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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641378/staff-perceptions-of-key-factors-guiding-nursing-home-search-and-selection-within-the-veterans-health-administration
#1
Edward Alan Miller, Stefanie Gidmark, Emily Gadbois, James L Rudolph, Orna Intrator
Background and Objectives: Veterans enter nursing homes (NHs) for short-term postacute, rehabilitation, respite, or end-of-life care. They also enter NHs on a long-term basis due to frailty, disability, functional deficits, and cognitive impairment. Little is known about how a particular NH is chosen once the decision to enter a NH has been made. This study identified VA staff perceptions of the key factors influencing the search and selection of NHs within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA)...
June 21, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641332/executive-dysfunctions-predict-self-restricted-driving-habits-in-elderly-people-with-or-without-alzheimer-s-dementia
#2
Ilsemarie Kurzthaler, Georg Kemmler, Michaela Defrancesco, Bernadette Moser, Wolfgang W Fleischhacker, Elisabeth M Weiss
Introduction The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of specific cognitive functions on self-restricted driving habits in healthy elderly drivers and patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Method Our study population included 35 cognitively healthy controls, 10 MCI patients, and 16 patients with AD. All participants completed a neuropsychological examination and a self-reported questionnaire assessing driving habits and patterns. Results In challenging driving conditions, patients with MCI or AD showed significantly more driving self-restriction than healthy subjects (effect size d=1...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641164/protective-effects-of-flavonoids-against-alzheimer-s-disease-related-neural-dysfunctions
#3
REVIEW
Mahsa Bakhtiari, Yunes Panahi, Javad Ameli, Behrad Darvishi
Senile ages of human life is mostly associated with developmental of several neurological complicated conditions including decreased cognition and reasoning, increased memory loss and impaired language performance. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neural disorder associated with dementia, consisting of about 70% of dementia reported cases. Failure of currently approved chemical anti-AD therapeutic agents has once again brought up the idea of administering naturally occurring compounds as effective alternative and/or complementary regimens in AD treatment...
June 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641128/expectancy-of-impairment-attenuates-marijuana-induced-risk-taking
#4
Rachel L Gunn, Linda Skalski, Jane Metrik
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use has been associated with increased risk-taking and impulsive behavior. While pharmacologic effects of marijuana can lead to inhibitory impairment, expectancy of potential impairment may result in compensatory behavioral response by decreasing impulsive decisions and risky behaviors. With the increases in marijuana use and related problems, a better understanding of the individual characteristics associated with marijuana intoxication and risky behavior is needed...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640974/resistance-to-powdery-mildew8-1-boosts-pattern-triggered-immunity-against-multiple-pathogens-in-arabidopsis-and-rice
#5
Yan Li, Yong Zhang, Qing-Xia Wang, Ting-Ting Wang, Xiao-Long Cao, Zhi-Xue Zhao, Sheng-Li Zhao, Yong-Ju Xu, Zhi-Yuan Xiao, Jin-Lu Li, Jing Fan, Hui Yang, Fu Huang, Shunyuan Xiao, Wen-Ming Wang
The Arabidopsis gene RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) confers resistance to virulent fungal and oomycete pathogens that cause powdery mildew and downy mildew, respectively. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that ectopic expression of RPW8.1 boosts pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) resulting in enhanced resistance against different pathogens in both Arabidopsis and rice. In Arabidopsis, transcriptome analysis revealed that ectopic expression of RPW8.1-YFP constitutively up-regulates expression of many pathogen-associated molecular pattern-(PAMP-) inducible genes...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#6
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637246/effect-of-psilocybin-on-empathy-and-moral-decision-making
#7
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek, Franz X Vollenweider
Background: Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behaviour. Although the serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behaviour, the relative contribution of the various 5-HT receptor subtypes is still unknown. Methods: We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637214/health-and-social-physical-environment-profiles-among-older-adults-living-alone-associations-with-depressive-symptoms
#8
Sojung Park, Jacqui Smith, Ruth E Dunkle, Berit Ingersoll-Dayton, Toni C Antonucci
Objectives: We examined differences in depressive symptoms among people 65 and older who live alone, exploring whether these differences are associated with both health and environmental contexts. Method: Data are from the 2006 wave of Health Retirement Study (N = 2,956, age range: 65-104). We used a two-step cluster analytical approach to identify subgroups of health-limitation profiles and environmental profiles. Logistic regression models determined associations between subgroups and depressive symptoms...
June 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637152/how-physical-therapists-instruct-patients-with-stroke-an-observational-study-on-attentional-focus-during-gait-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#9
Elmar Kal, Henrieke van den Brink, Han Houdijk, John van der Kamp, Paulien Helena Goossens, Coen van Bennekom, Erik Scherder
PURPOSE: People without neurological impairments show superior motor learning when they focus on movement effects (external focus) rather than on movement execution itself (internal focus). Despite its potential for neurorehabilitation, it remains unclear to what extent external focus strategies are currently incorporated in rehabilitation post-stroke. Therefore, we observed how physical therapists use attentional focus when treating gait of rehabilitating patients with stroke. METHODS: Twenty physical therapist-patient couples from six rehabilitation centers participated...
February 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636694/placebo-response-and-practice-effects-in-schizophrenia-cognition-trials
#10
Richard S E Keefe, Vicki G Davis, Philip D Harvey, Alexandra S Atkins, George M Haig, Owen Hagino, Stephen Marder, Dana C Hilt, Daniel Umbricht
Importance: Patients' previous experience with performance-based cognitive tests in clinical trials for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia can create practice-related improvements. Placebo-controlled trials for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia are at risk for these practice effects, which can be difficult to distinguish from placebo effects. Objectives: To conduct a systematic evaluation of the magnitude of practice effects on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia and to examine which demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics were associated with improvement in placebo conditions...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636413/tea-consumption-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-older-chinese-adults
#11
Ying-Jie Gu, Chun-Hong He, Su Li, Shu-Yi Zhang, Sheng-Yu Duan, Hong-Peng Sun, Yue-Ping Shen, Yong Xu, Jie-Yun Yin, Chen-Wei Pan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between tea consumption and cognitive impairment (CoI). METHODS: 4579 adults (≥60 years) from the Weitang Geratric Diseases Study were assessed for characteristics of tea consumption and cognitive function by administering questionnaires and the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT), respectively. We divided the subjects into normal cognitive function group (AMT score ≥8) and CoI group (AMT score ≤7).   The association between tea consumption and risk of CoI was determined by logistic regression models...
June 21, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636296/-follow-up-of-the-long-term-cancer-survivor
#12
Francesco Sciotto, Céline Py, Petros Tsantoulis
Improvements in diagnosis and treatments explain the notable increase in patients chronically affected or recovering from cancer. This is a fragile population, who is physically, psychologically and socially affected by the consequences of the disease and the associated treatments. In addition to detecting a possible relapse, oncologists and primary care physicians have to deal with a variety of issues like psychological distress, sexual dysfunction, cardiotoxicity, cognitive impairment, fatigue and, in some cases, a second primary cancer...
May 17, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636205/progressive-scar14-with-unclear-speech-developmental-delay-tremor-and-behavioral-problems-caused-by-a-homozygous-deletion-of-the-sptbn2-pleckstrin-homology-domain
#13
Esra Yıldız Bölükbaşı, Muhammad Afzal, Sara Mumtaz, Nafees Ahmad, Sajid Malik, Aslıhan Tolun
We report on nine members of a consanguineous Pakistani family with primary presentation of intellectual disability, developmental delay, limb and gait ataxia, behavioral and speech problems, and tremor. By linkage mapping and exome sequencing we identified novel homozygous splicing variant c.6375-1G>C in SPTBN2. To date, only two other SPTBN2 mutations with recessive pattern of inheritance causing SCAR14 (spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 14) that manifest with developmental ataxia and cognitive impairment, or cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and pyramidal signs have been reported...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636131/state-trait-and-dental-anxiety-in-caregivers-of-individuals-with-disabilities
#14
Roberto Carlos Mourão Pinho, André Cavalcante da Silva Barbosa, Arnaldo de França Caldas-Júnior, Márcia Maria Vendiciano Barbosa Vasconcelos, Renata Cimões, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues Dos Santos
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare state anxiety, trait anxiety, and dental anxiety in caregivers of patients with special needs and caregivers of pediatric patients without special needs at dental clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected using a semistructured questionnaire. All respondents were older than 18 years of age. Individuals with cognitive impairment and those taking anxiolytics, antidepressants, or sleep-inducing medication were excluded from the study...
June 21, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635875/-disturbances-of-gait-and-postural-stability-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#15
N N Vakhnina, V V Zakharov
Disturbances of gait and postural stability are characteristic of the chronic progressive vascular lesion of the brain observed in moderate to severe stages of cerebrovascular disease. Disconnections between the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum due to the damage of the white matter (vascular leukoencephalopathy) underlie disturbances of gait and postural stability (shorter stride length, wider gait). There are difficulties in starting with possible stoppings during the walking, waiting in front of small barriers as well as difficulties in concentration (e...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#16
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635158/prepregnancy-overweight-and-obesity-are-associated-with-impaired-child-neurodevelopment
#17
Elizabeth Marie Widen, Linda Gross Kahn, Piera Cirillo, Barbara Cohn, Katrina Lynn Kezios, Pam Factor-Litvak
The authors examined the relationship of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with child neurodevelopment. Mother-child dyads were a subgroup (n = 2,084) of the Child Health and Development Studies from the Oakland, California, area enrolled during pregnancy from 1959 to 1966 and followed at child age 9 years. Linear regression was used to examine associations between prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and standardized Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Raven Progressive Matrices scores and to evaluate effect modification of GWG by prepregnancy BMI...
June 21, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634767/including-people-with-dementia-in-research-an-analysis-of-australian-ethical-and-legal-rules-and-recommendations-for-reform
#18
Nola M Ries, Katie A Thompson, Michael Lowe
Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634543/cannabis-and-cognitive-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-gender
#19
Viral P Patel, Anthony Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is associated with gender differences and the use of smoked/ingested cannabis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to explore a possible gender-cannabis interaction associated with cognitive dysfunction in PwMS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of cognitive data collected from 140 PwMS. A general linear model was conducted to determine gender and cannabis effects on processing speed (SDMT), verbal (CVLT-II) and visual (BVMT-R) memory, and executive functions (D-KEFS), while controlling for age and years of education...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#20
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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