from complex partial seizures (CPS) of temporal lobe origin. In both patient groups, epileptic seizure phenotype, brain magnetic resonance imaging (1...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917314/pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-developing-rats-prenatally-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#3
Angel A Puig-Lagunes, Jorge Manzo, Luis Beltrán-Parrazal, Consuelo Morgado-Valle, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, Maria-Leonor López-Meraz
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates epilepsy is more common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (20-25%) than in the general population. The aim of this project was to analyze seizure susceptibility in developing rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as autism model. METHODS: Pregnant females were injected with VPA during the twelfth embryonic day. Seizures were induced in fourteen-days-old rat pups using two models of convulsions: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895568/feasibility-of-a-mobile-cognitive-intervention-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#4
Peter Glynn, Soyong Eom, Frank Zelko, Sookyong Koh
Children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) frequently present with cognitive comorbidities and school performance concerns. The present study evaluated the feasibility of an intervention for such comorbidities using a mobile cognitive therapy application on an iPad. Eight children with CAE and school concerns aged 7-11 participated in a 4-week intervention. They were asked to use the application for 80 min per week (20 min/day, 4 times/week). Parents and children completed satisfaction surveys regarding the application...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891070/monoaminergic-mechanisms-in-epilepsy-may-offer-innovative-therapeutic-opportunity-for-monoaminergic-multi-target-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Dubravka Svob Strac, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has strongly suggested that monoamines play an important role in regulating epileptogenesis, seizure susceptibility, convulsions, and comorbid psychiatric disorders commonly seen in people with epilepsy (PWE). However, neither the relative significance of individual monoamines nor their interaction has yet been fully clarified due to the complexity of these neurotransmitter systems. In addition, epilepsy is diverse, with many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, and the role played by monoamines may vary from one condition to another...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888502/a-novel-c132-134del-mutation-in-unverricht-lundborg-disease-and-the-review-of-literature-of-heterozygous-compound-patients
#6
Giovanni Assenza, Antonella Benvenga, Elena Gennaro, Mario Tombini, Chiara Campana, Federica Assenza, Giovanni Di Pino, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
Unverricht-Lundborg disease or progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation of the cystatin B gene (CSTB), located on chromosome 21q22.3. The most common mutation is an expansion of unstable dodecamer repetition (CCCCGCCCCGCG), whereas other types of mutations are rare. Among these, heterozygous compound mutations are described to induce a more severe phenotype than that of homozygous dodecameric repetition. We report two siblings affected by heterozygous compound mutations carrying a novel mutation of the deletion of three nucleotides in exon 2 of the gene in position 132-134 of the coding sequence (c...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885946/epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-autism
#7
Malgosia A Kokoszka, Patricia E McGoldrick, Maite La Vega-Talbott, Hillary Raynes, Christina A Palmese, Steven M Wolf, Cynthia L Harden, Saadi Ghatan
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 56 consecutive patients with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS Medical records of 56 consecutive patients with autism who underwent epilepsy surgery were reviewed with regard to clinical characteristics, surgical management, postoperative seizure control, and behavioral changes. RESULTS Of the 56 patients with autism, 39 were male, 45 were severely autistic, 27 had a history of clinically significant levels of aggression and other disruptive behaviors, and 30 were considered nonverbal at baseline...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885637/the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-in-epilepsy
#8
Tore Eid, Shaun E Gruenbaum, Roni Dhaher, Tih-Shih W Lee, Yun Zhou, Niels Christian Danbolt
Epilepsy is a complex, multifactorial disease characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and an increased incidence of comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, cognitive dysfunction, and sudden unexpected death. About 70 million people worldwide are estimated to suffer from epilepsy, and up to one-third of all people with epilepsy are expected to be refractory to current medications. Development of more effective and specific antiepileptic interventions is therefore requisite. Perturbations in the brain's glutamate-glutamine cycle, such as increased extracellular levels of glutamate, loss of astroglial glutamine synthetase, and changes in glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase, are frequently encountered in patients with epilepsy...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884642/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-epilepsy-should-they-be-considered-in-the-classification-of-epileptic-disorders
#9
Andres M Kanner
The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities is relatively high in people with epilepsy (PWE), as one in three patients will have experienced a psychiatric disorder in the course of their life. The new definition of epilepsy recognizes these comorbidities as part of the seizure disorder, which need to be recognized and treated together with the actual epileptic seizures. Psychiatric comorbidities have a complex relation with epilepsy, being associated with a negative course of the seizure disorder, worse tolerance of pharmacotherapy with AEDs, development of iatrogenic psychiatric complications from pharmacologic and surgical treatments, and increased mortality risks...
November 21, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876292/reprint-of-the-new-approach-to-classification-rethinking-cognition-and-behavior-in-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Sarah J Wilson, Sallie Baxendale
There has been considerable debate surrounding the benefits and drawbacks of the new approach to classifying the epilepsies released by the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology (2005-2009). This new approach has significant implications for the way we conceptualize and assess cognition and behavior in epilepsy; however, as yet, there has been limited discussion of these issues in the field. The purpose of this Targeted Review is to spark this discussion by encouraging researchers and clinicians to think about the changes that the new approach may bring...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875247/comorbidity-prevalence-healthcare-utilization-and-expenditures-of-medicaid-enrolled-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Rini Vohra, Suresh Madhavan, Usha Sambamoorthi
A retrospective data analysis using 2000-2008 three state Medicaid Analytic eXtract was conducted to examine the prevalence and association of comorbidities (psychiatric and non-psychiatric) with healthcare utilization and expenditures of fee-for-service enrolled adults (22-64 years) with and without autism spectrum disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-clinical modification code: 299.xx). Autism spectrum disorder cases were 1:3 matched to no autism spectrum disorder controls by age, gender, and race using propensity scores...
October 20, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866428/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-sleep-apnea-comorbidity
#12
Feng Liu, Xuefeng Wang
The comorbidity of epilepsy and sleep apnea is not uncommon. The diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apneas will improve the prognosis and the quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Areas covered: In this paper, the authors review the pathological link between sleep apnea and epilepsy and systematically analyze the current literature on the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy. This review includes studies retrieved from the PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866083/neuroanatomical-differences-in-fast-and-slow-rat-strains-with-differential-vulnerability-to-kindling-and-behavioral-comorbidities
#13
Pragati Sharma, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Michael A D Vandenberg, Ke Fang, Leigh A Johnston, Sandy R Shultz, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological factors underlying a predisposition towards developing epilepsy and its common behavioral comorbidities are poorly understood. FAST rats are a strain that has been selectively bred for enhanced vulnerability to kindling, while the SLOW strain has been bred to be resistant to kindling. FAST rats also exhibit behavioral traits reminiscent of those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder (ASD)/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) commonly comorbid with epilepsy...
November 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865173/accelerated-cognitive-decline-in-a-rodent-model-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Sandra Schipper, Marlien W Aalbers, Kim Rijkers, Melanie Lagiere, Jan G Bogaarts, Arjan Blokland, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Govert Hoogland, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is frequently observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is hypothesized that cumulative seizure exposure causes accelerated cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. We investigated the influence of seizure frequency on cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: Neurobehavioral assessment was performed before and after surgery, after the induction of self-sustaining limbic status epilepticus (SSLSE), and in the chronic phase in which rats experienced recurrent seizures...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864941/male-old-and-low-income-to-predispose-epilepsy-in-migraineurs
#15
Tomor Harnod, Yu-Chiao Wang, Chun-Hung Tseng
AIMS: This study investigated whether sex, age, income, and any comorbidity affect subsequent epilepsy development in migraineurs. METHODS: A total of 4915 men diagnosed with migraine who were aged older than 20 years were identified as the study cohort. A total of 4882 female migraineurs were included in the comparison cohort. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for the risk of epilepsy in the two cohorts after adjustment for age and comorbidity. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyze the cumulative epilepsy incidence, and the log-rank test was used to estimate the differences between the two cumulative incidence curves...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855438/how-to-prevent-depression-current-directions-and-future-challenges-in-children-with-chronic-medical-conditions
#16
Anna Felnhofer, Oswald D Kothgassner, Claudia Klier
With its high rates of chronicity and concomitant economic costs to society, depression ranges among the most prevalent mental disorders. Several trials have succeeded in demonstrating the beneficial effects of early depression prevention programs for otherwise healthy children and adolescents. However, comparable programs for children and adolescents with a medical condition are still scarce. This paper discusses the situation of chronically ill children and adolescents who are at risk of developing comorbid depressive symptoms using the example of three conditions frequently encountered in pediatric psychosomatic medicine: diabetes, epilepsy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853032/depression-in-patients-with-epilepsy-in-northwestern-nigeria-prevalence-and-clinical-correlates
#17
Shakirah Desola Owolabi, Lukman Femi Owolabi, Owoidoho Udofia, Shehu Sale
BACKGROUND: The impact of seizure disorder on people living with epilepsy (PWE) is worsened by the occurrence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression, which have been found commonly in PWE. Despite the dire consequences comorbid depression has on PWE, it still remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of depression and associated clinical factors in PWE in Northwestern Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 255 consecutive patients with epilepsy aged 18 years and above, from two health facilities, were recruited in this cross-sectional study...
October 2016: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843704/association-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-population-based-case-control-study
#18
Dong-Zong Hung, Cheng-Li Lin, Yi-Wen Li, Yen-Ning Lin, Ying-Ray Lee, Charles-C N Wang, Jih-Jung Chen, Yun-Ping Lim
BACKGROUND: This study explored whether antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The case group comprised 1,454 epilepsy patients with newly diagnosed HCC, and the control group comprised 1,448 epilepsy patients without HCC. Both groups had similar distributions of sex and age, and follow-up duration. Possible associations with the AEDs in Taiwan were examined...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843098/the-heart-of-epilepsy-current-views-and-future-concepts
#19
S Shmuely, M van der Lende, R J Lamberts, J W Sander, R D Thijs
Cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities are common in people with epilepsy. Several mechanisms explain why these conditions tend to co-exist including causal associations, shared risk factors and those resulting from epilepsy or its treatment. Various arrhythmias occurring during and after seizures have been described. Ictal asystole is the most common cause. The converse phenomenon, arrhythmias causing seizures, appears extremely rare and has only been reported in children following cardioinihibitory syncope. Arrhythmias in epilepsy may not only result from seizure activity but also from a shared genetic susceptibility...
October 26, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836684/ketogenic-diets-improve-behaviors-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-sex-specific-manner-in-the-el-mouse
#20
David N Ruskin, Jessica A Fortin, Subrina N Bisnauth, Susan A Masino
The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are poorly treated with current medications. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are frequently comorbid with a diagnosis of epilepsy and vice versa. Medically-supervised ketogenic diets are remarkably effective nonpharmacological treatments for epilepsy, even in drug-refractory cases. There is accumulating evidence that supports the efficacy of ketogenic diets in treating the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in animal models as well as limited reports of benefits in patients...
January 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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