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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#1
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#2
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508447/the-gut-brain-connection-and-the-use-of-probiotics-for-the-treatment-of-depression-anxiety-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorders-in-dermatology
#3
Katlein França, Torello Lotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507320/the-microbiome-regulates-amygdala-dependent-fear-recall
#4
A E Hoban, R M Stilling, G Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The amygdala is a key brain region that is critically involved in the processing and expression of anxiety and fear-related signals. In parallel, a growing number of preclinical and human studies have implicated the microbiome-gut-brain in regulating anxiety and stress-related responses. However, the role of the microbiome in fear-related behaviours is unclear. To this end we investigated the importance of the host microbiome on amygdala-dependent behavioural readouts using the cued fear conditioning paradigm...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499738/cognitive-effects-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagal-deafferentation-in-rats
#5
Melanie Klarer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Vagal afferents are a crucial neuronal component of the gut-brain axis and mediate the information flow from the viscera to the central nervous system. Based on the findings provided by experiments involving vagus nerve stimulation, it has been suggested that vagal afferent signaling may influence various cognitive functions such as recognition memory and cognitive flexibility. Here, we examined this hypothesis using a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective abdominal vagal deafferentation method existing to date...
May 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496408/the-impact-of-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-on-diabetic-cognition-impairment
#6
REVIEW
Youhua Xu, Hua Zhou, Quan Zhu
Progressive cognitive dysfunction is a central characteristic of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). With an aging population, the incidence of DE is rising and it has become a major threat that seriously affects public health. Studies within this decade have indicated the important role of risk factors such as oxidative stress and inflammation on the development of cognitive impairment. With the recognition of the two-way communication between gut and brain, recent investigation suggests that "microbiota-gut-brain axis" also plays a pivotal role in modulating both cognition function and endocrine stability...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484425/protein-digestion-derived-peptides-and-the-peripheral-regulation-of-food-intake
#7
REVIEW
Juliette Caron, Dorothée Domenger, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec, Benoit Cudennec
The gut plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Food intake regulation strongly relies on the gut-brain axis, and numerous studies have pointed out the significant role played by gut hormones released from enteroendocrine cells. It is well known that digestive products of dietary protein possess a high satiating effect compared to carbohydrates and fat. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in the gut during protein digestion involved in the short-term regulation of food intake are still not totally unraveled...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482009/the-microbiota-the-gut-and-the-brain-in-eating-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#8
Jamie E Temko, Sofia Bouhlal, Mehdi Farokhnia, Mary R Lee, John F Cryan, Lorenzo Leggio
Aims: Accumulating evidence for the influence of the gut microbiota on the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis suggests a role of the gut microbiota in eating disorders (EDs) and alcohol and substance use disorders. The potential influence of altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) on behaviors associated with such disorders may have implications for developing therapeutic interventions. Methods: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the gut microbiota, EDs and alcohol and substance use disorders was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases with the objective being to examine the role of the gut microbiota in behavioral correlates of these disorders...
May 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467926/a-specific-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-induces-glp-1-resistance-through-an-enteric-no-dependent-and-gut-brain-axis-mechanism
#9
Estelle Grasset, Anthony Puel, Julie Charpentier, Xavier Collet, Jeffrey E Christensen, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies control glycemia in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. However, in some patients the treatment must be discontinued, defining a state of GLP-1 resistance. In animal models we identified a specific set of ileum bacteria impairing the GLP-1-activated gut-brain axis for the control of insulin secretion and gastric emptying. Using prediction algorithms, we identified bacterial pathways related to amino acid metabolism and transport system modules associated to GLP-1 resistance...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447569/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#10
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, arecritical for maintaining healthy brain function particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443064/loss-of-vagal-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-in-rats-born-with-intrauterine-growth-retardation-and-consequence-on-food-intake
#11
Marième Ndjim, Camille Poinsignon, Patricia Parnet, Gwenola Le Dréan
Perinatal malnutrition is associated with low birth weight and an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Modification of food intake (FI) regulation was observed in adult rats born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by maternal dietary protein restriction during gestation and maintained restricted until weaning. Gastrointestinal peptides and particularly cholecystokinin (CCK) play a major role in short-term regulation of FI by relaying digestive signals to the hindbrain via the vagal afferent nerve (VAN)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#12
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379454/intervention-strategies-for-cesarean-section-induced-alterations-in-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#14
Angela Moya-Pérez, Pauline Luczynski, Ingrid B Renes, Shugui Wang, Yuliya Borre, C Anthony Ryan, Jan Knol, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379213/energy-dense-diet-triggers-changes-in-gut-microbiota-reorganization-of-gut%C3%A2-brain-vagal-communication-and-increases-body-fat-accumulation
#15
Alexandra C Vaughn, Erin M Cooper, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Levi J O'Loughlin, Michael E Konkel, James H Peters, Andras Hajnal, Tanusree Sen, Sun Hye Lee, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet‑induced changes in gut microbiota alter vagal gut-brain communication associated with increased body fat accumulation...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363773/amylin-receptor-ligands-reduce-the-pathological-cascade-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Haihao Zhu, Xiehua Xue, Erming Wang, Max Wallack, Hana Na, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Kowall, Qiushan Tao, Thor D Stein, Benjamin Wolozin, Wei Qiao Qiu
Amylin is an important gut-brain axis hormone. Since amylin and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) share similar β sheet secondary structure despite not having the same primary sequences, we hypothesized that the accumulation of Aβ in the brains of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) might compete with amylin for binding to the amylin receptor (AmR). If true, adding exogenous amylin type peptides would compete with Aβ and reduce the AD pathological cascade, improving cognition. Here we report that a 10-week course of peripheral treatment with human amylin significantly reduced multiple different markers associated with AD pathology, including reducing levels of phospho-tau, insoluble tau, two inflammatory markers (Iba1 and CD68), as well as cerebral Aβ...
March 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356427/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-modulator-of-host-metabolism-and-appetite
#18
REVIEW
Marcel van de Wouw, Harriët Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The gut harbors an enormous diversity of microbes that are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in health and disease. A growing body of evidence supports the role of this microbiota in influencing host appetite and food intake. Individual species within the gut microbiota are under selective pressure arising from nutrients available and other bacterial species present. Each bacterial species within the gut aims to increase its own fitness, habitat, and survival via specific fermentation of dietary nutrients and secretion of metabolites, many of which can influence host appetite and eating behavior by directly affecting nutrient sensing and appetite and satiety-regulating systems...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349974/sex-related-alterations-of-gut-microbiota-composition-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Lorena Coretti, Claudia Cristiano, Ermanno Florio, Giovanni Scala, Adriano Lama, Simona Keller, Mariella Cuomo, Roberto Russo, Raffaela Pero, Orlando Paciello, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Rosaria Meli, Sergio Cocozza, Antonio Calignano, Lorenzo Chiariotti, Francesca Lembo
Alterations of microbiota-gut-brain axis have been invoked in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mouse models could represent an excellent tool to understand how gut dysbiosis and related alterations may contribute to autistic phenotype. In this study we paralleled gut microbiota (GM) profiles, behavioral characteristics, intestinal integrity and immunological features of colon tissues in BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice, a well established animal model of ASD. Sex differences, up to date poorly investigated in animal models, were specifically addressed...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#20
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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