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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922089/elderly-patients-have-an-altered-gut-brain-axis-regardless-of-the-presence-of-cirrhosis
#1
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Joel L Steinberg, Sarah Hobgood, Peter A Boling, Michael Godschalk, Saima Habib, Melanie B White, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Dinesh Ganapathy, Phillip B Hylemon, Karen E Stewart, Raffi Keradman, Eric J Liu, Jessica Wang, Patrick M Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, F Gerard Moeller, James B Wade
Cognitive difficulties manifested by the growing elderly population with cirrhosis could be amnestic (memory-related) or non-amnestic (memory-unrelated). The underlying neuro-biological and gut-brain changes are unclear in this population. We aimed to define gut-brain axis alterations in elderly cirrhotics compared to non-cirrhotic individuals based on presence of cirrhosis and on neuropsychological performance. Age-matched outpatients with/without cirrhosis underwent cognitive testing (amnestic/non-amnestic domains), quality of life (HRQOL), multi-modal MRI (fMRI go/no-go task, volumetry and MR spectroscopy), blood (inflammatory cytokines) and stool collection (for microbiota)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922040/functional-urological-disorders-a-sensitized-defence-response-in-the-bladder-gut-brain-axis
#2
REVIEW
Carsten Leue, Joanna Kruimel, Desiree Vrijens, Adrian Masclee, Jim van Os, Gommert van Koeveringe
Functional urological and gastrointestinal disorders are interrelated and characterized by a chronic course and considerable treatment resistance. Urological disorders associated with a sizeable functional effect include overactive bladder (OAB), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Poor treatment outcomes might be attributable to untreated underlying psychological and psychiatric disorders, as the co-occurrence of functional urological and gastrointestinal disorders with mood and anxiety disorders is common...
December 6, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#3
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#4
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898425/modulation-of-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-by-berberine-resulting-in-improved-metabolic-status-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#5
Honglin Sun, Ningjian Wang, Zhen Cang, Chaoxia Zhu, Li Zhao, Xiaomin Nie, Jing Cheng, Fangzhen Xia, Hualing Zhai, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not berberine could improve metabolic status of high-fat-fed rats through modulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis. METHODS: Berberine was administered on high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain-gut hormones were detected, and changes of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Berberine could reduce weight gain and lipolysis in the high-fat diet-fed group. Moreover, trends of ameliorated insulin resistance and decreased endogenous glucose production were observed...
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892710/oxytocin-a-missing-link-of-the-gut-brain-axis-between-probiotics-and-chronic-migraine-comment-on-the-effects-of-the-multispecies-probiotic-mixture-ecologic-%C3%A2-barrier-on-migraine-results-of-an-open-label-pilot-study
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884012/gut-microbiota-bacterial-translocation-and-interactions-with-diet-pathophysiological-links-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-non-communicable-medical-comorbidities
#7
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Felice N Jacka, Cristiano A Köhler, Tatiana Barichello, Roger S McIntyre, Michael Berk, Iria Grande, Jane A Foster, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Persistent low-grade immune-inflammatory processes, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation are integral to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The microbiome, intestinal compositional changes, and resultant bacterial translocation add a new element to the bidirectional interactions of the gut-brain axis; new evidence implicates these pathways in the patho-aetiology of MDD. In addition, abnormalities in the gut-brain axis are associated with several chronic non-communicable disorders, which frequently co-occur in individuals with MDD, including but not limited to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 25, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#8
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875419/new-treatment-options-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-diarrhea
#9
H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS remains largely symptomatic. This review provides an update related to the most recently published diagnostic Rome IV criteria for IBS and clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the peripheral opioid receptors of the enteric nervous system and the gut microbiota...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#10
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
November 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866184/the-gut-brain-axis-autoimmune-and-neuroimmune-disorders
#11
Aristo Vojdani, Jama Lambert, Elroy Vojdani
No Abstract Available.
October 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#12
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858116/host-microbiome-interactions-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Hae Ung Lee, Zachary E McPherson, Bryan Tan, Agata Korecka, Sven Pettersson
The microbiome located within a given host and its organs forms a holobiont, an intimate functional entity with evolutionarily designed interactions to support nutritional intake and reproduction. Thus, all organs in a holobiont respond to changes within the microbiome. The development and function of the central nervous system and its homeostatic mechanisms are no exception and are also subject to regulation by the gut microbiome. In order for the holobiont to function effectively, the microbiome and host must communicate...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856664/the-gut-brain-connection-triggering-of-brain-autoimmune-disease-by-commensal-gut-bacteria
#14
REVIEW
Hartmut Wekerle
In a transgenic model of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, autoimmune attack against the CNS requires the presence of an intact commensal gut flora. Extending this observation to human autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis, we postulate that the pathogenic reaction requires the coincidence of at least three factors: a permissive genetic disposition, a pro-inflammatory intestinal microbial profile, and the accumulation of autoreactive T cells in the gut-associated lymphatic tissue...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851789/dietary-2-fucosyllactose-enhances-operant-conditioning-and-long-term-potentiation-via-gut-brain-communication-through-the-vagus-nerve-in-rodents
#15
Enrique Vazquez, Alejandro Barranco, Maria Ramirez, Agnes Gruart, Jose M Delgado-Garcia, Maria L Jimenez, Rachael Buck, Ricardo Rueda
2´-fucosyllactose (2´-FL) is an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in human milk with diverse biological effects. We recently reported ingested 2´-FL stimulates central nervous system (CNS) function, such as hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and learning and memory in rats. Conceivably the effect of 2´-FL on CNS function may be via the gut-brain axis (GBA), specifically the vagus nerve, and L-fucose (Fuc) may play a role. This study had two aims: (1) determine if the effect of ingested 2´-FL on the modulation of CNS function is dependent on the integrity of the molecule; and (2) confirm if oral 2´-FL modified hippocampal LTP and associative learning related skills in rats submitted to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832936/feeding-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-diet-microbiome-and-neuropsychiatry
#16
REVIEW
Kiran V Sandhu, Eoin Sherwin, Harriët Schellekens, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions...
October 21, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821351/cytochrome-p450-1a-mrna-in-the-guppy-phalloceros-caudimaculatus-and-response-to-beta-naphthoflavone-and-environmental-samples
#17
Roger Stacke Ferreira, Cíntia da Cruz Chivittz, Guilherme Senna Dos Santos, Juliano Zanette
The cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) mRNA is induced by environmental contaminants such as PAHs, PCBs and dioxins. The present study cloned the CYP1A transcript from the guppy Phalloceros caudimaculatus, which represents a potential fish for toxicological studies in South America. The newly identified CYP1A encodes a protein with 521 amino acids that shared 96-70% identity with other fishes. The characterization of organ- and time-dependent induction of CYP1A using RT-qPCR was evaluated after waterborne exposure to beta-naphthoflavone (BNF; 1μM)...
December 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820704/gastrointestinal-hormones-and-the-gut-connectome
#18
Lihua Ye, Rodger A Liddle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provision of adequate nutrients by the gut is essential for survival and essential behaviors are linked to the proper ingestion and digestion of food. Recently, a new neural connection has been reported between sensory cells of the gut epithelium and the nervous system that mediates signals from the gut to the brain. RECENT FINDINGS: This review describes how the gut senses its environment, relays those signals to the brain, and how the brain influences the gut...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814591/insight-into-role-of-microbiota-gut-brain-peptides-as-a-target-for-biotechnology-innovations
#19
Carina Elisei, Alinne Pereira de Castro
It has long been understood that some microorganisms may modify their hosts behavior in various systems. Nevertheless, it has only been in recent years that gut microbiota have opened new perspectives to appreciate their potential for affect complex neurological function in mammals. Efforts have demonstrated the ability of these gut-microbiota to impact neurological outcomes, suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in the gut-brain interactions, indicating that alterations in bidirectional microbiota-brain-gut may be involved in a number of brain disorders...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799880/irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-overlap-syndrome-pieces-of-the-puzzle-are-falling-into-place
#20
REVIEW
Rafiz Abdul Rani, Raja Affendi Raja Ali, Yeong Yeh Lee
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal disorder involving the gut-brain axis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder, are both increasing in incidence and prevalence in Asia. Both have significant overlap in terms of symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment, suggesting the possibility of IBS and IBD being a single disease entity albeit at opposite ends of the spectrum. We examined the similarities and differences in IBS and IBD, and offer new thoughts and approaches to the disease paradigm...
October 2016: Intestinal Research
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