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Immunology response neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488965/mild-to-moderate-foeto-maternal-haemorrhage-in-the-third-trimester-and-at-term-of-pregnancy-quantitative-determination-and-clinical-diagnostic-evaluation
#1
Fausta Beneventi, Chiara Cavagnoli, Elena Locatelli, Silvia Bariselli, Margherita Simonetta, Gianluca Viarengo, Cesare Perotti, Arsenio Spinillo
BACKGROUND: Foeto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH), a gestational event that occurs before or during delivery, consists of a loss of foetal blood into the maternal circulation. FMH occurs more frequently during the third trimester or labour both in normal and complicated pregnancies. In the case of alloimmunisation, the maternal immunological response and the severity of the resulting foetal or neonatal disease depend on the amount of foetal blood that passes into the maternal circulation. The aim of this study was to determine FMH in the third trimester and at term of pregnancy and to evaluate the role of clinical and ultrasound markers in the prediction of FMH...
April 19, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487557/humoral-cross-reactivity-between-zika-and-dengue-viruses-implications-for-protection-and-pathology
#2
REVIEW
Lalita Priyamvada, William Hudson, Rafi Ahmed, Jens Wrammert
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently caused extensive outbreaks in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Given its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and neurological and ocular malformities in neonates, ZIKV has become a pathogen of significant public health concern worldwide. ZIKV shares a considerable degree of genetic identity and structural homology with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). In particular, the surface glycoprotein envelope (E), which is involved in viral fusion and entry and is therefore a chief target for neutralizing antibody responses, contains regions that are highly conserved between the two viruses...
May 10, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464218/granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-from-human-cord-blood-modulate-t-helper-cell-response-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype
#3
Natascha Köstlin, Margit Vogelmann, Bärbel Spring, Julian Schwarz, Judith Feucht, Christoph Härtel, Thorsten W Orlikowsky, Christian F Poets, Christian Gille
Infections are a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The outstandingly high susceptibility to infections early in life is mainly attributable to the compromised state of the neonatal immune system. One important difference to the adult immune system is a bias towards T helper (Th) 2-responses in newborns. However, mechanisms regulating neonatal T-cell responses are yet incompletely understood. Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (GR-MDSC) are myeloid cells with a granulocytic phenotype that suppress various functions of other immune cells and accumulate under physiological conditions during pregnancy in maternal and foetal blood...
May 2, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459433/s100-alarmin-induced-innate-immune-programming-protects-newborn-infants-from-sepsis
#4
Thomas Ulas, Sabine Pirr, Beate Fehlhaber, Marie S Bickes, Torsten G Loof, Thomas Vogl, Lara Mellinger, Anna S Heinemann, Johanna Burgmann, Jennifer Schöning, Sabine Schreek, Sandra Pfeifer, Friederike Reuner, Lena Völlger, Martin Stanulla, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Shirin Glander, Katarzyna Barczyk-Kahlert, Constantin S von Kaisenberg, Judith Friesenhagen, Lena Fischer-Riepe, Stefanie Zenker, Joachim L Schultze, Johannes Roth, Dorothee Viemann
The high risk of neonatal death from sepsis is thought to result from impaired responses by innate immune cells; however, the clinical observation of hyperinflammatory courses of neonatal sepsis contradicts this concept. Using transcriptomic, epigenetic and immunological approaches, we demonstrated that high amounts of the perinatal alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 specifically altered MyD88-dependent proinflammatory gene programs. S100 programming prevented hyperinflammatory responses without impairing pathogen defense...
May 1, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434651/neonatal-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Andi L Shane, Pablo J Sánchez, Barbara J Stoll
Neonatal sepsis is the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. Precise estimates of neonatal sepsis burden vary by setting. Differing estimates of disease burden have been reported from high-income countries compared with reports from low-income and middle-income countries. The clinical manifestations range from subclinical infection to severe manifestations of focal or systemic disease. The source of the pathogen might be attributed to an in-utero infection, acquisition from maternal flora, or postnatal acquisition from the hospital or community...
April 20, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#6
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424287/protective-efficacy-of-formaldehyde-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccine-and-antivirals-in-a-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a10-infection
#7
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Juan Li, Michael J Carr, Dongming Zhuang, Jianxing Wang, Yawei Zhang, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). CVA10 infection can cause herpangina and viral pneumonia, which can be complicated by severe neurological sequelae. Morbidity and mortality of CVA10-associated HFMD has been increasing in recent years, particularly in the pan-Pacific region. There are limited studies however on the pathogenesis and immunology of CVA10-associated HFMD infections, and few antiviral drugs or vaccines have been reported...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378805/neonatal-mice-possess-two-phenotypically-and-functionally-distinct-lung-migratory-cd103-dendritic-cell-populations-following-respiratory-infection
#8
T J Ruckwardt, K M Morabito, E Bar-Haim, D Nair, B S Graham
The CD103(+) subset of lung-migratory dendritic cells (DCs) plays an important role in the generation of CD8(+) T cell responses following respiratory infection. Here, we demonstrate that the dependence on CD103(+) DCs for stimulation of RSV-specific T cells is both epitope and age-dependent. CD103(+) DCs in neonatal mice develop two phenotypically and functionally distinct populations following respiratory infection. Neonatal CD103(+) DCs expressing low levels of CD103 (CD103lo DCs) and other lineage and maturation markers including costimulatory molecules are phenotypically immature and functionally limited...
April 5, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362692/breast-milk-tgf%C3%AE-is-associated-with-neonatal-gut-microbial-composition
#9
Alexandra R Sitarik, Kevin R Bobbitt, Suzanne L Havstad, Kei E Fujimura, Albert M Levin, Edward M Zoratti, Haejin Kim, Kimberley J Woodcroft, Ganesa Wegienka, Dennis R Ownby, Christine L M Joseph, Susan V Lynch, Christine C Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Breast milk is a complex bioactive fluid that varies across numerous maternal and environmental conditions. While breastfeeding is known to impact neonatal gut microbiome, the milk components responsible for this effect are not well-characterized. Given the wide range of immunological activity breast milk cytokines engage in, we investigated three essential breast milk cytokines and their association with early life gut microbiota. METHODS: A total of 52 maternal-child pairs were drawn from a racially diverse birth cohort based in Detroit, Michigan...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326082/neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-otherwise-healthy-infants-failure-of-specific-neonatal-immune-responses
#10
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Jacques Fellay
Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318766/bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-at-birth-and-antibody-responses-to-childhood-vaccines-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#11
Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Nina Marie Birk, Gaby Smits, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Lone Graff Stensballe, Mihai G Netea, Fiona van der Klis, Christine Stabell Benn, Ole Pryds
INTRODUCTION: BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants...
March 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248119/familial-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-from-autopsy-to-prenatal-diagnosis-report-of-a%C3%A2-case
#12
Marta Ježová, Renata Gaillyová
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare immunologic disorder affecting small children. It is characterized by an excessive and injurious immune response which turns rapidly fatal unless promptly and effectively treated. The main clinical signs are prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bleeding and laboratory findings of pancytopenia, increased serum transaminases, hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia. Four genes responsible for familiar hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which is inherited in autosomal recessive manner, have been identified so far...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228275/rsv-takes-control-of-neonatal-breg-cells-two-hands-on-the-wheel
#13
Peter J M Openshaw
The viral attachment protein of RSV has many surprising features, especially its mimicry of fractalkine (CX3CL1). Zhivaki et al. (2017) now show that, in addition to using this homology to attach to ciliated cells, it activates human neonatal regulatory B cells, thereby inhibiting immunological responses.
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224678/microbiome-autoimmunity-allergy-and-helminth-infection-the-importance-of-the-pregnancy-period
#14
Xian Chen, Su Liu, Qiao Tan, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yong Zeng
Pregnancy is a special physical period in reproductive age women, which has a beneficial influence on the course of certain autoimmune diseases. It has been recently suggested that the microbiome undergoes profound changes during pregnancy that are associated with host physiological and immunological adaptations. The maternal microbiome remodeling during pregnancy is an active response of the mother, possibly to alter immune system status and to facilitate metabolic and immunological adaptations, which are needed for a successful pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224121/immunological-defects-in-neonatal-sepsis-and-potential-therapeutic-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Julie A Stortz, Juan C Mira, Shawn D Larson, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer
Despite advances in critical care medicine, neonatal sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with the greatest risk affecting very low birth weight, preterm neonates. The presentation of neonatal sepsis varies markedly from its presentation in adults, and there is no clear consensus definition of neonatal sepsis. Previous work has demonstrated that when neonates become septic, death can occur rapidly over a matter of hours or days and is generally associated with inflammation, organ injury, and respiratory failure...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223455/acute-fetal-demise-with-first-trimester-maternal-infection-resulting-from-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#16
Bryce Wolfe, Gregory J Wiepz, Michele Schotzko, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Maureen Durning, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Nancy G Faith, Emmanuel Sampene, Marulasiddappa Suresh, Sophia Kathariou, Charles J Czuprynski, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183352/combined-effect-of-bcg-vaccination-and-enriched-environment-promote-neurogenesis-and-spatial-cognition-via-a-shift-in-meningeal-macrophage-m2-polarization
#17
Fangfang Qi, Zejie Zuo, Junhua Yang, Saisai Hu, Yang Yang, Qunfang Yuan, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo, Zhibin Yao
BACKGROUND: The spatial learning abilities of developing mice benefit from extrinsic cues, such as an enriched environment, with concomitant enhancement in cognitive functions. Interestingly, such enhancements can be further increased through intrinsic Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. RESULTS: Here, we first report that combined neonatal BCG vaccination and exposure to an enriched environment (Enr) induced combined neurobeneficial effects, including hippocampal long-term potentiation, and increased neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory, in mice exposed to the Enr and vaccinated with BCG relative to those in the Enr that did not receive BCG vaccination...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129361/single-dose-caffeine-protects-the-neonatal-mouse-brain-against-hypoxia-ischemia
#18
Max Winerdal, Vijay Urmaliya, Malin E Winerdal, Bertil B Fredholm, Ola Winqvist, Ulrika Ådén
In this randomized blinded study, we investigated caffeine 5 mg/kg treatment given directly after neonatal brain hypoxia ischemia. Brain morphology, behavior and key brain infiltrating immune populations were examined. Caffeine treatment significantly improves outcome when compared to phosphate buffered saline. Flow cytometric analysis of immune responses revealed no persistent immunological alterations. Given its safety caffeine emerges as a candidate for neuroprotective intervention after neonatal brain injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044385/current-concepts-in-maternal-fetal-immunology-recognition-and-response-to-microbial-pathogens-by-decidual-stromal-cells
#19
REVIEW
Anjali P Anders, Jennifer A Gaddy, Ryan S Doster, David M Aronoff
Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammation of the gestational (extraplacental) membranes, most commonly caused by ascending microbial infection. It is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, and cerebral palsy. The decidua is the outermost layer of the gestational membranes and is likely an important initial site of contact with microbes during ascending infection. However, little is known about how decidual stromal cells (DSCs) respond to microbial threat. Defining the contributions of individual cell types to the complex medley of inflammatory signals during chorioamnionitis could lead to improved interventions aimed at halting this disease...
March 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041661/constant-light-exposure-impairs-immune-tolerance-development-in-mice
#20
Hiromi Mizutani, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Yoichi Minami, Kazuhiro Yagita, Norito Katoh
BACKGROUND: An intrinsic daily physiological rhythm called circadian rhythm has been indicated to affect the immune system and its related diseases. Immune tolerance development is closely associated with the onset of immunological disorders. However, the effect of circadian rhythm in the mechanisms of immune tolerance development has not yet been fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on the development of immune tolerance by the perturbation of light environment, using a mouse model of neonatally induced cutaneous tolerance...
April 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
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