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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321526/effects-of-fasting-temperature-and-photoperiod-on-preproghrelin-mrna-expression-in-chinese-perch
#1
Yi Song, Cheng Zhao, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Changxu Tian, Xiaoyan Cheng, Xiaochen Yuan, Liyuan Lv, Wenjie Guo, Min Xue, Ya-Xiong Tao
Preproghrelin, a gut/brain peptide, plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in teleost and mammals. In the present study, we obtained the full-length preproghrelin cDNA in Chinese perch. The preproghrelin messenger RNA (mRNA) tissue expression showed that level was much higher in stomach and pituitary than in other tissues. The fasting study showed, after gastric emptying (3-6 h), short-term fasting (6-12 h) increased preproghrelin expression in the stomach. While in the pituitary, fasting reduced preproghrelin expression at 1, 3, 12, and 48 h, presenting state fluctuation of self-adjustment...
March 20, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318126/infant-colic-is-still-a-mysterious-disorder-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#2
EDITORIAL
Anna Pärtty, Marko Kalliomäki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303651/what-s-new-in-rome-iv
#3
REVIEW
J Tack, D A Drossman
The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are the most common disorders seen in Gastroenterology clinical practice. The Rome process has generated consensus definitions of FGIDS, allowing to subdivide patients into diagnostic categories based on the symptom pattern. The Rome IV consensus, presented in 2016, is the most recent update of this diagnostic scheme. This article summarizes the main changes, which include the use of epidemiology-based symptom thresholds to define FGIDs, characterization of FGIDS as disorders of Gut-Brain interaction, and updates of criteria for esophageal disorders, irritable bowel syndrome and Biliary and Sphincter of Oddi disorders based on scientific and technical progress made over the last decade...
March 17, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#4
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294985/effects-of-a-diet-based-weight-reducing-program-with-probiotic-supplementation-on-satiety-efficiency-eating-behaviour-traits-and-psychosocial-behaviours-in-obese-individuals
#5
Marina Sanchez, Christian Darimont, Shirin Panahi, Vicky Drapeau, André Marette, Valerie H Taylor, Jean Doré, Angelo Tremblay
This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR)) on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45) and women (n = 60) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1) based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2). During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289903/gut-microbiota-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-new-perspectives-for-a-challenging-condition
#6
REVIEW
María Carmen Cenit, Isabel Campillo Nuevo, Pilar Codoñer-Franch, Timothy G Dinan, Yolanda Sanz
A bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis) is well recognized with the gut microbiota viewed as a key regulator of this cross-talk. Currently, a body of preclinical and to a lesser extent epidemiological evidence supports the notion that host-microbe interactions play a key role in brain development and function and in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Early life events and shifts away from traditional lifestyles are known to impact gut microbiota composition and function and, thereby, may increase the risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 13, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283098/from-bugs-to-brains-the-microbiome-in-neurological-health
#7
EDITORIAL
Kyla A McKay, Kaarina Kowalec, Fiona Brinkman, B Brett Finlay, Marc Horwitz, Amee R Manges, Lisa Osborne, Helen Tremlett
Knowledge surrounding the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human gut has bloomed exponentially in recent years, and the emerging concept of a gut-brain axis represents a major shift in how we think about neurological health. A recent workshop at the University of British Columbia, Canada brought together multi-disciplinary leaders in the field of microbiomics and brain health and aimed to serve as a springboard for future combined endeavors in these areas. This article provides the motivation for, and overview of, the workshop, and the next steps in establishing a cross-disciplinary initiative on Brain Health and the Microbiome...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276272/gut-brain-and-brain-gut-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease-models-effects-of-a-uridine-and-fish-oil-diet
#8
Paula Perez-Pardo, Hemraj B Dodiya, Laus M Broersen, Hidde Douna, Nick van Wijk, Sofia Lopes da Silva, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Aletta D Kraneveld
Recent investigations have focused on the potential role of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The 'dual-hit' hypothesis of PD speculates that a putative pathogen enters the brain via two routes: the olfactory system and the GI system. Here, we investigated (1) whether local exposures of the neurotoxin rotenone in the gut or the brain of mice could induce PD-like neurological and GI phenotypes as well as a characteristic neuropathology in accordance with this 'dual-hit hypothesis' and (2) the effects of a diet containing uridine and fish oil providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in both models...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275047/the-new-biology-and-pharmacology-of-glucagon
#9
REVIEW
T D Müller, B Finan, C Clemmensen, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp
In the last two decades we have witnessed sizable progress in defining the role of gastrointestinal signals in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Specifically, the molecular basis of the huge metabolic benefits in bariatric surgery is emerging while novel incretin-based medicines based on endogenous hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and pancreas-derived amylin are improving diabetes management. These and related developments have fostered the discovery of novel insights into endocrine control of systemic metabolism, and in particular a deeper understanding of the importance of communication across vital organs, and specifically the gut-brain-pancreas-liver network...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274109/what-is-new-in-rome-iv
#10
REVIEW
Max J Schmulson, Douglas Arnold Drossman
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women's health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270247/gut-brain-actions-underlying-comorbid-anxiety-and-depression-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Áine Abautret-Daly, Elaine Dempsey, Adolfo Parra-Blanco, Carlos Medina, Andrew Harkin
Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting disorder characterised by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. There is a growing consensus that IBD is associated with anxiety- and depression-related symptoms. Psychological symptoms appear to be more prevalent during active disease states with no difference in prevalence between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Behavioural disturbances including anxiety- and depression-like symptoms have also been observed in animal models of IBD...
March 8, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249783/diet-driven-microbiota-dysbiosis-is-associated-with-vagal-remodeling-and-obesity
#12
Tanusree Sen, Carolina R Cawthon, Benjamin Thomas Ihde, Andras Hajnal, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is one of the major health issues in the United States. Consumption of diets rich in energy, notably from fats and sugars (high-fat/high-sugar diet: HF/HSD) is linked to the development of obesity and a popular dietary approach for weight loss is to reduce fat intake. Obesity research traditionally uses low and high fat diets and there has been limited investigation of the potential detrimental effects of a low-fat/high-sugar diet (LF/HSD) on body fat accumulation and health. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of HF/HSD and LF/HSD on microbiota composition, gut inflammation, gut-brain vagal communication and body fat accumulation...
February 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244981/the-link-between-inflammation-bugs-the-intestine-and-the-brain-in-alcohol-dependence
#13
REVIEW
S Leclercq, P de Timary, N M Delzenne, P Stärkel
In recent years, some new processes have been proposed to explain how alcohol may influence behavior, psychological symptoms and alcohol seeking in alcohol-dependent subjects. In addition to its important effect on brain and neurotransmitters equilibrium, alcohol abuse also affects peripheral organs including the gut. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse increases intestinal permeability and alters the composition of the gut microbiota, allowing bacterial components from the gut lumen to reach the systemic circulation...
February 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244666/when-the-low-fodmap-diet-does-not-work
#14
REVIEW
Emma P Halmos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is heterogeneous. Patients need proper assessment and explanation of IBS pathophysiology and appropriate therapies. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet effectively reduces symptoms in 75% of patients. Best treatment for those nonresponsive will depend on the pathophysiological basis for symptom genesis, with the following possible abnormalities: (i) Visceral hypersensitivity and/or enhanced gut-brain communication: a low FODMAP diet is mainly targeted for this patient group...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242200/nutritional-psychiatry-where-to-next
#15
REVIEW
Felice N Jacka
The nascent field of 'Nutritional Psychiatry' offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD...
February 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242013/targeting-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-prebiotics-have-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-and-reverse-the-impact-of-chronic-stress-in-mice
#16
Aurelijus Burokas, Silvia Arboleya, Rachel D Moloney, Veronica L Peterson, Kiera Murphy, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
BACKGROUND: The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders, is rapidly advancing. Nurturing a beneficial gut microbiome with prebiotics, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), is an appealing but underinvestigated microbiota manipulation. Here we tested whether chronic prebiotic treatment modifies behavior across domains relevant to anxiety, depression, cognition, stress response, and social behavior...
February 24, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239408/the-effects-of-probiotics-on-depressive-symptoms-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Caroline J K Wallace, Roumen Milev
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from depression experience significant mood, anxiety, and cognitive symptoms. Currently, most antidepressants work by altering neurotransmitter activity in the brain to improve these symptoms. However, in the last decade, research has revealed an extensive bidirectional communication network between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, referred to as the "gut-brain axis." Advances in this field have linked psychiatric disorders to changes in the microbiome, making it a potential target for novel antidepressant treatments...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228068/stress-in-gastrointestinal-tract-and-stable-gastric-pentadecapeptide-bpc-157-finally-do-we-have-a-solution
#18
Predrag Sikiric, Sven Seiwerth, Rudolf Rucman, Domagoj Drmic, Mirjana Stupnisek, Antonio Kokot, Marko Sever, Ivan Zoricic, Zoran Zoricic, Lovorka Batelja, Tihomil Ziger, Josipa Vlainic, Zarko Rasic, Martina Lovric Bencic
Selye's syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents and "response to damage as such" means Selye's stress triad in stress coping response to reestablish homeostasis. Logically, from the gastrointestinal tract viewpoint, such organoprotective/healing response implies the angiogenic growth factors that commonly signify the healing. Thereby, the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-organoprotection (huge range of beneficial effects) signifies the Selye's stress concept/stress coping response implemented in and from gastrointestinal tract, and BPC 157 as an integrative mediator that integrates the adaptive bodily response to stress...
February 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219968/celiac-disease-gut-brain-axis-and-behavior-cause-consequence-or-merely-epiphenomenon
#19
Alessio Fasano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219800/variations-in-gut-microbiota-and-fecal-metabolic-phenotype-associated-with-depression-by-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-and-lc-ms-based-metabolomics
#20
Meng Yu, Hongmei Jia, Chao Zhou, Yong Yang, Yang Zhao, Maohua Yang, Zhongmei Zou
As a prevalent, life-threatening and highly recurrent psychiatric illness, depression is characterized by a wide range of pathological changes; however, its etiology remains incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence supports that gut microbiota affects not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function and behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To assess the impact of gut microbiota on fecal metabolic phenotype in depressive conditions, an integrated approach of 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) based metabolomics was performed in chronic variable stress (CVS)-induced depression rat model...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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