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Tumor necrosis factor and neonates

Yu He, Wei Xia Du, Hong Yan Jiang, Qing Ai, Jinxing Feng, Zhengqiu Liu, Jia Lin Yu
BACKGROUND: Early onset sepsis (EOS) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, and traditional clinical markers effective for adults are less effective in these patients. This study aimed to assess the value of individual plasma biomarkers as well as biomarker combinations for predicting EOS in neonates. METHODS: This prospective study included 151 neonates with suspected EOS. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-27, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, granzyme B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 were measured through multiplex cytokine profiling and assessed along with C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT)...
September 19, 2016: Shock
Wen-Pin Cheng, Huey-Ming Lo, Bao-Wei Wang, Su-Kiat Chua, Ming-Jen Lu, Kou-Gi Shyu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: TRB3 (tribbles 3), an apoptosis-regulated gene, increases during endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hypoxia can induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. However, the expression of TRB3 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis under hypoxia is not thoroughly known. We investigated the regulation mechanism of TRB3 expression and apoptosis induced by hypoxia in cardiomyocytes. METHODS: An in vivo model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was applied in adult Wistar rats to induce myocardial hypoxia...
September 16, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Mathilde Chevin, Clémence Guiraut, Caroline Maurice-Gelinas, Jessica Deslauriers, Sylvain Grignon, Guillaume Sébire
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent introduction of hypothermia as a mandatory standard of care, the incidence of neonatal encephalopathy in full-term newborns and its devastating neuro-behavioral outcomes continues to be a major individual, familial and social issue. Neonatal encephalopathy is mainly due to the compounding and interacting effects of hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation resulting from placental and other perinatal infections. It is unclear why hypothermia is effective in alleviating neonatal encephalopathy in some, but not all, full-term newborns...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Hiroko Mori, Ken Momosaki, Jun Kido, Tetsuo Naramura, Kenichi Tanaka, Shirou Matsumoto, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Fumio Endo, Masanori Iwai
BACKGROUND: Glycine protected adult brains against injury in an experimental model of stroke. However, because the ischemic response of neonatal brains differs from that of adult brains, we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of glycine and associated mechanisms in an experimental model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. METHODS: Neonatal (P7) Wister rats were randomly divided into an untreated group (non-HI) and two HI groups that were treated with left common carotid artery ligation and saline control or glycine...
September 10, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Ying-Hsien Huang, Hsiang-Hung Shih, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chao-Cheng Huang, Kuang-Che Kuo, Fu-Chen Huang, Ya-Ling Yang, Jiin-Haur Chuang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Viral infections and innate immunity signaling, especially Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA). Administration of rhesus rotavirus-type A to newborn Balb/c mice produces inflammatory obstruction of bile ducts, which resembles human BA. However, whether activation of TLR7 signaling plays a role in neonatal hepatobiliary injury remains to be investigated. METHODS: TLR7 agonist, imiquimod (R837), was intraperitoneally administered to Balb/c mice within 24 hours of birth and then every other day...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Wei Wang, Li Xue, Tongsheng Ma, Yuan Li, Zhenguang Li
The pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is not well understood but immunological factors are thought to be key determinants of the disease appearance and its prognosis. During the course of the present study, different groups of newborn infants were observed and tested, to obtain an accurate image of values of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at the onset, development and progression of neonatal NEC and to compare the values to those obtained during normal healthy development. All the infants in the study received standard medical treatment as appropriate...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Fu-Zhou Hua, Jun Ying, Jing Zhang, Xi-Feng Wang, Yan-Hui Hu, Ying-Ping Liang, Qin Liu, Guo-Hai Xu
The volatile anaesthetic isoflurane is one of the most frequently employed general anaesthetics in neonates, children and adults. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetics is associated with widespread neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Thus, the identification and development of compounds capable of preventing or reducing these adverse effects is of great clinical importance. For this purpose, the present study aimed to assess the effects of a flavonoid, naringenin, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yi Li, Peixi Zhang, Ying Liu, Wenwu Liu, Na Yin
This study aimed to investigate whether helium preconditioning (He-PC) is able to exert neuroprotective effects via improving focal neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat hypoxia/ischemia (HI) brain injury model. Seven day old rat pups were divided into control group, HI group and He-PC group. HI was induced by exposure to 8% oxygen for 90min one day after preconditioning with 70% helium-30% oxygen for three 5-min periods. At 3 and 7 days, the brain was collected for the detection of inflammation related factors (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-10) and growth/neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]); at 7 days, neurobehaviors were evaluated, and the brain was collected for the detection of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) by PCR, protein expression of angiogenesis related molecules (VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1) by Western blotting and microvessel density (MCD) by immunohistochemistry for vWF...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Junhua Yang, Fangfang Qi, Yang Yang, Qunfang Yuan, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo, Zhibin Yao
The immune system plays a vital role in brain development. The hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) is administered to more than 70% of neonates worldwide. Whether this neonatal vaccination affects brain development is unknown. Newborn C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with HBV or phosphate-buffered saline. HBV induced impaired behavioral performances and hippocampal long-term potentiation at 8 weeks (w) of age without influence at 4 or 12w. At 6w, there was decreased neurogenesis, M1 microglial activation and a neurotoxic profile of neuroimmune molecule expression [increased tumor necrosis factor-α and reduced interferon (IFN)-γ, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1] in the hippocampus of the HBV-vaccinated mice...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shigehisa Fumino, Junnosuke Maniwa, Yuki Takeuchi, Kohei Sakai, Mayumi Higashi, Shigeyoshi Aoi, Taizo Furukawa, Osamu Kimura, Tatsuro Tajiri
PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal teratomas (RTs) are rare among germ cell tumors and predominantly occur in infants. RTs are often difficult to manage by perioperative management. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed our series of RTs. METHODS: Seventy patients with germ cell tumors were treated from 1989 to 2015 in our institution. Fourteen patients had RTs (3 boys and 11 girls). The median age at diagnosis was 5.5 months (range 0-64), and three were antenatally diagnosed...
September 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Sheena Bouch, Richard Harding, Megan O'Reilly, Lisa G Wood, Foula Sozo
Many preterm infants require hyperoxic gas for survival, although it can contribute to lung injury. Experimentally, neonatal hyperoxia leads to persistent alterations in lung structure and increases leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These effects of hyperoxia on the lungs are considered to be caused, at least in part, by increased oxidative stress. Our objective was to determine if dietary supplementation with a known source of antioxidants (tomato juice, TJ) could protect the developing lung from injury caused by breathing hyperoxic gas...
2016: PloS One
Jyoti Velayudhan, Yuh-Feng Chen, Amanda Rohrbach, Christina Pastula, Gwen Maher, Heather Thomas, Ryan Brown, Teresa L Born
BACKGROUND: Due to the complex molecular structure and proprietary manufacturing processes of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), differences in structure and function may be expected during development of biosimilar mAbs. Important regulatory requirements for approval of biosimilar products involve comprehensive assessments of any potential differences between proposed biosimilars and reference mAbs, including differences in all known mechanisms of action, using sensitive and relevant methods...
August 2016: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Takeshi Itoh, Yuko Hata, Hitomi Nishinakamura, Kenjiro Kumano, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Shohta Kodama
BACKGROUND: Clinical allogeneic islet transplantation has become an attractive procedure for type 1 diabetes mellitus treatment. However, there is a severe shortage of human donors. Microencapsulated neonatal porcine islet (NPI) xenotransplantation may be an alternative transplantation procedure. Currently, the efficacy of microencapsulated NPI xenotransplantation into the peritoneal cavity is limited because of early non-function resulting from inflammation, which is a serious hindrance to promoting this procedure as a standard therapy...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
Wei-Yong Ruan, Ming-Yuan Bi, Wei-Wei Feng, Yu-Jun Wang, Wei-Quan Bu, Ling Lu
BACKGROUND: Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis is a common and often fatal gastrointestinal disease, especially in premature infants. To study potential mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breast milk on neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, we induced intestinal inflammation in a Caco-2 cell model of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis by hypoxia/re-oxygenation to investigate whether breast milk supernatant fluid inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α...
May 2016: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Mohamed S El-Chimi, Hisham A Awad, Tarek M El-Gammasy, Ola G El-Farghali, Mohamed T Sallam, Dina M Shinkar
AIM: To evaluate efficacy and safety of delivery room (DR) sustained lung inflation (SLI) in resuscitation of preterm neonates. METHODS: Randomized Controlled Trial including 112 preterm infants randomized to either SLI (n = 57) using T-piece resuscitator [maximum three inflations with maximum pressure of 30 cmH2O for 15 s followed by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 5-7 cmH2O] or conventional bag/mask inflation (CBMI) (n = 55) using traditional self-inflating bag (maximum pressure of 40 cmH2O at a rate of 40-60 per min)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sakika Yanai, Daisuke Tokuhara, Daisuke Tachibana, Mika Saito, Yuko Sakashita, Haruo Shintaku, Masayasu Koyama
Diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy causes congenital malformation, macrosomia, respiratory distress syndrome, and other abnormalities in neonates, but whether maternal DM affects the neonatal innate immune system is unknown. Therefore we aimed to reveal the influence of DM in pregnancy on the toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immune response in neonates. Cord blood was collected after full-term vaginal or cesarean delivery and classified into a DM group (n=8) and non-DM (control) group (n=7). Mononuclear cells were harvested from cord blood by using density gradient centrifugation, after which anti-CD14 magnetic beads were used to isolate monocytes from the mononuclear population...
September 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Javier Diaz-Castro, Mario Pulido-Moran, Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, Naroa Kajarabille, Catalina de Paco, Maria Garrido-Sanchez, Sonia Prados, Julio J Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Gender is a crucial determinant of life span, but little is known about gender differences in free radical homeostasis and inflammatory signaling. The aim of the study was to determine gender-related differences concerning oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling of healthy neonates and mothers. METHODS: Fifty-six mothers with normal gestational course and spontaneous delivery were selected. Blood samples were collected from the mother (at the beginning of delivery and start of expulsive period) and from neonate (from umbilical cord vein and artery)...
October 2016: Pediatric Research
Liang Zhang, Shuang Zhao, Lijie Yuan, Hongmin Wu, Hong Jiang, Gang Luo, Shimeng Zhao
Although supplemental high-level oxygen treatment can promote the survival of premature infants, hyperoxia may adversely induce acute lung injury (ALI) in newborns. Our prior work illustrated that hyperoxic exposure could enhance the release of placental growth factor (PLGF) in the lungs of neonatal rats. We therefore postulated that PLGF contributed to hyperoxic ALI in newborns and evaluated the anti-PLGF treatment mediated by systematic delivery of lentivirus in hyperoxic ALI in this study. Lentivirus particles containing PLGF specific shRNA were injected into neonatal rats prior to hyperoxic exposure (90% oxygen for 72h) to inhibit PLGF expression...
September 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Marta Lúcia Gabriel, Fernanda Braojos Braga, Mariana Rodero Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Lopes, Vânia Belintani Piatto, Antônio Soares Souza
BACKGROUND: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a frequent consequence of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Functional cytokine gene variants that result in altered production of inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin-1beta [IL-1β]) or anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10 [IL-10]) cytokines may modify disease processes, including PVL. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a relationship between the two proinflammatory polymorphisms (TNF-α-1031T/C and IL-1β-511C/T) and the anti-inflammatory polymorphism IL-10-1082G/A and PVL risk in Brazilian newborns with and without this injury...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
Futian Tang, Meili Lu, Lan Yu, Qiuning Wang, Meng Mei, Chonghua Xu, Ronghui Han, Jin Hu, Hongxin Wang, Yingjie Zhang
Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), a protopanaxadiol saponin extracted from Chinese medicine Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been demonstrated to inhibit the cardiac hypertrophy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition remains poorly understood. Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) mediated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) gets involved in the cardiac hypertrophy. This study is designed to investigate the effects and the potential mechanism of Rg1 on the abdominal aorta coarctation (AAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy with focus on TNF-α/NF-κB signaling pathway...
May 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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