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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634323/intestinal-microbial-dysbiosis-aggravates-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-drosophila
#1
Shih-Cheng Wu, Zih-Syuan Cao, Kuo-Ming Chang, Jyh-Lyh Juang
Neuroinflammation caused by local deposits of Aβ42 in the brain is key for the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, inflammation in the brain is not always a response to local primary insults. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which is recently emerging as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, can also initiate a brain inflammatory response. It still remains unclear however, whether enteric dysbiosis also contributes to Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that in a Drosophila Alzheimer's disease model, enterobacteria infection exacerbated progression of Alzheimer's disease by promoting immune hemocyte recruitment to the brain, thereby provoking TNF-JNK mediated neurodegeneration...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624847/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-implications-for-schizophrenia-and-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#2
REVIEW
S Kanji, T M Fonseka, V S Marshe, V Sriretnakumar, M K Hahn, D J Müller
With the emergence of knowledge implicating the human gut microbiome in the development and regulation of several physiological systems, evidence has accumulated to suggest a role for the gut microbiome in psychiatric conditions and drug response. A complex relationship between the enteric nervous system, the gut microbiota and the central nervous system has been described which allows for the microbiota to influence and respond to a variety of behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Additionally, the use of pharmaceuticals may interact with and alter the microbiota to potentially contribute to adverse effects of the drug...
June 17, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613252/are-the-gut-bacteria-telling-us-to-eat-or-not-to-eat-reviewing-the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-etiology-disease-progression-and-treatment-of-eating-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Yan Y Lam, Sarah Maguire, Talia Palacios, Ian D Caterson
Traditionally recognized as mental illnesses, eating disorders are increasingly appreciated to be biologically-driven. There is a growing body of literature that implicates a role of the gut microbiota in the etiology and progression of these conditions. Gut bacteria may act on the gut-brain axis to alter appetite control and brain function as part of the genesis of eating disorders. As the illnesses progress, extreme feeding patterns and psychological stress potentially feed back to the gut ecosystem that can further compromise physiological, cognitive, and social functioning...
June 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610994/manganese-induced-sex-specific-gut-microbiome-perturbations-in-c57bl-6-mice
#4
Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Overexposure to manganese (Mn) leads to toxic effects, such as promoting the development of Parkinson's-like neurological disorders. The gut microbiome is deeply involved in immune development, host metabolism, and xenobiotics biotransformation, and significantly influences central nervous system (CNS) via the gut-brain axis, i.e. the biochemical signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the CNS. However, it remains unclear whether Mn can affect the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions, particularly those linked to neurotoxicity...
June 10, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601084/can-psychobiotics-intake-modulate-psychological-profile-and-body-composition-of-women-affected-by-normal-weight-obese-syndrome-and-obesity-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Antonino De Lorenzo, Micaela Costacurta, Giuseppe Merra, Paola Gualtieri, Giorgia Cioccoloni, Massimiliano Marchetti, Dimitrios Varvaras, Raffaella Docimo, Laura Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). METHODS: 60 women were enrolled...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596693/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-cured-epilepsy-in-a-case-with-crohn-s-disease-the-first-report
#6
Zhi He, Bo-Ta Cui, Ting Zhang, Pan Li, Chu-Yan Long, Guo-Zhong Ji, Fa-Ming Zhang
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy that involves reconstruction of gut microbiota. Recently, it has been considered as a treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and certain neurological diseases. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case that used FMT to achieve remission of intestinal and neurological symptoms in a girl with CD and a 17-year history of epilepsy. During the 20 mo of follow-up, FMT has proved its efficacy in preventing relapse of seizures after withdrawing the antiepileptic drugs...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592308/examining-clinical-similarities-between-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-d-lactic-acidosis-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Amy Wallis, Michelle Ball, Sandra McKechnie, Henry Butt, Donald P Lewis, Dorothy Bruck
BACKGROUND: The pursuit for clarity in diagnostic and treatment pathways for the complex, chronic condition of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) continues. This systematic review raises a novel question to explore possible overlapping aetiology in two distinct conditions. Similar neurocognitive symptoms and evidence of D-lactate producing bacteria in ME/CFS raise questions about shared mechanisms with the acute condition of D-lactic acidosis (D-la). METHODS: D-la case reports published between 1965 and March 2016 were reviewed for episodes describing both neurological symptoms and high D-lactate levels...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591631/gut-brain-glucose-signaling-in-energy-homeostasis
#8
REVIEW
Maud Soty, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Fabienne Rajas, Gilles Mithieux
Intestinal gluconeogenesis is a recently identified function influencing energy homeostasis. Intestinal gluconeogenesis induced by specific nutrients releases glucose, which is sensed by the nervous system surrounding the portal vein. This initiates a signal positively influencing parameters involved in glucose control and energy management controlled by the brain. This knowledge has extended our vision of the gut-brain axis, classically ascribed to gastrointestinal hormones. Our work raises several questions relating to the conditions under which intestinal gluconeogenesis proceeds and may provide its metabolic benefits...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576837/hypothalamic-inflammation-in-human-obesity-is-mediated-by-environmental-and-genetic-factors
#9
Carina Kreutzer, Sönke Peters, Dominik M Schulte, Daniela Fangmann, Kathrin Türk, Stephan Wolff, Thilo van Eimeren, Markus Ahrens, Jan Beckmann, Clemens Schafmayer, Thomas Becker, Tina Kerby, Axel Rohr, Christian Riedel, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Frauke Degenhardt, Andre Franke, Philip Rosenstiel, Nana Zubek, Christian Henning, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Astrid Dempfle, Aristea Psilopanagioti, Helen Petrou-Papadaki, Lennart Lenk, Olav Jansen, Stefan Schreiber, Matthias Laudes
Obesity is associated with hypothalamic inflammation (HI) in animal models. In the present study we examined the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of 57 obese human subjects and 54 age- and sex- matched non-obese controls by MRI and analyzed the T2-hyperintensity as a measure of HI. Obese subjects exhibited T2-hyperintensity in the left but not the right MBH which was strongly associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. MRI-spectroscopy revealed the number of neurons in the left hypothalamic region to be similar in obese versus control subjects suggesting functional but not structural impairment due to the inflammatory process...
June 2, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553399/the-gut-brain-axis-a-new-pathogenic-view-of-neurologic-symptoms-description-of-a-pediatric-case
#11
Raffaele Falsaperla, Catia Romano, Piero Pavone, Giovanna Vitaliti, Qian Yuan, Nazgole Motamed-Gorji, Riccardo Lubrano
Recent literature data have given emphasis to the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and neurologic diseases, underlying a new pathogenic pathway: The so-called "gut-brain axis." Herein, authors report a case of a 10-month-old male infant, admitted for drug-resistant epilepsy, associated with irritable behavior and GI discomfort, secondary to cow's milk protein allergy. Seizures were described by parents as upward eye movements that were mostly deviated to the right and were associated with slight extension of his neck...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550087/transcriptional-networks-in-rodent-models-support-a-role-for-gut-brain-communication-in-neurogenic-hypertension-a-review-of-the-evidence
#12
Jasenka Zubcevic, Ashley Baker, Christopher J Martyniuk
Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent condition observed in primary health care. Hypertension shows complex etiology, and neuroinflammation, overactive sympathetic drive, and the microbiome are associated with the disease. To obtain mechanistic perspective into neurogenic HTN, we first constructed a framework for transcriptional regulators of the disease using the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. This approach yielded a core group of 178 transcripts that are prevalent in HTN, including leptin and neuropeptide Y...
May 26, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549787/the-gut-brain-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease-possibilities-for-food-based-therapies
#13
Paula Perez-Pardo, Tessa Kliest, Hemraj B Dodiya, Laus M Broersen, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Aletta D Kraneveld
Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually characterized by cardinal motor impairments. However, a range of non-motor symptoms precede the motor-phase and are major determinants for the quality of life. To date, no disease modifying treatment is available for PD patients. The gold standard therapy of levodopa is based on restoring dopaminergic neurotransmission, thereby alleviating motor symptoms, whereas non-motor symptoms remain undertreated. One of the most common non-motor symptoms is gastrointestinal dysfunction usually associated with alpha-synuclein accumulations and low-grade mucosal inflammation in the enteric nervous system...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548940/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546539/microbiota-modulation-counteracts-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-influencing-neuronal-proteolysis-and-gut-hormones-plasma-levels
#15
Laura Bonfili, Valentina Cecarini, Sara Berardi, Silvia Scarpona, Jan S Suchodolski, Cinzia Nasuti, Dennis Fiorini, Maria Chiara Boarelli, Giacomo Rossi, Anna Maria Eleuteri
Gut microbiota has a proven role in regulating multiple neuro-chemical pathways through the highly interconnected gut-brain axis. Oral bacteriotherapy thus has potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current AD treatments aim to prevent onset, delay progression and ameliorate symptoms. In this work, 3xTg-AD mice in the early stage of AD were treated with SLAB51 probiotic formulation, thereby affecting the composition of gut microbiota and its metabolites...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#16
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#17
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508447/the-gut-brain-connection-and-the-use-of-probiotics-for-the-treatment-of-depression-anxiety-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorders-in-dermatology
#18
Katlein França, Torello Lotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507320/the-microbiome-regulates-amygdala-dependent-fear-recall
#19
A E Hoban, R M Stilling, G Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The amygdala is a key brain region that is critically involved in the processing and expression of anxiety and fear-related signals. In parallel, a growing number of preclinical and human studies have implicated the microbiome-gut-brain in regulating anxiety and stress-related responses. However, the role of the microbiome in fear-related behaviours is unclear. To this end we investigated the importance of the host microbiome on amygdala-dependent behavioural readouts using the cued fear conditioning paradigm...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499738/cognitive-effects-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagal-deafferentation-in-rats
#20
Melanie Klarer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Vagal afferents are a crucial neuronal component of the gut-brain axis and mediate the information flow from the viscera to the central nervous system. Based on the findings provided by experiments involving vagus nerve stimulation, it has been suggested that vagal afferent signaling may influence various cognitive functions such as recognition memory and cognitive flexibility. Here, we examined this hypothesis using a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective abdominal vagal deafferentation method existing to date...
May 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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