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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656644/tuna-oil-alleviate-d-galactose-induced-aging-in-mice-accompanied-by-modulating-gut-microbiota-and-brain-protein-expression
#1
Dijun Zhang, Jiaojiao Han, Yanyan Li, Bei Yuan, Jun Zhou, Lingzhi Cheong, Ye Li, Chenyang Lu, XiuRong Su
To discern whether tuna oil modulates the expression of brain proteins and the gut microbiota structure during aging induced by D-galactose, we generated an aging mouse model with D-galactose treatment, and the mice showed aging and memory deterioration symptoms according to physiological and biochemical indices. Treatment with different doses of tuna oil alleviated the symptoms, the high dose showed a better effect. Subsequently, brain proteomic analysis showed the differentially expressed proteins were involved in damaged synaptic system repairment and signal transduction system enhancement...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649467/monosodium-glutamate-ingestion-during-the-development-period-reduces-aggression-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-a-rat-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Ruriko Nishigaki, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuko Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Sachiyo Misumi, Yoshitomo Ueda, Akimasa Ishida, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hideki Hida
We used an umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), as a simple stimulant to clarify the mechanism of the formation of emotional behavior. A 60 mM MSG solution was fed to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, from postnatal day 25 for 5 weeks kept in isolation. Emotional behaviors (anxiety and aggression) were then assessed by the open-field test, cylinder test and social interaction test. MSG ingestion during the developmental period resulted in a significant reduction in aggressive behavior but had few effects on anxiety-like behavior...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628357/frailty-and-the-gut
#3
REVIEW
Antonio Di Sabatino, Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Lisa Cammalleri, Gino Roberto Corazza, Alberto Pilotto
Frailty, which is a syndrome that encompasses losses in physical, psychological and social domains, is responsible for enhanced vulnerability to endogenous and/or exogenous stressors. Frailty is a public health problem for an ageing society; however, it is poorly understood and often under-recognised in clinical settings. In particular, the impact of frailty on either intestinal functions, i.e. immune response, permeability, and absorption, or gut microbiota composition is as yet mostly unexplored. A better comprehension of the intestinal dysfunction occurring in the elderly would help in clarifying the mechanisms predisposing frail patients to a higher risk of infectious or inflammatory events...
March 16, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628046/mechanisms-underlying-the-effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-fear-memory-processing-and-their-hypothetical-effects-on-fear-of-cancer-recurrence-in-cancer-survivors
#4
REVIEW
R Okubo, C Chen, M Sekiguchi, K Hamazaki, Y J Matsuoka
The relationship of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and gut microbiota with brain function has been extensively reported. Here, we review how n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect fear memory processing. n-3 PUFAs may improve dysfunctional fear memory processing via immunomodulation/anti-inflammation, increased BDNF, upregulated adult neurogenesis, modulated signal transduction, and microbiota-gut-brain axis normalization. We emphasize how n-3 PUFAs affect this axis and also focus on the hypothetical effects of PUFAs in fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), the primary psychological unmet need of cancer survivors...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623833/new-therapeutic-drugs-from-bioactive-natural-molecules-the-role-of-gut-microbiota-metabolism-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
Francesco Di Meo, Stella Donato, Alba Di Pardo, Vittorio Maglione, Stefania Filosa, Stefania Crispi
The gut-brain axis is considered a neuroendocrine system, which connects brain and gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in stress response. The homeostasis of gut-brain axis is important for healthy conditions and its alterations are associated to neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Gut microbiota is a dynamic ecosystem that can be altered by external factors such as diet composition, antibiotics or xenobiotics. Recent advances in gut microbiota analyses indicate that the gut bacterial community plays a key role in maintaining normal brain functions...
April 3, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617356/clostridium-bacteria-and-autism-spectrum-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-hypothetical-contribution-of-environmental-glyphosate-levels
#6
REVIEW
Isadora Argou-Cardozo, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá
Nowadays, there seems to be a consensus about the multifactorial nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature provides hypotheses dealing with numerous environmental factors and genes accounting for the apparently higher prevalence of this condition. Researchers have shown evidence regarding the impact of gut bacteria on neurological outcomes, altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of psychiatric disorders. Pesticides and agrotoxics are also included among this long list of ASD-related environmental stressors...
April 4, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616741/avian-models-and-the-study-of-invariant-asymmetry-how-the-chicken-and-the-egg-taught-us-to-tell-right-from-left
#7
Anne H Monsoro-Burq, Michael Levin
While the external vertebrate body plan appears bilaterally symmetrical with respect to anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes, the internal organs are arranged with a striking and invariant left-right asymmetry. This laterality is important for normal body function, as alterations manifest as numerous human birth defect syndromes. The left-right axis is set up very early during embryogenesis by an initial and still poorly understood break in bilateral symmetry, followed by a cascade of molecular events that was discovered 20 years ago in the chick embryo model...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615850/interplay-between-the-gut-brain-axis-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#8
REVIEW
Ana Agustí, Maria P García-Pardo, Inmaculada López-Almela, Isabel Campillo, Michael Maes, Marina Romaní-Pérez, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa . These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614774/the-brain-intestinal-mucosa-appendix-microbiome-brain-loop
#9
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614380/serotonin-as-a-link-between-the-gut-brain-microbiome-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is, however, often associated with medical comorbidities and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is among the most common. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between GI dysfunction and the degree of social impairment in ASD. The etiology of GI abnormalities in ASD is unclear, though the association between GI dysfunction and ASD-associated behaviors suggest that overlapping developmental defects in the brain and the intestine and/or a defect in communication between the enteric and central nervous systems (ENS and CNS, respectively), known as the gut-brain axis, could be responsible for the observed phenotypes...
March 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607741/intragastric-quinine-administration-decreases-hedonic-eating-in-healthy-women-through-peptide-mediated-gut-brain-signaling-mechanisms
#11
Julie Iven, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Dongxing Zhao, Eveline Deloose, Owen G O'Daly, Inge Depoortere, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVES: Intragastric bitter tastants may decrease appetite and food intake. We aimed to investigate the gut-brain signaling and brain mechanisms underlying these effects. METHODS: Brain responses to intragastric quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl, 10 µmol/kg) or placebo infusion were recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 healthy women. Appetite-related sensations, plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones and hedonic food intake (ad libitum drink test) were assessed...
April 2, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600698/role-of-microbiota-in-the-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Daniela Campion, Paola Ponzo, Carlo Alessandria, Giorgio M Saracco, Federico Balzola
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) defines a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, along with repetitive patterns of behavior. Symptoms generally appear in the early developmental period and cause significant impairment in individual and social functioning. In recent years the increased prevalence of ASD, along with the evidence of a significant link between autism and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, raised a special interest in exploringì the reciprocal influences between gut and brain...
March 30, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580839/the-now-and-then-of-gut-brain-signaling
#13
Melanie M Kaelberer, Diego V Bohórquez
Since their very beginnings, animals had gut sensory epithelial cells. In one of the first multicellular animals, Trichoplax - a literal wandering gut - food sensing and feeding was coordinated by specialized ventral sensor cells. In mammals, including humans, gut epithelial sensor cells (a.k.a enteroendocrine cells) have been recognized for an array of neuropeptides, like ghrelin and cholecystokinin, that modulate hunger or satiety. Indeed, since first described as "clear cells" by Rudfolf Heidenhain (1868), research efforts increasingly focused on their hormone neuropeptides leading to the alphabetical classification of one cell-one hormone (e...
March 23, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579049/fecal-microbiota-in-the-female-prairie-vole-microtus-ochrogaster
#14
J Thomas Curtis, Senait Assefa, Amie Francis, Gerwald A Köhler
We examined the fecal microbiota of female prairie voles. This species is socially and, likely, sexually monogamous, and thus serves as a valuable model in which to examine the interaction between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and social behavior. At present, little is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of prairie voles; therefore, we performed a first characterization of the fecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Semiconductor sequencing technology on an Ion Torrent PGM platform was used to assess the composition of fecal microbiotas from twelve female prairie voles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570774/application-of-the-mesolens-for-subcellular-resolution-imaging-of-intact-larval-and-whole-adult-drosophila
#15
G McConnell, W B Amos
In a previous paper, we showed a new giant lens called the Mesolens and presented performance data and images from whole fixed and intact fluorescently-stained 12.5-day old mouse embryos. Here, we show that using the Mesolens we can image an entire Drosophila larva or adult fly in confocal epifluorescence and show subcellular detail in all tissues. By taking several hundreds of optical sections through the entire volume of the specimen, we show cells and nuclear details within the gut, brain, salivary glands and reproductive system that normally require dissection for study...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564487/gut-microbial-dysbiosis-in-indian-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Joby Pulikkan, Abhijit Maji, Darshan Bharat Dhakan, Rituja Saxena, Binoop Mohan, Milu Maria Anto, Neeti Agarwal, Tony Grace, Vineet K Sharma
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a term associated with a group of neurodevelopmental disorders. The etiology of ASD is not yet completely understood; however, a disorder in the gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor leading to autism. To identify the taxonomic composition and markers associated with ASD, we compared the fecal microbiota of 30 ASD children diagnosed using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score, DSM-5 approved AIIMS-modified INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Autism Spectrum Disorder (INDT-ASD), and Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) tool, with family-matched 24 healthy children from Indian population using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicon...
March 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563885/interplay-between-peripheral-and-central-inflammation-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-possible-nutritional-and-therapeutic-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Claudia Cristiano, Adriano Lama, Francesca Lembo, Maria P Mollica, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
Pre- and post-natal factors can affect brain development and function, impacting health outcomes with particular relevance to neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Maternal obesity and its associated complications have been related to the increased risk of ASDs in offspring. Indeed, animals exposed to maternal obesity or high fat diets are prone to social communication impairment and repetitive behavior, the hallmarks of autism. During development, fatty acids and sugars, as well as satiety hormones, like insulin and leptin, and inflammatory factors related to obesity-induced low grade inflammation, could play a role in the impairment of neuroendocrine system and brain neuronal circuits regulating behavior in offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562936/microbiome-host-systems-interactions-protective-effects-of-propionate-upon-the-blood-brain-barrier
#18
Lesley Hoyles, Tom Snelling, Umm-Kulthum Umlai, Jeremy K Nicholson, Simon R Carding, Robert C Glen, Simon McArthur
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota composition and function are symbiotically linked with host health and altered in metabolic, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Three recognised mechanisms exist by which the microbiome influences the gut-brain axis: modification of autonomic/sensorimotor connections, immune activation, and neuroendocrine pathway regulation. We hypothesised interactions between circulating gut-derived microbial metabolites, and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) also contribute to the gut-brain axis...
March 21, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559977/interrelation-of-diet-gut-microbiome-and-autoantibody-production
#19
REVIEW
Ioanna Petta, Judith Fraussen, Veerle Somers, Markus Kleinewietfeld
B cells possess a predominant role in adaptive immune responses via antibody-dependent and -independent functions. The microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract is currently being intensively investigated due to its profound impact on various immune responses, including B cell maturation, activation, and IgA antibody responses. Recent findings have demonstrated the interplay between dietary components, gut microbiome, and autoantibody production. "Western" dietary patterns, such as high fat and high salt diets, can induce alterations in the gut microbiome that in turn affects IgA responses and the production of autoantibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552561/of-microbes-and-minds-a-narrative-review-on-the-second-brain-aging
#20
REVIEW
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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