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Immunology response neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761581/congenital-zika-syndrome-pitfalls-in-the-placental-barrier
#1
REVIEW
Nia Robinson, Evangelina E Mayorquin Galvan, Isidro G Zavala Trujillo, Maria G Zavala-Cerna
Much progress with respect to congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis has been achieved after the 2015 outbreak in Brazil. It is now accepted that ZIKV is vertically transmitted, infects cells of the developing central nervous system and the placenta, yet it is unclear to what extent placental affection contributes to the development of congenital ZIKV. The association between fulminant villitis and severe fetal involvement emerges as a possibility. ZIKV is unique among the Flaviviruses in its ability to be sexually transmitted, possibly responsible for its teratogenicity...
May 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750386/saliva-in-the-omics-era-a-promising-tool-in-paediatrics
#2
Eftychia Pappa, Eleni Kousvelari, Heleni Vastardis
In vulnerable populations, such as infants and children, saliva makes the perfect diagnostic medium because of its non-invasive collection, easy handling and storage of samples. Its unique biomarker profiles help tremendously in the diagnosis of many diseases and conditions. In fact, saliva genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and microbiome-based discoveries have led to complementary and powerful diagnostic information. In children and neonates, saliva is the preferred medium not only for diagnosis of caries and aggressive periodontitis but also for a number of systemic conditions, metabolic diseases, cognitive functions, stress assessment and evaluation of immunological and inflammatory responses to vaccination...
May 11, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694997/role-of-lactoferrin-in-neonates-and-infants-an-update
#3
Paolo Manzoni, Alberto Dall'Agnola, Daniel Tomé, David A Kaufman, Elena Tavella, Marta Pieretto, Alessandro Messina, Daniele De Luca, Marc Bellaiche, Alexis Mosca, Hugues Piloquet, Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Charles Picaud, Antonio Del Vecchio
Lactoferrin is one of the most represented and important bioactive proteins in human and mammal milk. In humans, lactoferrin is responsible for several actions targeting anti-infective, immunological, and gastrointestinal domains in neonates, infants, and young children. Evidence-based data vouch for the ability of supplemented lactoferrin to prevent sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and to reduce the burden of morbidity related to gastrointestinal and respiratory pathogens in young children...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630015/maternal-pyrexia-and-villitis-of-unknown-etiology
#4
Dorothy F Graham, Eileen Sung, Bligh Berry
BACKGROUND: Villitis of unknown etiology is an inflammatory placental condition associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. CASE: We describe maternal pyrexia with daily rigors in the third trimester of two consecutive pregnancies in the same woman. In her second pregnancy, we found no evidence of infection despite an extensive antenatal investigation (blood and urine cultures, serologies, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonogram, echocardiogram)...
May 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596733/skin-barrier-in-the-neonate
#5
Alain Taïeb
The purpose of this review is to focus on determinants of skin barrier function in neonates at molecular and cellular levels. The skin barrier is critical in terms of water and gas exchanges during fetal life and undergoes rapid changes at birth, followed by a progressive maturation. Consequences of skin barrier disruption can be extremely detrimental or lethal, as shown in severe genetic epidermal defects. In this context, the fine-tuned rapid adaptation from a liquid to a gaseous milieu is not fully understood...
March 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577885/primary-microglia-isolation-from-mixed-cell-cultures-of-neonatal-mouse-brain-tissue
#6
Jérôme Roy
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the main resident immunological cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that are functionally equivalent to macrophages. However, due to the cellular heterogeneity of the brain, it is technically challenging to obtain highly specific, healthy microglia with the desired phenotype in sufficient yield for in vivo experiments. NEW METHOD: This study presents a new and easy method for the isolation of microglia cells from mouse pups (P1-P3)...
March 22, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552016/-in-utero-exposure-to-exosomal-and-b-cell-alloantigens-lessens-alloreactivity-of-recipients-lymphocytes-rather-than-confers-allograft-tolerance
#7
Jeng-Chang Chen, Liang-Shiou Ou, Cheng-Chi Chan, Ming-Ling Kuo, Li-Yun Tseng, Hsueh-Ling Chang
According to actively acquired tolerance, antigen exposure before full immune development in fetal or early neonatal life will cause tolerance to this specific antigen. In this study, we aimed to examine whether allogeneic tolerance could be elicited by in utero exposure to surface MHC antigens of allogenic cells or soluble form of MHC exosomes. Gestational day 14 FVB/N fetuses were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exosomes or highly enriched B-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533463/parturition-and-the-perinatal-period-can-mode-of-delivery-impact-on-the-future-health-of-the-neonate
#8
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world for a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology from those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and cardio-metabolic morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesized that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488063/deficit-of-igg2-in-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-is-responsible-of-inadequate-igg2-levels-in-their-hiv-uninfected-children-in-malawi
#9
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Sandro Mancinelli, Robert Mphwere, Enok Bokola, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Leonardo Palombi, Francesca Lucaroni, Marina Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Transplacental passage of IgGs is impaired in HIV + pregnant women, possibly determining an inadequate immunological protection in their children. We aimed to determine the impact of maternal immunological IgG profile and immunoactivation status on the efficiency of transplacental passage of IgG subclasses in HIV + mothers. METHODS: 16 mother/infants pairs were studied in Malawi. Mothers received antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the third trimester of pregnancy...
February 27, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474132/who-s-the-target-mother-or-baby
#10
Alisa Kachikis, Linda O Eckert, Janet Englund
Maternal immunization for prevention of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and their neonates due to infectious diseases is ongoing worldwide. The complexity of vaccine research and development in this population is challenging. Not only do vaccines for pregnant women require evidence of immunogenicity, potency, stability, and limited reactogenicity, they must also provide efficacy in decreasing morbidity for the pregnant woman, her fetus, and the neonate, demonstrate safety or lack of evidence of harm, and offer benefit or potential benefit of vaccination during pregnancy...
March 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444822/the-protein-kinase-perk-eif2ak3-regulates-proinsulin-processing-not-via-protein-synthesis-but-by-controlling-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones
#11
Carrie R Sowers, Rong Wang, Rebecca A Bourne, Barbara C McGrath, Jingjie Hu, Sarah C Bevilacqua, James C Paton, Adrienne W Paton, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon, Marc Nicolino, Douglas R Cavener
Loss-of-function mutations of the protein kinase PERK (EIF2AK3) in humans and mice cause permanent neonatal diabetes and severe proinsulin aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), highlighting the essential role of PERK in insulin production in pancreatic β cells. As PERK is generally known as a translational regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), the underlying cause of these β cell defects has often been attributed to derepression of proinsulin synthesis, resulting in proinsulin overload in the ER...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416539/adjuvant-effect-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-on-hepatitis-b-vaccine-immunogenicity-in-the-preterm-and-term-newborn
#12
Annette Scheid, Francesco Borriello, Carlo Pietrasanta, Helen Christou, Joann Diray-Arce, Matthew A Pettengill, Sweta Joshi, Ning Li, Ilana Bergelson, Tobias Kollmann, David J Dowling, Ofer Levy
Immunization is key to protecting term and preterm infants from a heightened risk of infection. However, preterm immunity is distinct from that of the term, limiting its ability to effectively respond to vaccines routinely given at birth, such as hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). As part of the Expanded Program on Immunization, HBV is often given together with the live-attenuated vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), known to activate multiple pattern-recognition receptors. Of note, some clinical studies suggest BCG can enhance efficacy of other vaccines in term newborns...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336924/immunization-of-preterm-infants-with-gsk-s-hexavalent-combined-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-b-inactivated-poliovirus-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccine-a-review-of-safety-and-immunogenicity
#13
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287940/many-layers-of-embryonic-hematopoiesis-new-insights-into-b-cell-ontogeny-and-the-origin-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#14
Brandon Hadland, Momoko Yoshimoto
In adult hematopoiesis, the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) sits at the top of a hierarchy of hematopoietic progenitors responsible for generating the diverse repertoire of blood and immune cells. During embryonic development, however, the initial waves of hematopoiesis provide the first functioning blood cells of the developing embryo, such as primitive erythrocytes arising in the yolk sac, independently of HSCs. In the field of developmental immunology, it has been recognized that some components of the immune system, such as B-1a lymphocytes, are uniquely produced during the embryonic and neonatal period, suggesting a "layered" development of immunity...
April 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278644/endothelial-cells-of-extremely-premature-infants-display-impaired-immune-response-after-proinflammatory-stimulation
#15
Lukas Wisgrill, Martina Muck, Isabelle Wessely, Angelika Berger, Andreas Spittler, Elisabeth Förster-Waldl, Kambis Sadeghi
BackgroundEndothelial cells (ECs) exert immunological functions such as production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines as well as facilitation of extravasation of immune cells into infected tissue. Limited data are available on the functionality of ECs from extremely preterm neonates during infection. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to investigate the immune response of premature ECs after proinflammatory stimulation.MethodsCell adhesion receptors' expression and function, nuclear factor 'kappa-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B-cells (NFκB) signaling, and chemokine production were analyzed in umbilical cord ECs from extremely preterm and term neonates after proinflammatory stimulation...
January 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250560/pulmonary-susceptibility-of-neonates-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-a-problem-of-innate-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Carole Drajac, Daphné Laubreton, Sabine Riffault, Delphyne Descamps
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious viral agent responsible for acute lower respiratory infection in infants. This pathology characterized by mucus hypersecretion and a disturbed T cell immune response is one of the major causes of infant hospitalization for severe bronchiolitis. Although different risk factors are associated with acute RSV bronchiolitis, the immunological factors contributing to the susceptibility of RSV infection in infants are not clearly elucidated...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232932/adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229361/an-updated-literature-review-on-maternal-fetal-and-reproductive-disorders-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#18
REVIEW
S Fallahi, A Rostami, M Nourollahpour Shiadeh, H Behniafar, S Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
March 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211052/maternal-vaccination-immunization-of-sows-during-pregnancy-against-etec-infections
#19
REVIEW
Jose Matías, Melibea Berzosa, Yadira Pastor, Juan M Irache, Carlos Gamazo
The immunology of pregnancy is an evolving consequence of multiple reciprocal interactions between the maternal and the fetal-placental systems. The immune response must warrant the pregnancy outcome (including tolerance to paternal antigens), but at the same time, efficiently respond to pathogenic challenges. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. This review aims to give an overview of the current rationale on the maternal vaccination strategies for the protection of the newborn pig against ETEC...
December 6, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204137/microbial-mechanistic-insight-into-the-role-of-inulin-in-improving-maternal-health-in-a-pregnant-sow-model
#20
Pan Zhou, Yang Zhao, Pan Zhang, Yan Li, Taotao Gui, Jun Wang, Chao Jin, Lianqiang Che, Jian Li, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
General consumption of "western diet" characterized by high refined carbohydrates, fat and energy intake has resulted in a global obesity epidemics and related metabolic disturbance even for pregnant women. Pregnancy process is accompanied by substantial hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes during which gut microbiota is also remarkably remodeled. Dietary fiber has been demonstrated to have a striking role in shifting the microbial composition so as to improve host metabolism and health in non-pregnant individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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