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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792168/trends-in-the-incidence-and-associated-factors-of-late-onset-sepsis-associated-with-improved-survival-in-extremely-preterm-infants-born-at-23-26-weeks-gestation-a-retrospective-study
#1
Jin Kyu Kim, Yun Sil Chang, Sein Sung, So Yoon Ahn, Won Soon Park
BACKGROUND: To investigate the trends in the incidence and associated factors of late-onset sepsis (LOS) associated with improved survival in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: Medical records of 364 infants who were born at 23-26 weeks' gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 124) and from 2006 to 2011 (period II, n = 240) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into subgroups of 23-24 and 25-26 weeks' gestation within each period, and survival, LOS rate, and clinical characteristics were analyzed...
May 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792103/prolonged-use-of-antibiotics-after-birth-is-associated-with-increased-morbidity-in-preterm-infants-with-negative-cultures
#2
C Fajardo, B Alshaikh, A Harabor
BACKGROUND: Most preterm infants are exposed to a variable duration of antibiotic therapy after birth despite negative cultures. Data is emerging about the risks of prolonged antibiotics. We sought to assess the association between length of initial antibiotic course and neonatal outcomes in a cohort from a single large perinatal centre. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data on all infants with a birth weight of less than 1250 g hospitalized in our NICU in a 4-year window and who had negative blood and CSF cultures in the first 2 days of life...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792096/neonatal-outcome-in-preterm-deliveries-before-34-week-gestation-the-influence-of-the-mechanism-of-labor-onset
#3
Sara Pinto, Maria Filipa Malheiro, Ana Vaz, Teresa Rodrigues, Nuno Montenegro, Hercília Guimarães
PURPOSE: To evaluate neonatal outcomes in preterm infants with less than 34 weeks after spontaneous labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) or iatrogenic delivery and to clarify whether the mechanism of labor onset is a risk factor for adverse short-term neonatal outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study, which included 266 preterm newborns with less than 34-week gestation, between 2011 and 2015. Neonatal outcomes were compared according to the mechanism of labor onset...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792085/role-of-selenium-supplementation-in-prevention-of-late-onset-sepsis-among-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Bhawan Garg, Anju Bansal, Nandkishor Kabra
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is one of the most common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Selenium has antioxidant and immune-modulating properties. AIM: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate role of selenium supplementation in the prevention of late onset sepsis (LOS) among very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. METHODS: We searched literature for this review by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) electronic PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792059/pitfalls-in-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-neonates-and-young-infants-the-role-of-lumbar-puncture
#5
Luca Bedetti, Lucia Marrozzini, Alessandro Baraldi, Elisabetta Spezia, Lorenzo Iughetti, Laura Lucaccioni, Alberto Berardi
Meningitis occurs frequently in neonates and can lead to a number of acute, severe complications and long-term disabilities. An early diagnosis of neonatal meningitis is essential to reduce mortality and to improve outcomes. Initial clinical signs of meningitis are often subtle and frequently overlap with those of sepsis, and current haematologic tests do not distinguish sepsis from meningitis. Thus, lumbar puncture remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of meningitis in infants, and this procedure is recommended in clinical guidelines...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791982/-management-of-intrahepatic-duct-stone
#6
REVIEW
Sang Woo Cha
Intrahepatic duct (IHD) stone is the presence of calculi within the intrahepatic bile duct specifically located proximal to the confluence of the left and right hepatic ducts. This stone is characterized by its intractable nature and frequent recurrence, requiring multiple therapeutic interventions. Without proper treatment, biliary strictures and retained stones can lead to repeated episodes of cholangitis, liver abscesses, secondary biliary cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and death from sepsis or hepatic failure...
May 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791952/skin-punctures-in-preterm-infants-in-the-first-2-weeks-of-life
#7
Daragh Finn, Daryl Butler, Orla Sheehan, Vicki Livingstone, Eugene M Dempsey
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to investigate frequency and trends of skin punctures in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN:  A prospective audit of preterm infants less than 35 weeks admitted over a 6-month period to a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Each skin puncture performed in the first 2 weeks of life was documented in a specifically designed audit sheet. RESULTS:  Ninety-nine preterm infants were enrolled. Infants born at < 32 weeks' gestation had significantly more skin punctures than infants > 32 weeks (median skin punctures 26...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791477/functional-characterization-of-oxazolone-induced-colitis-and-survival-improvement-by-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#8
Elisa Meroni, Nathalie Stakenborg, Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla, Gert De Hertogh, Gera Goverse, Gianluca Matteoli, Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
BACKGROUND: Oxazolone-induced colitis has been frequently used in literature as a model of IBD, but insights into the underlying immune response and pathological features are surprisingly still very limited. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has proven to be effective in innate and Th1/Th17 predominant inflammatory models, including pre-clinical models of colitis, however to what extent VNS is also effective in ameliorating Th2-driven colitis remains to be studied. In the present study, we therefore further characterized the immune response in oxazolone-induced colitis and investigated the potential therapeutic effect of VNS...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791315/incidence-of-early-onset-sepsis-in-infants-born-to-women-with-clinical-chorioamnionitis
#9
Tara M Randis, Madeline Murguia Rice, Leslie Myatt, Alan T N Tita, Kenneth J Leveno, Uma M Reddy, Michael W Varner, John M Thorp, Brian M Mercer, Mara J Dinsmoor, Susan M Ramin, Marshall W Carpenter, Philip Samuels, Anthony Sciscione, Jorge E Tolosa, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of sepsis and other adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a multi-center placebo-controlled trial of vitamins C/E to prevent preeclampsia in low risk nulliparous women. Clinical chorioamnionitis was defined as either the "clinical diagnosis" of chorioamnionitis or antibiotic administration during labor because of an elevated temperature or uterine tenderness in the absence of another cause...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791292/sepsis-caused-by-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-in-a-eurasian-river-otter-lutra-lutra-in-the-republic-of-korea
#10
Yeonsu Oh, Dongseob Tark, Sung-Hyun Moon, Jae-Ik Han, Won-Il Kim, Ho-Seong Cho
An adult male Eurasian river otter ( Lutra lutra) was diagnosed with systemic infection. Microbiologic findings identified Streptococcus suis serotype 2, clonal complex 28, and sequence type 629. Genetic analysis strongly suggested the transmission of S. suis isolate from pigs to wild animals through environmental contamination.
May 23, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790843/empirical-antibiotic-treatment-for-children-suffering-from-dysentery-cholera-pneumonia-sepsis-or-severe-acute-malnutrition
#11
Per Ashorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790842/reviewing-the-who-guidelines-for-antibiotic-use-for-sepsis-in-neonates-and-children
#12
Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Shrey Mathur, Mike Sharland, Johannes N Van Den Anker
Background Guidelines from 2005 for treating suspected sepsis in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) recommended hospitalisation and prophylactic intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) ampicillin and gentamicin. In 2015, recommendations when referral to hospital is not possible suggest the administration of IM gentamicin and oral amoxicillin. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for treating sepsis (taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and risk of adverse events) in neonates and children is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790810/a-review-of-novel-technologies-and-techniques-associated-with-identification-of-bloodstream-infection-aetiologies-and-rapid-antimicrobial-genotypic-and-quantitative-phenotypic-determination
#13
Stephen Poole, Stephen P Kidd, Kordo Saeed
Introduction The antimicrobial aspect of management of patients with blood stream infections (BSI) and sepsis is time critical. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, rapid detection and identification of bacteria with antimicrobial susceptibility is crucial to direct therapy early in the course of illness. Molecular techniques offer a potential solution to this. Areas covered In the present review the authors have discussed a number of novel solutions utilising a variety of molecular techniques for pathogen detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility...
May 23, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790271/correlation-between-neonatal-outcomes-of-twins-depends-on-the-outcome-secondary-analysis-of-twelve-randomised-controlled-trials
#14
Lisa N Yelland, Ewoud Schuit, Javier Zamora, Philippa F Middleton, Arianne C Lim, Anwar H Nassar, Line Rode, Vicente Serra, Elizabeth A Thom, Christophe Vayssière, Ben Wj Mol, Simon Gates
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the correlation between neonatal outcomes of twins and demonstrate how this information can be used in the design of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in women with twin pregnancies. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from 12 RCTs. SETTING: Obstetric care in multiple countries, 2004-2012. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: 4504 twin pairs born to women who participated in RCTs to assess treatments given during pregnancy...
May 22, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789918/recent-experience-and-follow-up-after-surgical-closure-of-secundum-atrial-septal-defect-in-120-children
#15
Geoffroy de Beco, Natasha Mambour, Christophe Vô, Laetitia Vanhoutte, Stéphane Moniotte, Alain Poncelet, Thierry Sluysmans
While percutaneous catheter closure proves an effective treatment for secundum atrial septal defect (ASD2), some child patients require surgical closure. We assessed the risks associated with isolated surgical ASD2 closure by reviewing the outcomes of 120 children operated on between 1999 and 2011 (mean age 4.6 ± 3.9 years, mean weight 17 ± 12 kg). Direct sutures were performed in 4% and patch closures in 96%. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass duration was 38 ± 14 min, aortic cross-clamp time 19 ± 9 min, intensive care unit length of stay 1...
May 22, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789571/a-novel-extracellular-vesicle-associated-endodeoxyribonuclease-helps-streptococcus-pneumoniae-evade-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-is-required-for-full-virulence
#16
Hina Jhelum, Hema Sori, Devinder Sehgal
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major bacterial pathogen that causes pneumonia and septicemia in humans. Pneumococci are cleared from the host primarily by antibody dependent opsonophagocytosis by phagocytes like neutrophils. Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on contacting pneumococci. NETs immobilize pneumococci and restrict its dissemination in the host. One of the strategies utilized by pneumococci to evade the host immune response involves use of DNase(s) to degrade NETs...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789550/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-promote-macrophage-pyroptosis-in-sepsis
#17
Linsong Chen, Yanfeng Zhao, Dengming Lai, Peng Zhang, Yang Yang, Yuehua Li, Ke Fei, Gening Jiang, Jie Fan
In response to infection, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are recruited in the infectious sites, and employ three major strategies to fight against the microbes including phagocytosis, degranulation, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are a meshwork of chromatin fibers mixed with granule-derived antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, which trap and kill the bacteria extracellularly. In this study, by using a mouse sepsis model, we identified a novel mechanism by which NETs induce macrophage (Mϕ) pyroptosis, a caspase-1-dependent regulated cell death...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789006/outcomes-of-lung-transplantation-in-adults-with-bronchiectasis
#18
Jodie Birch, Syba S Sunny, Katy L M Hester, Gareth Parry, F Kate Gould, John H Dark, Stephen C Clark, Gerard Meachery, James Lordan, Andrew J Fisher, Paul A Corris, Anthony De Soyza
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for end-stage non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (BR), though information regarding outcomes of transplantation remains limited. Our results of lung transplantation for Br are reported here. METHODS: A retrospective review of case notes and transplantation databases was conducted for patients that had underwent lung transplantation for bronchiectasis at the Freeman Hospital between 1990 and 2013. RESULTS: Fourty two BR patients underwent lung transplantation, the majority (39) having bilateral sequential lung transplantation...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788836/intracranial-hemorrhage-in-adults-on-ecmo
#19
Yiorgos Alexandros Cavayas, Lorenzo Del Sorbo, Eddy Fan
RATIONALE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use has exploded over the last decade. However, it remains invasive and associated with significant complications, including tamponade, infection, thrombosis, gas embolism and bleeding. The most dreaded complication is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this article, we review the literature on the incidence, diagnosis, risk factors, pathophysiology, prognosis, prevention and management of ICH in adults on ECMO. MAIN FINDINGS: We found a high incidence of ICH in the literature with a poor prognosis...
May 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788811/central-ecmo-for-circulatory-failure-following-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#20
John P Scott, Johnny C Hong, Nathan E Thompson, Ronald K Woods, George M Hoffman
We describe the case of a 4-year-old male with a past medical history significant for nephrotic syndrome, short-bowel syndrome and fulminant hepatic failure status post (s/p) liver transplant (LT) who developed early post-transplant allograft dysfunction (hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy) and septic shock requiring central extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). He remained on ECMO for 85 hours before he was decannulated without event and later underwent repeat LT. This case highlights the potential of central ECMO to provide the circulatory output necessary to reverse distributive shock physiology in patients with sepsis and hepatic dysfunction following LT...
May 1, 2018: Perfusion
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