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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#1
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
July 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720820/gut-brain-communication-making-contact
#2
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719971/is-the-microbiome-the-fifth-horseman-of-the-apocalypse-in-drug-discovery-implications-for-the-gut-brain-axis
#3
Joseph A Conrad, Craig W Lindsley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716445/feeding-systems-and-the-gut-microbiome-gut-brain-interactions-with-relevance-to-psychiatric-conditions
#4
REVIEW
Brittany L Mason
BACKGROUND: Physical and mental health is dependent on the environment, and feeding is a prime example of this environmental exchange. While the hypothalamus controls both feeding behavior and the stress response, the integration of the neural control centers and the peripheral gut allows for disruption in the gastrointestinal systems and dysfunctional communication to the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to familiarize clinicians with the physiology controlling feeding behavior and its implications for psychiatric conditions, such as anorexia nervosa and depression...
June 8, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698775/gut-feelings-on-parkinson-s-and-depression
#5
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The gut-brain axis is one of the new frontiers of neuroscience. Microbiota (the collective bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms that live in the digestive tract), sometimes referred to as the "second genome" or the "second brain," may influence our health in ways that scientists are just now beginning to understand. Scientists now believe that the microbiota and all that it involves may be a way to treat any number of disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.
March 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690913/ghrelin-amylin-gastric-inhibitory-peptide-and-cognition-in-middle-aged-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-women-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#7
Samy I McFarlane, Michelle M Mielke, Anthony Uglialoro, Sheila M Keating, Susan Holman, Howard Minkoff, Howard A Crystal, Deborah R Gustafson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the gut-brain axis by examining gut hormone levels and cognitive test scores in women with (HIV+) and without (HIV-) HIV infection. DESIGN/METHODS: Participants included 356 women (248 HIV+, 108 at risk HIV-) in the Brooklyn Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with measured levels of ghrelin, amylin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between gut hormones and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score (WRAT), CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity...
February 2017: Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685024/bugs-guts-and-brains-and-the-regulation-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#8
REVIEW
M K Hamilton, H E Raybould
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is currently being explored in many types of rodent models, including models of behavioral, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Our laboratory is interested in determining the mechanisms and consequences of activation of vagal afferent neurons that lead to activation of parasympathetic reflexes and changes in feeding behavior in the context of obesity. Obesity is associated with microbial dysbiosis, decreased intestinal barrier function, gut inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and desensitization of vagal afferent nerves...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685022/targeting-the-gut-to-treat-obesity-and-its-metabolic-consequences-view-from-the-chair
#9
K A Sharkey
The neurohumoral signaling systems of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are considered the most significant of the peripheral inputs controlling both food intake in the short term and energy balance over a longer time course. The importance of the GI tract in the control of energy balance is underscored by the marked beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries for the treatment of obesity. Despite their effectiveness, the mechanisms of bariatric surgery remain to be fully elucidated. Considerable new evidence points to the importance of gut-brain communication, gut barrier function and microbial signaling as three of the most important mechanisms of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683293/a-specific-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-induces-glp-1-resistance-through-an-enteric-no-dependent-and-gut-brain-axis-mechanism
#10
Estelle Grasset, Anthony Puel, Julie Charpentier, Xavier Collet, Jeffrey E Christensen, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681625/coeliac-disease-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-epidemiology-pathophysiological-mechanisms-quality-of-life-and-gluten-free-diet-effects
#11
Giulia Cossu, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Federico Contu, Quirico Mela, Luigi Demelia, Luca Elli, Bernardo Dell'Osso
Coeliac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease in which an environmental factor, gluten, triggers a pathological reaction. It results in intra- and entra-intestinal manifestations of disease, including, most frequently, diarrhoea, weight loss, and anaemia. CD occurs in ∼1% of the western population, being one of the most common autoimmune lifelong disorders, and may present with a variety of psychiatric comorbidities. Psychiatric comorbidity in CD often complicates the diagnosis, reduces the quality-of-life, and worsens the prognosis of affected patients...
July 6, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680792/using-animal-models-to-study-the-role-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-autism
#12
REVIEW
Jess Nithianantharajah, Gayathri K Balasuriya, Ashley E Franks, Elisa L Hill-Yardin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly also suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction; however, few animal model studies have systematically examined both ASD and GI dysfunction. In this review, we highlight studies investigating GI dysfunction and alterations in gut microbiota in animal models of ASD with the aim of determining if routinely used microbiology and enteric neurophysiology assays could expand our understanding of the link between the two...
2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675687/disruptive-physiology-olfaction-and-the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis
#13
John Bienenstock, Wolfgang A Kunze, Paul Forsythe
This review covers the field of olfaction and chemosensation of odorants and puts this information into the context of interactions between microbes and behaviour; the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Recent emphasis has also been placed on the concept of the holobiome which states that no single aspect of an organism should be viewed separately and thus must include examination of their associated microbial populations and their influence. While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behaviour, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems...
July 4, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675183/communication-breakdown-between-physicians-and-ibs-sufferers-what-is-the-conundrum-and-how-to-overcome-it
#14
T Jayaraman, R K Wong, D A Drossman, Y Y Lee
Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder of gut-brain interaction that leads to a significant healthcare burden worldwide. A good physician-patient relationship is fundamental in managing patients who suffer from this poorly understood chronic disease. We highlight possible reasons for breakdown in communication between physicians and irritable bowel syndrome sufferers and suggest possible ways to overcome such pitfalls.
June 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673590/parkinson-s-disease-the-hibernating-spore-hypothesis
#15
Ketil Berstad, Johanna E R Berstad
The authors support the hypothesis that a causative agent in Parkinson's disease (PD) might be either fungus or bacteria with fungus-like properties - Actinobacteria, and that their spores may serve as 'infectious agents'. Updated research and the epidemiology of PD suggest that the disease might be induced by environmental factor(s), possibly with genetic susceptibility, and that α-synuclein probably should be regarded as part of the body's own defense mechanism. To explain the dual-hit theory with stage 1 involvement of the olfactory structures and the 'gut-brain'-axis, the environmental factor is probably airborne and quite 'robust' entering the body via the nose/mouth, then to be swallowed reaching the enteric nervous system with retained pathogenicity...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672432/pros-and-cons-while-looking-through-an-asian-window-on-the-rome-iv-criteria-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-pros
#16
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain ("disorders of gut-brain interaction" not "brain-gut interaction")...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669754/the-impact-of-gut-hormones-on-the-neural-circuit-of-appetite-and-satiety-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Davide Zanchi, Antoinette Depoorter, Laura Egloff, Sven Haller, Laura Mählmann, Undine E Lang, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety. Of the 349 studies published before July 2016 identified in the database search, 40 were included (27 on healthy and 13 on obese subjects)...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666112/how-the-gut-feels-smells-and-talks
#18
Joep Beumer, Hans Clevers
Gut-brain signaling plays a central role in a range of homeostatic processes, yet details of this cross-talk remain enigmatic. In this issue of Cell, Bellono and colleagues identify a variety of luminal stimuli acting on serotonin-secreting enteroendocrine cells and, for the first time, demonstrate a functional synaptic interaction with neurons.
June 29, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649603/the-gut-brain-axis-is-intestinal-inflammation-a-silent-driver-of-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#19
Madelyn C Houser, Malú G Tansey
The state of the intestinal environment can have profound effects on the activity of the central nervous system through the physiological contributions of the microbiota, regulation of intestinal barrier function, and altered activity of peripheral neurons. The common language employed for much of the gut-brain communication is the modulation of immune activity. Chronic proinflammatory immune activity is increasingly being recognized as a fundamental element of neurodegenerative disorders, and in Parkinson's disease, inflammation in the intestine appears particularly relevant in pathogenesis...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648659/enterochromaffin-cells-are-gut-chemosensors-that-couple-to-sensory-neural-pathways
#20
Nicholas W Bellono, James R Bayrer, Duncan B Leitch, Joel Castro, Chuchu Zhang, Tracey A O'Donnell, Stuart M Brierley, Holly A Ingraham, David Julius
Dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors modulate the gut-brain axis and influence physiological processes ranging from metabolism to cognition. The gut epithelium is a principal site for detecting such agents, but precisely how it communicates with neural elements is poorly understood. Serotonergic enterochromaffin (EC) cells are proposed to fulfill this role by acting as chemosensors, but understanding how these rare and unique cell types transduce chemosensory information to the nervous system has been hampered by their paucity and inaccessibility to single-cell measurements...
June 29, 2017: Cell
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