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Immunology response neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287940/many-layers-of-embryonic-hematopoiesis-new-insights-into-b-cell-ontogeny-and-the-origin-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#1
Brandon Hadland, Momoko Yoshimoto
In adult hematopoiesis, the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) sits at the top of a hierarchy of hematopoietic progenitors responsible for generating the diverse repertoire of blood and immune cells. During embryonic development, however, the initial waves of hematopoiesis provide the first functioning blood cells of the developing embryo, such as primitive erythrocytes arising in the yolk sac, independently of HSC. In the field of developmental immunology, it has been recognized that some components of the immune system, such as B-1a lymphocytes, are uniquely produced during the embryonic and neonatal period, suggesting a "layered" development of immunity...
December 26, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278644/endothelial-cells-of-extremely-premature-infants-display-impaired-immune-response-after-proinflammatory-stimulation
#2
Lukas Wisgrill, Martina Muck, Isabelle Wessely, Angelika Berger, Andreas Spittler, Elisabeth Förster-Waldl, Kambis Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cells (ECs) exert immunological functions such as production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines as well as facilitation of extravasation of immune cells into infected tissue. Limited data are available on the functionality of ECs from extremely preterm neonates during infection. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to investigate the immune response of premature ECs after proinflammatory stimulation. METHODS: Cell adhesion receptors expression and function, NFkB-signaling and chemokine production were analyzed in umbilical cord ECs from extremely preterm and term neonates after proinflammatory stimulation...
August 21, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250560/pulmonary-susceptibility-of-neonates-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-a-problem-of-innate-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Carole Drajac, Daphné Laubreton, Sabine Riffault, Delphyne Descamps
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious viral agent responsible for acute lower respiratory infection in infants. This pathology characterized by mucus hypersecretion and a disturbed T cell immune response is one of the major causes of infant hospitalization for severe bronchiolitis. Although different risk factors are associated with acute RSV bronchiolitis, the immunological factors contributing to the susceptibility of RSV infection in infants are not clearly elucidated...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232932/adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes
#4
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229361/a-literature-review-on-maternal-fetal-and-reproductive-disorders-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#5
REVIEW
Shirzad Fallahi, Ali Rostami, Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Hamed Behniafar, Shahrokh Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211052/maternal-vaccination-immunization-of-sows-during-pregnancy-against-etec-infections
#6
REVIEW
Jose Matías, Melibea Berzosa, Yadira Pastor, Juan M Irache, Carlos Gamazo
The immunology of pregnancy is an evolving consequence of multiple reciprocal interactions between the maternal and the fetal-placental systems. The immune response must warrant the pregnancy outcome (including tolerance to paternal antigens), but at the same time, efficiently respond to pathogenic challenges. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. This review aims to give an overview of the current rationale on the maternal vaccination strategies for the protection of the newborn pig against ETEC...
December 6, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204137/microbial-mechanistic-insight-into-the-role-of-inulin-in-improving-maternal-health-in-a-pregnant-sow-model
#7
Pan Zhou, Yang Zhao, Pan Zhang, Yan Li, Taotao Gui, Jun Wang, Chao Jin, Lianqiang Che, Jian Li, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
General consumption of "western diet" characterized by high refined carbohydrates, fat and energy intake has resulted in a global obesity epidemics and related metabolic disturbance even for pregnant women. Pregnancy process is accompanied by substantial hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes during which gut microbiota is also remarkably remodeled. Dietary fiber has been demonstrated to have a striking role in shifting the microbial composition so as to improve host metabolism and health in non-pregnant individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197124/breast-milk-cells-trafficking-induces-microchimerism-mediated-immune-system-maturation-in-the-infant
#8
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Molès, Edouard Tuaillon, Chipepo Kankasa, Anne-Sophie Bedin, Nicolas Nagot, Arnaud Marchant, Joann M McDermid, Philippe Van de Perre
Initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life confers an important benefit in terms of child mortality and severe morbidity. Intestinal permeability to ingested macromolecules and immunoglobulins is limited to the first days of human life. These exchanges cease in the very early post-partum period but may increase beyond the neonatal period in response to local inflammation or introduction of a weaning food. From animal- and limited human-based observations, compelling evidence points out to breast milk cells also trafficking from mother to infant mucosal tissues and participating to the maternal microchimerism...
December 2, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166972/long-term-sex-differential-effects-of-neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-in-vitro-cytokine-responses
#9
Kristoffer J Jensen, Mia J Søndergaard, Andreas Andersen, Cesario Martins, Christian Erikstrup, Peter Aaby, Katie L Flanagan, Christine Stabell Benn
High-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may affect mortality to infectious diseases in a sex-differential manner. Here, we analysed the long-term immunological effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in 247 children, who had been randomly allocated to 50 000 or 25 000 IU vitamin A (15mg and 7·5mg retinol equivalents, respectively) or placebo at birth. At 4-6 months of age, we assessed bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scarification, and we analysed in vitro responses of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ in whole blood stimulations to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128634/vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-polymorphisms-are-associated-to-spontaneous-preterm-birth-and-maternal-aspects
#10
N R Javorski, C A D Lima, L V C Silva, S Crovella, J de Azêvedo Silva
Preterm birth (PTB) is featured by less than 37weeks of gestational age or fewer than 259days since the first day from the last menstrual period. Complications of PTB are the major cause of neonatal deaths, several factors are linked to PTB increased risk including immunological and genetics. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune response modulation and its action occurs through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which recently has been described as overexpressed in human placenta during the pregnancy. Herein we assessed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI (rs2228570 A>G) and Cdx-2 (rs11568820 T>C), within VDR, using TaqMan fluorogenic probes, and differential susceptibility to SPTB...
November 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#11
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115600/messenger-rna-sequencing-reveals-similar-mechanisms-between-neonatal-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
Hua Mei, Yuheng Zhang, Chunzhi Liu, Yayu Zhang, Chunli Liu, Dan Song, Chun Xin, Jing Wang, Jonathan Josephs-Spaulding, Yan Zhu, Feng Tang
Hypoxemia and hypercarbia resulting from a lack of surfactant is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Surfactant replacement therapy may mitigate the symptoms of the disease by decreasing the surface tension of alveoli and facilitating inflation. However, surfactant serves an additional role in immunological processes. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that mechanisms of NRDS involving surfactant exert additional functions to promoting alveolar inflation...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947540/in-utero-exposure-to-histological-chorioamnionitis-primes-the-exometabolomic-profiles-of-preterm-cd4-t-lymphocytes
#13
Poojitha Matta, Stacy D Sherrod, Christina C Marasco, Daniel J Moore, John A McLean, Joern-Hendrik Weitkamp
Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an intrauterine inflammatory condition that increases the risk for preterm birth, death, and disability because of persistent systemic and localized inflammation. The immunological mechanisms sustaining this response in the preterm newborn remain unclear. We sought to determine the consequences of HCA exposure on the fetal CD4(+) T lymphocyte exometabolome. We cultured naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes from HCA-positive and -negative preterm infants matched for gestational age, sex, race, prenatal steroid exposure, and delivery mode...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893638/innate-immune-responses-play-a-key-role-in-controlling-infection-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-cryptosporidium
#14
REVIEW
Fabrice Laurent, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé
Cryptosporidium infection leads to acute diarrhea worldwide. The development of cryptosporidiosis is closely related to the immune status of its host, affecting primarily young ruminants, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. In recent years, several studies have improved our knowledge on the immune mechanisms responsible for the control of the acute phase of the infection and have highlighted the importance of innate immunity. The parasite develops in the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells, giving these cells a central role, as they are both the exclusive host cell for replication of the parasite and participate in the protective immune response...
October 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878017/structural-basis-for-ph-insensitive-inhibition-of-immunoglobulin-g-recycling-by-an-anti-neonatal-fc-receptor-antibody
#15
Jon A Kenniston, Brandy M Taylor, Gregory P Conley, Janja Cosic, Kris J Kopacz, Allison P Lindberg, Stephen R Comeau, Kateri Atkins, Jameson Bullen, Christopher TenHoor, Burt A Adelman, Daniel J Sexton, Thomas E Edwards, Andrew E Nixon
The neonatal Fc receptor FcRn plays a critical role in the trafficking of IgGs across tissue barriers and in retaining high circulating concentrations of both IgG and albumin. Although generally beneficial from an immunological perspective in maintaining IgG populations, FcRn can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders when an abnormal immune response targets normal biological components. We previously described a monoclonal antibody (DX-2507) that binds to FcRn with high affinity at both neutral and acidic pH, prevents the simultaneous binding of IgG, and reduces circulating IgG levels in preclinical animal models...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827481/breast-milk-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-is-associated-with-neonatal-gut-microbial-composition
#16
Alexandra R Sitarik, Kevin R Bobbitt, Suzanne L Havstad, Kei E Fujimura, Albert M Levin, Edward M Zoratti, Haejin Kim, Kimberley J Woodcroft, Ganesa Wegienka, Dennis R Ownby, Christine L M Joseph, Susan V Lynch, Christine C Johnson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Breast milk is a complex bioactive fluid that varies across numerous maternal and environmental conditions. Although breast-feeding is known to affect neonatal gut microbiome, the milk components responsible for this effect are not well-characterized. Given the wide range of immunological activity breast milk cytokines engage in, we investigated 3 essential breast milk cytokines and their association with early life gut microbiota. METHODS: A total of 52 maternal-child pairs were drawn from a racially diverse birth cohort based in Detroit, Michigan...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798335/cd71-erythroid-suppressor-cells-impair-adaptive-immunity-against-bordetella-pertussis
#17
Afshin Namdar, Petya Koleva, Shima Shahbaz, Stacy Strom, Volker Gerdts, Shokrollah Elahi
Infant's immune system cannot control infection or respond to vaccination as efficiently as older individuals, a phenomenon that has been attributed to immunological immaturity. Recently, we challenged this notion and proposed the presence of actively immunosuppressive and physiologically enriched CD71(+) erythroid cells in neonates. Here we utilized Bordetella pertussis, a common neonatal respiratory tract pathogen, as a proof of concept to investigate the role of these cells in adaptive immunity. We observed that CD71(+) cells have distinctive immunosuppressive properties and prevent recruitment of immune cells to the mucosal site of infection...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702025/cellular-and-molecular-defects-underlying-invasive-fungal-infections-revelations-from-endemic-mycoses
#18
REVIEW
Pamela P Lee, Yu-Lung Lau
The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686909/unraveling-the-role-of-maternal-anti-hla-class-i-antibodies-in-fetal-and-neonatal-thrombocytopenia-antibody-specificity-analysis-using-epitope-data
#19
Jesper Dahl, Erle Refsum, Maria Therese Ahlen, Torstein Egeland, Tore Jensen, Marte K Viken, Tor Brynjar Stuge, Ganesh Acharya, Anne Husebekk, Bjørn Skogen, Heidi Tiller
Anti-HLA class I antibodies have been suggested as a possible cause of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The aim of this study was to characterize maternal anti-HLA class I alloantibodies in suspected cases of FNAIT. The study population consisted of all nationwide referrals of neonates with suspected FNAIT to the National Unit for Platelet Immunology in Tromsø, Norway, during 1998-2009 (cases), and 250 unselected pregnancies originally included in a prospective study (controls). Inclusion criterion was a positive screening for maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677152/significant-augmentation-of-regulatory-t-cell-numbers-occurs-during-the-early-neonatal-period
#20
S Hayakawa, N Ohno, S Okada, M Kobayashi
Regulatory T cells (Tregs ) control immune responses by suppressing various inflammatory cells. Tregs in newborn babies may play an important role in preventing excessive immune responses during their environmental change. We examined the number and phenotype of Tregs during the neonatal period in 49 newborn babies. Tregs were characterized by flow cytometry using cord blood (CB) and peripheral blood (PB) from the early (7-8 days after birth) and late (2-4 weeks after birth) neonatal periods. CD4(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3(+) ) T cells were classified into resting Tregs (CD45RA(+) FoxP3(low) ), activated Tregs (CD45RA(-) FoxP3(high) ) and newly activated T cells (CD45RA(-) FoxP3(low) )...
November 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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