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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702025/cellular-and-molecular-defects-underlying-invasive-fungal-infections-revelations-from-endemic-mycoses
#1
REVIEW
Pamela P Lee, Yu-Lung Lau
The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686909/unraveling-the-role-of-maternal-anti-hla-class-i-antibodies-in-fetal-and-neonatal-thrombocytopenia-antibody-specificity-analysis-using-epitope-data
#2
Jesper Dahl, Erle Refsum, Maria Therese Ahlen, Torstein Egeland, Tore Jensen, Marte K Viken, Tor Brynjar Stuge, Ganesh Acharya, Anne Husebekk, Bjørn Skogen, Heidi Tiller
Anti-HLA class I antibodies have been suggested as a possible cause of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The aim of this study was to characterize maternal anti-HLA class I alloantibodies in suspected cases of FNAIT. The study population consisted of all nationwide referrals of neonates with suspected FNAIT to the National Unit for Platelet Immunology in Tromsø, Norway, during 1998-2009 (cases), and 250 unselected pregnancies originally included in a prospective study (controls). Inclusion criterion was a positive screening for maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677152/significant-augmentation-of-regulatory-t-cell-numbers-occurs-during-the-early-neonatal-period
#3
Seiichi Hayakawa, Norioki Ohno, Satoshi Okada, Masao Kobayashi
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses by suppressing various inflammatory cells. Tregs in newborn babies may play an important role in preventing excessive immune responses during their environmental change. We examined the number and phenotype of Tregs during the neonatal period in 49 newborn babies. Tregs were characterized by flow cytometry using cord blood (CB) and peripheral blood (PB) from the early (7-8 days after birth) and late (2-4 weeks after birth) neonatal periods. CD4(+) Foxp3(+) T cells were classified into resting Tregs (CD45RA(+) Foxp3(low) ), activated Tregs (CD45RA(-) Foxp3(high) ), and newly activated T cells (CD45RA(-) Foxp3(low) )...
July 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673503/-thirty-years-of-platelet-immunology-in-fetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-management-current-situation
#4
R Petermann
Fetal and neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is considered as a rare disease due to the incidence (1/1000-1/2000 births). The major complication of severe thrombocytopenia is bleeding and particularly intra-cranial hemorrhage and neurologic sequelae following. Serology and molecular biology developments have reconfigured the platelet immunology diagnosis. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunisation is responsible for more than 80% FNAIT cases with a high recurrence rate of severe bleeding complications. Therapeutic management has changed over the coming years from an invasive concept associating fetal blood sampling and in utero platelet transfusion to a non invasive treatment by intravenous immunoglobulins injection (IVIg)...
June 30, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588575/gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-a-key-tissue-inside-the-mucosal-immune-system-of-hens-immunized-with-escherichia-coli-f4
#5
Maria F Peralta, Alejandra Magnoli, Fabrisio Alustiza, Armando Nilson, Raúl Miazzo, Adriana Vivas
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is the predominant antibody found in hen's (Gallus domesticus) egg yolk. This antibody, developed against several microorganisms in hen egg yolk, has been successfully used as an alternative to immunoglobulins from mammals for use in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E.coli) F4 is the main etiological agent associated with swine neonatal diarrhea, and it causes notable economic losses in swine production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between humoral immune response and the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in laying hens intramuscularly immunized with E...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559930/comparison-of-clinical-and-immunological-findings-in-gnotobiotic-piglets-infected-with-escherichia-coli-o104-h4-outbreak-strain-and-ehec-o157-h7
#6
Bettina Wöchtl, Florian Gunzer, Wilhelm Gerner, Hagen Gasse, Michaela Koch, Zoltán Bagó, Martin Ganter, Herbert Weissenböck, Nora Dinhopl, Sina M Coldewey, Alexandra von Altrock, Karl-Heinz Waldmann, Armin Saalmüller, Kurt Zimmermann, Jörg Steinmann, Jan Kehrmann, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Jochen Blom, Ralf Ehricht, Ines Engelmann, Isabel Hennig-Pauka
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) (STEC) is the most frequent cause of diarrhoea-positive haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D + HUS) in humans. In 2011, a huge outbreak with an STEC O104:H4 strain in Germany highlighted the limited possibilities for causative treatment of this syndrome. The responsible STEC strain was found to combine Stx production with adherence mechanisms normally found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Pathotypes of E. coli evolve and can exhibit different adhesion mechanisms...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488965/mild-to-moderate-foeto-maternal-haemorrhage-in-the-third-trimester-and-at-term-of-pregnancy-quantitative-determination-and-clinical-diagnostic-evaluation
#7
Fausta Beneventi, Chiara Cavagnoli, Elena Locatelli, Silvia Bariselli, Margherita Simonetta, Gianluca Viarengo, Cesare Perotti, Arsenio Spinillo
BACKGROUND: Foeto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH), a gestational event that occurs before or during delivery, consists of a loss of foetal blood into the maternal circulation. FMH occurs more frequently during the third trimester or labour both in normal and complicated pregnancies. In the case of alloimmunisation, the maternal immunological response and the severity of the resulting foetal or neonatal disease depend on the amount of foetal blood that passes into the maternal circulation. The aim of this study was to determine FMH in the third trimester and at term of pregnancy and to evaluate the role of clinical and ultrasound markers in the prediction of FMH...
April 19, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487557/humoral-cross-reactivity-between-zika-and-dengue-viruses-implications-for-protection-and-pathology
#8
REVIEW
Lalita Priyamvada, William Hudson, Rafi Ahmed, Jens Wrammert
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently caused extensive outbreaks in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Given its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and neurological and ocular malformities in neonates, ZIKV has become a pathogen of significant public health concern worldwide. ZIKV shares a considerable degree of genetic identity and structural homology with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). In particular, the surface glycoprotein envelope (E), which is involved in viral fusion and entry and is therefore a chief target for neutralizing antibody responses, contains regions that are highly conserved between the two viruses...
May 10, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464218/granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-from-human-cord-blood-modulate-t-helper-cell-response-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype
#9
Natascha Köstlin, Margit Vogelmann, Bärbel Spring, Julian Schwarz, Judith Feucht, Christoph Härtel, Thorsten W Orlikowsky, Christian F Poets, Christian Gille
Infections are a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The outstandingly high susceptibility to infections early in life is mainly attributable to the compromised state of the neonatal immune system. One important difference to the adult immune system is a bias towards T helper (Th) 2-responses in newborns. However, mechanisms regulating neonatal T-cell responses are yet incompletely understood. Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (GR-MDSC) are myeloid cells with a granulocytic phenotype that suppress various functions of other immune cells and accumulate under physiological conditions during pregnancy in maternal and foetal blood...
May 2, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459433/s100-alarmin-induced-innate-immune-programming-protects-newborn-infants-from-sepsis
#10
Thomas Ulas, Sabine Pirr, Beate Fehlhaber, Marie S Bickes, Torsten G Loof, Thomas Vogl, Lara Mellinger, Anna S Heinemann, Johanna Burgmann, Jennifer Schöning, Sabine Schreek, Sandra Pfeifer, Friederike Reuner, Lena Völlger, Martin Stanulla, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Shirin Glander, Katarzyna Barczyk-Kahlert, Constantin S von Kaisenberg, Judith Friesenhagen, Lena Fischer-Riepe, Stefanie Zenker, Joachim L Schultze, Johannes Roth, Dorothee Viemann
The high risk of neonatal death from sepsis is thought to result from impaired responses by innate immune cells; however, the clinical observation of hyperinflammatory courses of neonatal sepsis contradicts this concept. Using transcriptomic, epigenetic and immunological approaches, we demonstrated that high amounts of the perinatal alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 specifically altered MyD88-dependent proinflammatory gene programs. S100 programming prevented hyperinflammatory responses without impairing pathogen defense...
June 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434651/neonatal-sepsis
#11
REVIEW
Andi L Shane, Pablo J Sánchez, Barbara J Stoll
Neonatal sepsis is the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. Precise estimates of neonatal sepsis burden vary by setting. Differing estimates of disease burden have been reported from high-income countries compared with reports from low-income and middle-income countries. The clinical manifestations range from subclinical infection to severe manifestations of focal or systemic disease. The source of the pathogen might be attributed to an in-utero infection, acquisition from maternal flora, or postnatal acquisition from the hospital or community...
April 20, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#12
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424287/protective-efficacies-of-formaldehyde-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccine-and-antivirals-in-a-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a10-infection
#13
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Juan Li, Michael J Carr, Dongming Zhuang, Jianxing Wang, Yawei Zhang, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). CVA10 infection can cause herpangina and viral pneumonia, which can be complicated by severe neurological sequelae. The morbidity and mortality of CVA10-associated HFMD have been increasing in recent years, particularly in the pan-Pacific region. There are limited studies, however, on the pathogenesis and immunology of CVA10-associated HFMD infections, and few antiviral drugs or vaccines have been reported...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378805/neonatal-mice-possess-two-phenotypically-and-functionally-distinct-lung-migratory-cd103-dendritic-cell-populations-following-respiratory-infection
#14
T J Ruckwardt, K M Morabito, E Bar-Haim, D Nair, B S Graham
The CD103(+) subset of lung-migratory dendritic cells (DCs) plays an important role in the generation of CD8(+) T cell responses following respiratory infection. Here, we demonstrate that the dependence on CD103(+) DCs for stimulation of RSV-specific T cells is both epitope and age-dependent. CD103(+) DCs in neonatal mice develop two phenotypically and functionally distinct populations following respiratory infection. Neonatal CD103(+) DCs expressing low levels of CD103 (CD103lo DCs) and other lineage and maturation markers including costimulatory molecules are phenotypically immature and functionally limited...
April 5, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362692/breast-milk-tgf%C3%AE-is-associated-with-neonatal-gut-microbial-composition
#15
Alexandra R Sitarik, Kevin R Bobbitt, Suzanne L Havstad, Kei E Fujimura, Albert M Levin, Edward M Zoratti, Haejin Kim, Kimberley J Woodcroft, Ganesa Wegienka, Dennis R Ownby, Christine L M Joseph, Susan V Lynch, Christine C Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Breast milk is a complex bioactive fluid that varies across numerous maternal and environmental conditions. While breastfeeding is known to impact neonatal gut microbiome, the milk components responsible for this effect are not well-characterized. Given the wide range of immunological activity breast milk cytokines engage in, we investigated three essential breast milk cytokines and their association with early life gut microbiota. METHODS: A total of 52 maternal-child pairs were drawn from a racially diverse birth cohort based in Detroit, Michigan...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326082/neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-otherwise-healthy-infants-failure-of-specific-neonatal-immune-responses
#16
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Jacques Fellay
Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318766/bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-at-birth-and-antibody-responses-to-childhood-vaccines-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#17
Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Nina Marie Birk, Gaby Smits, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Lone Graff Stensballe, Mihai G Netea, Fiona van der Klis, Christine Stabell Benn, Ole Pryds
INTRODUCTION: BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants...
April 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248119/familial-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-from-autopsy-to-prenatal-diagnosis-report-of-a%C3%A2-case
#18
Marta Ježová, Renata Gaillyová
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare immunologic disorder affecting small children. It is characterized by an excessive and injurious immune response which turns rapidly fatal unless promptly and effectively treated. The main clinical signs are prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bleeding and laboratory findings of pancytopenia, increased serum transaminases, hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia. Four genes responsible for familiar hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which is inherited in autosomal recessive manner, have been identified so far...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228275/rsv-takes-control-of-neonatal-breg-cells-two-hands-on-the-wheel
#19
Peter J M Openshaw
The viral attachment protein of RSV has many surprising features, especially its mimicry of fractalkine (CX3CL1). Zhivaki et al. (2017) now show that, in addition to using this homology to attach to ciliated cells, it activates human neonatal regulatory B cells, thereby inhibiting immunological responses.
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224678/microbiome-autoimmunity-allergy-and-helminth-infection-the-importance-of-the-pregnancy-period
#20
Xian Chen, Su Liu, Qiao Tan, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yong Zeng
Pregnancy is a special physical period in reproductive age women, which has a beneficial influence on the course of certain autoimmune diseases. It has been recently suggested that the microbiome undergoes profound changes during pregnancy that are associated with host physiological and immunological adaptations. The maternal microbiome remodeling during pregnancy is an active response of the mother, possibly to alter immune system status and to facilitate metabolic and immunological adaptations, which are needed for a successful pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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