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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049057/the-postpartum-maternal-and-newborn-microbiomes
#1
Abby D Mutic, Sheila Jordan, Sara M Edwards, Erin P Ferranti, Taylor A Thul, Irene Yang
Biological and environmental changes to maternal and newborn microbiomes in the postnatal period can affect health outcomes for the mother-baby dyad. Postpartum sleep deprivation and unmet dietary needs can alter commensal bacteria within the body and disrupt gut-brain communication. Perineal injury and breast infections also change microbial community composition, potentiating an environment favoring pathogen growth. The gut microbiome refers to the collection of microorganisms working in harmony. Disruptions within the gut microbiome and gut-brain communication may lead to postpartum depression, a potentially devastating sequela...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046435/long-acting-mic-1-gdf15-molecules-to-treat-obesity-evidence-from-mice-to-monkeys
#2
Yumei Xiong, Kenneth Walker, Xiaoshan Min, Clarence Hale, Thanhvien Tran, Renee Komorowski, Jerry Yang, Jasmine Davda, Noi Nuanmanee, Dao Kemp, Xiaozhen Wang, Hantao Liu, Silke Miller, Ki Jeong Lee, Zhulun Wang, Murielle M Véniant
In search of metabolically regulated secreted proteins, we conducted a microarray study comparing gene expression in major metabolic tissues of fed and fasted ob/ob mice and C57BL/6 mice. The array used in this study included probes for ~4000 genes annotated as potential secreted proteins. Circulating macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1)/growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) concentrations were increased in obese mice, rats, and humans in comparison to age-matched lean controls. Adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of GDF15 and recombinant GDF15 treatments reduced food intake and body weight and improved metabolic profiles in various metabolic disease models in mice, rats, and obese cynomolgus monkeys...
October 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046155/impact-of-dietary-fats-on-brain-functions
#3
Rosanna Chianese, Roberto Coccurello, Andrea Viggiano, Marika Scafuro, Marco Fiore, Giangennaro Coppola, Francesca Felicia Operto, Silvia Fasano, Sophie Layé, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello
Adequate dietary intake and nutritional status have important effects on brain functions and on brain health. Energy intake and specific nutrients excess or deficiency from diet differently affect cognitive processes, emotions, behaviour, neuroendocrine functions and synaptic plasticity with possible protective or detrimental effects on neuronal physiology. Lipids, in particular, play structural and functional roles in neurons. Here the importance of dietary fats and the need to understand the brain mechanisms activated by peripheral and central metabolic sensors...
October 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044140/therapeutic-potential-of-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-a1-for-preventing-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Yodai Kobayashi, Hirosuke Sugahara, Kousuke Shimada, Eri Mitsuyama, Tetsuya Kuhara, Akihito Yasuoka, Takashi Kondo, Keiko Abe, Jin-Zhong Xiao
It has previously been shown that the consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects not only on peripheral tissues but also on the central nervous system and behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, raising the possibility that treatment with probiotics could be an effective therapeutic strategy for managing neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain A1 (B. breve A1) on behavior and physiological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039142/microbiota-brain-gut-axis-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges...
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035044/nicotine-alters-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolites-of-gut-brain-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#6
Liang Chi, Ridwan Mahbub, Bei Gao, Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
As the primary active substance in tobacco, nicotine affects the activity of the central nervous system, and its effects are sex-dependent. There are complex interactions between the gut and brain, and the gut microbiome can influence neuronal activity and host behavior, with diverse chemical signaling being involved. However, it is unclear whether nicotine can affect the normal gut microbiome and associated chemical signaling of the gut-brain axis. Sex is an important factor that shapes the gut microbiome, but the role of sex in the interaction among nicotine, gut bacteria, and related metabolites remains unknown...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#7
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024666/dynamics-of-gut-brain-communication-underlying-hunger
#8
Lisa R Beutler, Yiming Chen, Jamie S Ahn, Yen-Chu Lin, Rachel A Essner, Zachary A Knight
Communication between the gut and brain is critical for homeostasis, but how this communication is represented in the dynamics of feeding circuits is unknown. Here we describe nutritional regulation of key neurons that control hunger in vivo. We show that intragastric nutrient infusion rapidly and durably inhibits hunger-promoting AgRP neurons in awake, behaving mice. This inhibition is proportional to the number of calories infused but surprisingly independent of macronutrient identity or nutritional state...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024170/steroids-stress-and-the-gut-microbiome-brain-axis
#9
REVIEW
Marc J Tetel, Geert J de Vries, Roberto C Melcangi, GianCarlo Panzica, Siobhain M O'Mahony
It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota, and in turn how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behavior. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023380/the-gut-microbiome-feelings-of-the-brain-a-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#10
REVIEW
Aaron Lerner, Sandra Neidhöfer, Torsten Matthias
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: "gut-brain axis", "gut-microbiota-brain axis", "nutrition microbiome/microbiota", "enteric nervous system", "enteric glial cells/network", "gut-brain pathways", "microbiome immune system", "microbiome neuroendocrine system" and "intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides"...
October 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#11
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018983/nutritional-habits-risk-and-progression-of-parkinson-disease
#12
REVIEW
Roberto Erro, Francesco Brigo, Stefano Tamburin, Mauro Zamboni, Angelo Antonini, Michele Tinazzi
Parkinson disease (PD) is a multifactorial disease, where a genetic predisposition combines with putative environmental risk factors. Mounting evidence suggests that the initial PD pathological manifestations may be located in the gut to subsequently affect brain areas. Moreover, several lines of research demonstrated that there are bidirectional connections between the central nervous system and the gut, the "gut-brain axis" that influences both brain and gastrointestinal function. This opens a potential therapeutic window suggesting that specific dietary strategies may interact with the disease process and influence the risk of PD or modify its course...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016169/the-microbiome-as-a-novel-paradigm-in-studying-stress-and-mental-health
#13
Richard T Liu
At the intersection between neuroscience, microbiology, and psychiatry, the enteric microbiome has potential to become a novel paradigm for studying the psychobiological underpinnings of mental illness. Several studies provide support for the view that the enteric microbiome influences behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Moreover, recent findings are suggestive of the possibility that dysregulation of the enteric microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) and associated bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium may be involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, particularly depression...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993758/experimental-models-of-maternal-obesity-and-neuroendocrine-programming-of-metabolic-disorders-in-offspring
#14
REVIEW
Clare M Reynolds, Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers
Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983086/can-intestinal-microbiota-be-associated-with-non-intestinal-cancers
#15
Camille Jacqueline, Lionel Brazier, Dominique Faugère, François Renaud, Frédéric Thomas, Benjamin Roche
While the role of intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized in the etiology of digestive cancers, its effects on the development of cancer in other parts of the body have been little studied. Through new-generation sequencing, we aimed to identify an association between the structure of intestinal microbiota and the presence of eye disc tumor in Drosophila larvae. First, we observed a parental effect on the diversity and structure of bacterial communities. Second, we identified a bacterial signature (at the family level) of cancer: cancerous larvae host a significantly lower relative abundance of Bacillaceae than individuals that did not develop the tumor...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973392/association-between-gut-microbiota-and-bone-health-potential-mechanisms-and-prospective
#16
Yuan-Cheng Chen, Jonathan Greenbaum, Hui Shen, Hong-Wen Deng
Context: It has been well established that the human gut microbiome plays a critical role in the regulation of important biological processes and the mechanisms underlying numerous complex diseases. Although researchers have only recently begun to study the relationship between the gut microbiota and bone metabolism, early efforts have provided increased evidence to suggest an important association. Evidence Acquisition: Here, we attempt to comprehensively summarize the relationship between the gut microbiota and bone metabolism by detailing the regulatory effects of the microbiome on various biological processes including nutrient absorption and the intestinal mucosal barrier, immune system functionality, the gut-brain axis, and excretion of functional byproducts...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970253/characterization-of-soy-deprestatin-a-novel-orally-active-decapeptide-that-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-via-gut-brain-communication
#17
Yukiha Mori, Saho Asakura, Akane Yamamoto, Saori Odagiri, Daisuke Yamada, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Keiji Wada, Masaru Sato, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Hideyuki Suzuki, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
We found that the orally administered thermolysin digest of β-conglycinin exhibits antidepressant-like effects in tail suspension and forced swim tests in mice. A comprehensive peptide analysis of the digest using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was performed, and LSSTQAQQSY emerged as a candidate antidepressant-like peptide. Orally administered synthetic LSSTQAQQSY exhibited antidepressant-like effects at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg; therefore, we named the decapeptide soy-deprestatin. In contrast, intraperitoneally administered soy-deprestatin was ineffective...
September 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969160/anti-alzheimer-properties-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-plantarum-mtcc-1325-in-alzheimer-s-disease-induced-albino-rats
#18
Mallikarjuna Nimgampalle, Yellamma Kuna
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease is a type of dementia, and till now there is no suitable drug available for the complete cure of this disease. Now-a-days Probiotics, Lactobacillus strains play a therapeutic role in cognitive disorders through Gut-Brain Axis communication. AIM: The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Alzheimer properties of Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 against D-Galactose-induced Alzheimer's disease in albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy rats (48) of wistar strain were divided into four groups viz...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965876/microbiota-related-changes-in-bile-acid-tryptophan-metabolism-are-associated-with-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism
#19
Anna V Golubeva, Susan A Joyce, Gerard Moloney, Aurelijus Burokas, Eoin Sherwin, Silvia Arboleya, Ian Flynn, Dmitry Khochanskiy, Angela Moya-Pérez, Veronica Peterson, Kieran Rea, Kiera Murphy, Olga Makarova, Sergey Buravkov, Niall P Hyland, Catherine Stanton, Gerard Clarke, Cormac G M Gahan, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental conditions worldwide. There is growing awareness that ASD is highly comorbid with gastrointestinal distress and altered intestinal microbiome, and that host-microbiome interactions may contribute to the disease symptoms. However, the paucity of knowledge on gut-brain axis signaling in autism constitutes an obstacle to the development of precision microbiota-based therapeutics in ASD. To this end, we explored the interactions between intestinal microbiota, gut physiology and social behavior in a BTBR T(+)Itpr3(tf)/J mouse model of ASD...
September 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964773/effects-of-gut-microbiota-disturbance-induced-in-early-life-on-the-expression-of-extrasynaptic-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-subunits-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-rats
#20
Liang Liang, Heng Zhou, Shiying Zhang, Jingping Yuan, Hao Wu
Previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota disturbance significantly increases the risk of emotional disorders via the gut-brain axis, but the mechanism is unclear. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits were reported to be implicated in the development of depression and amnesia, but the alterations in the GABA-A receptor subunits that are involved in the pathogenetic process have not been fully elucidated. This study used juvenile rats that were fed ampicillin-Na to establish degree III dysbiosis of the intestinal flora and examined emotional change via the tail suspension test, forced swim test and Morris water maze...
September 28, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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