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Tnf physiology and neonates

Virginia Mela, Oskarina Hernandez, Caroline Hunsche, Francisca Diaz, Julie A Chowen, Mónica De la Fuente
The importance of the neonatal leptin surge in rodents in neurodevelopmental processes has aroused curiosity in its implication in other physiological systems. Given the role of leptin in neuro-immune interactions, we hypothesized that the neonatal leptin surge could have an effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress situations of both systems. We blocked the neonatal leptin surge by a leptin antagonist and measured several parameters of oxidative and inflammatory stress in the spleen, hypothalamus and adipose tissue of peripubertal/adolescent rats...
October 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
C E Fernandez, R W Yen, S M Perez, H W Bedell, T J Povsic, W M Reichert, G A Truskey
In vitro human tissue engineered human blood vessels (TEBV) that exhibit vasoactivity can be used to test human toxicity of pharmaceutical drug candidates prior to pre-clinical animal studies. TEBVs with 400-800 μM diameters were made by embedding human neonatal dermal fibroblasts or human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dense collagen gel. TEBVs were mechanically strong enough to allow endothelialization and perfusion at physiological shear stresses within 3 hours after fabrication. After 1 week of perfusion, TEBVs exhibited endothelial release of nitric oxide, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction, and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation, all of which were maintained up to 5 weeks in culture...
February 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Radhika Nagamangalam Shridharan, Harshini Krishnagiri, Vijayakumar Govindaraj, SitiKantha Sarangi, Addicam Jagannadha Rao
The sexually dimorphic organization in perinatal rat brain is influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to high levels of estrogen or endocrine-disrupting compounds during perinatal period may perturb this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior as observed in adult In our recent observation neonatal exposure of the female rats to estradiol-17β resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α, up-regulation of COX-2 and increase in SDN-POA size in pre-optic area in the adulthood. It is known that the control of reproductive performance in female involves a complex interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary...
February 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Michael M Espiritu, Hong Lin, Elizabeth Foley, Valerie Tsang, Eunice Rhee, Jeffrey Perlman, Susanna Cunningham-Rundles
Neonatal immune response is characterized by an uncompensated pro-inflammatory response that can lead to inflammation-related morbidity and increased susceptibility to infection. We investigated the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) pre-treatment on cytokine secretion to low-concentration endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in THP-1 monocytes and neonatal cord blood (CB) from healthy full-term infants. Pre-treatment of THP-1 cells, with either n-3 PUFA at 25 or 100 μM significantly reduced IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 secretion while DHA, but not EPA, reduced TNF-α response to LPS...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Jian Yang, Lihua Chen, Jiawang Ding, Jing Zhang, Zhixing Fan, Chaojun Yang, Qinqin Yu, Jun Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of pathological and physiological processes in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). Recent studies have revealed that miR-22 might provide a potential cardioprotective effect on ischemic heart disease. However, the mechanism by which miR-22 prevents MI/R is still not fully clear. Here, we investigated the role of miR-22 in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte injury. MI/R was simulated in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with 2h hypoxia followed by 4h reoxygenation...
March 15, 2016: Gene
Qingqing Li, Fangfang Qi, Junhua Yang, Luwen Zhang, Huaiyu Gu, Juntao Zou, Qunfang Yuan, Zhibin Yao
Immune activation can exert multiple effects on synaptic transmission. Our study demonstrates the influence of neonatal vaccination on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats under normal physiological conditions. The results revealed that neonatal BCG vaccination enhanced synaptic plasticity. In contrast, HBV hampered it. Furthermore, we found that the cytokine balance shifted in favour of the T helper type 1/T helper type 2 immune response in BCG/HBV-vaccinated rats in the periphery. The peripheral IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio was positively correlated with BDNF and IGF-1 in the hippocampus...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Shinsmon Jose, Shi Wei Tan, Chih Kong Tong, Sharmili Vidyadaran
Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Apart from playing vital roles as sentinel cells, they are crucial in physiological processes such as synaptic pruning during brain development. CNS disorders require an understanding of the contribution of each cellular compartment to the pathogenesis. Elucidating the role of microglia in disease development and progression in the intricate CNS environment is technically challenging and requires the establishment of reliable, reproducible techniques to isolate and culture microglia...
December 2015: Cell Biology International
Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Takeshi Iwasa, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Takako Kawami, Takeshi Kato, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
Some physiological functions display weak responses to stress in the early neonatal period; i.e., they exhibit stress hyporesponse periods. In this study, we evaluated whether gonadotropin regulatory factors exhibit stress hyporesponsive periods in male and female rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (100μg/kg) (LPS group) or saline (control group) on postnatal day (PND) 5, 10, 15, or 25. Then, their serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hypothalamic mRNA levels of gonadotropin regulatory factors; i...
November 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Hongguang Chen, Min Wang, Aihong Jiao, Guotai Tang, Wei Zhu, Peng Zou, Tuo Li, Guangqiang Cui, Peiyou Gong
Whether Aβ actually has a physiological as well as a pathological role is not known. In order to investigate the effect of endogenous Aβ, wild type C57BL/6 mice were immunized with human or mouse derived Aβ1-42. The anti-Aβ antibody concentrations were increased in both treated groups. Compared to the human Aβ1-42 treated group, level of serum Aβ significantly decreased in mouse Aβ1-42 treated group. Western blot results revealed that these two derived Aβ1-42 had no cross-reaction. The new dentate granule survival cells increased in Aβ1-42 immunization groups, indicated by more BrdU+/NeuN+ and BrdU+/DCX+ cells as compared to PBS-treated group, accompanied by behavioral performance improving in a hippocampus-dependent learning task...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Liang Hu, Yan Liu, Chuan Yan, Xie Peng, Qin Xu, Yue Xuan, Fei Han, Gang Tian, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Keying Zhang, Daiwen Chen, De Wu, Lianqiang Che
Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d...
July 14, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Joris R Delanghe, Marijn M Speeckaert
As neonatal sepsis is a severe condition, there is a call for reliable biomarkers to differentiate between infected and noninfected newborns. Although blood culture has been considered as the gold standard, this analysis is still too slow and limited by false negative results. Use of CRP is hampered by a physiological 3-day increase, resulting in a low sensitivity to detect sepsis at an early stage. A moderate diagnostic accuracy of other acute phase proteins has been demonstrated (serum amyloid A, procalcitonin, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, mannose binding lectin and hepcidin)...
December 7, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Minglan Li, Clare M Reynolds, Deborah M Sloboda, Clint Gray, Mark H Vickers
Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known...
2013: PloS One
Yang Liu, Qiang Xue, Qing Tang, Min Hou, Hongyi Qi, Gang Chen, Weihai Chen, Jifen Zhang, Yi Chen, Xiaoyu Xu
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), a main component of the blood-brain barrier, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of many brain diseases. The primary culture of BMECs has been used in various models for studying cerebrovascular diseases in vitro. However, there are still several problems existing in the isolation and cultivation of primary rat BMECs, such as low yield, contamination with other cell types, and requirement of a large number of animals and expensive growth factor. In this study, we describe a simple, economical (without any growth factor) and repeatable method to obtain endothelial cells with high purity (>99%) and yield (about 2...
November 2013: Microvascular Research
Matthew Pettengill, Simon Robson, Megan Tresenriter, José Luis Millán, Anny Usheva, Taiese Bingham, Mirjam Belderbos, Ilana Bergelson, Sarah Burl, Beate Kampmann, Laura Gelinas, Tobias Kollmann, Louis Bont, Ofer Levy
Extracellular adenosine, a key regulator of physiology and immune cell function that is found at elevated levels in neonatal blood, is generated by phosphohydrolysis of adenine nucleotides released from cells and catabolized by deamination to inosine. Generation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in blood is driven by cell-associated enzymes, whereas conversion of AMP to adenosine is largely mediated by soluble enzymes. The identities of the enzymes responsible for these activities in whole blood of neonates have been defined in this study and contrasted to adult blood...
September 20, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sonia Gandhi, B P Srinivasan, Atul Sureshrao Akarte
Nanoparticle preparations of heavy metals have attracted enormous scientific and technological interest. Biologically produced nanoparticle preparations of heavy metals are elaborately described in traditional texts and being widely prescribed. The underlying interactions of nano preparations within the physiological fluids are key feature to understand their biological impact. In this perspective, we performed an experimental assessment of the toxicity potential of a marketed metallic preparation named Vasant Kusumakar Ras (VKR), wherein different heavy metals in composite form are reduced to nanoparticle size to produce the desired effect in diabetes and its complications...
November 2013: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Maria Palm, Ove Axelsson, Lisa Wernroth, Anders Larsson, Samar Basu
To study the role of inflammation throughout normal pregnancy and postpartum, 37 women with normal pregnancies, including normal neonatal outcome, participated. Blood and urine samples were collected from each woman at least six times during pregnancy and postpartum. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and urinary levels of a prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α ) metabolite were measured. Median, 25th to 75th centile and average change per gestational week of IL-6, TNF-α and the PGF2α metabolite were measured...
May 2013: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Rebecca Maria Rentea, Scott R Welak, Katherine Fredrich, Deborah Donohoe, Kirkwood A Pritchard, Keith T Oldham, David M Gourlay, Jennifer L Liedel
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation in the premature intestine is a key factor that leads to the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and subsequent inflammation increases the severity of NEC. The aim of this study was to investigate the early temporal expression of inflammatory markers and activation of NF-κB in a neonatal rat model of NEC. METHODS: Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed at birth, 1...
February 2013: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Eloisa Gitto, Salvatore Pellegrino, Maria Manfrida, Salvatore Aversa, Giuseppe Trimarchi, Ignazio Barberi, Russel J Reiter
UNLABELLED: Repeated invasive procedures occur routinely in neonates who require intensive care, causing pain at a time when it is developmentally unexpected. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that repeated and prolonged pain exposure alters their subsequent pain processing, long-term development, and behaviour. Primary outcome of this study was to evaluate the reduction of procedural pain induced by "heel-lances" in preterm newborns with three different treatment [administration of fentanyl (FE, 1-2 μg/kg), facilitated tucking (FT), sensorial saturation (SS)]...
June 2012: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ting Zhang, Xiangru Lu, Paul Arnold, Yin Liu, Reshma Baliga, Hong Huang, John Anthony Bauer, Yusen Liu, Qingping Feng
AIMS: Myocardial tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression induces cardiac dysfunction in endotoxemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP1) pathway in myocardial TNF-α expression and cardiac function during endotoxemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased MKP1 expression in the myocardium in vivo and in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in the myocardium was prolonged in MKP1(-/-) mice...
March 1, 2012: Cardiovascular Research
S G Leonard, T Sweeney, B Bahar, J V O'Doherty
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation (n = 10 sows/treatment) with seaweed extract (SWE: 0 vs. 10.0 g/d) from d 107 of gestation until weaning (d 26) on neonatal piglet growth, humoral immunity, intestinal morphology, selected intestinal microflora, and VFA concentrations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of dietary treatment on the immune response after an ex vivo Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tissue challenge at weaning in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
February 2012: Journal of Animal Science
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