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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667706/preliteracy-impairments-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#1
Shelley S Arnold, Jonathan M Payne, Jennifer Lorenzo, Kathryn N North, Belinda Barton
AIM: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the preliteracy abilities of young children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to identify which of these abilities best predicted conventional literacy (spelling). METHOD: Forty-two children with NF1 (23 males, 19 females; mean age [SD] 5y 6mo [6mo]) were compared with 32 unaffected children (15 males, 17 females; mean age [SD] 5y 4mo [6mo]). All children completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment including measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid automatic naming) and letter-sound knowledge...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667564/the-recency-ratio-as-predictor-of-early-mci
#2
Davide Bruno, Rebecca L Koscik, John L Woodard, Nunzio Pomara, Sterling C Johnson
ABSTRACTObjectives:Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present poor immediate primacy recall accompanied by intact or exaggerated recency, which then tends to decline after a delay. Bruno et al. (Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 38, 2016, pp. 967-973) have shown that higher ratio scores between immediate and delayed recency (i.e. the recency ratio; Rr) are associated with cognitive decline in high-functioning older individuals. We tested whether Rr predicted conversion to early mild cognitive impairment (early MCI) from a cognitively healthy baseline...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667531/is-tobacco-use-associated-with-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-individuals-with-hiv
#3
Billy Tsima, Sarah Jane Ratcliffe, Robert Schnoll, Ian Frank, Dennis Larry Kolson, Robert Gross
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continues to rise despite the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy. We aimed to define the risk of neurocognitive dysfunction among smokers relative to nonsmokers. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including HIV-infected adults ages 21 to 65 years. The Mental Alternation Test (MAT) was the primary outcome. The odds of cognitive impairment were compared using random-effects logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667443/implications-of-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Thanuja Dharmadasa, William Huynh, Jun Tsugawa, Yoshimitsu Shimatani, Yan Ma, Matthew C Kiernan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness and disability, eventually leading to death. Heterogeneity of disease has become a major barrier to understanding key clinical questions such as prognosis and disease spread, and has disadvantaged clinical trials in search of therapeutic intervention. Patterns of disease have been explored through recent advances in neuroimaging, elucidating structural, molecular and functional changes. Unique brain signatures have emerged that have lent a greater understanding of critical disease mechanisms, offering opportunities to improve diagnosis, guide prognosis, and establish candidate biomarkers to direct future therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667366/divergent-effects-of-healthy-ageing-on-semantic-knowledge-and-control-evidence-from-novel-comparisons-with-semantically-impaired-patients
#5
Paul Hoffman
Effective use of semantic knowledge requires a set of conceptual representations and control processes which ensure that currently relevant aspects of this knowledge are retrieved and selected. It is well-established that levels of semantic knowledge increase across the lifespan. However, the effects of ageing on semantic control processes have not been assessed. I addressed this issue by comparing the performance profiles of young and older people on a verbal comprehension test. Two sets of variables were used to predict accuracy and RT in each group: (1) the psycholinguistic properties of words probed in each trial and (2) the performance on each trial by two groups of semantically impaired neuropsychological patients...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667317/relationships-between-executive-function-working-memory-and-decision-making-on-the-iowa-gambling-task-evidence-from-ventromedial-patients-dorsolateral-patients-and-normal-subjects
#6
Riadh Ouerchefani, Naoufel Ouerchefani, Philippe Allain, Mohamed Riadh Ben Rejeb, Didier Le Gall
The results of previous studies are inconsistent in regard to the relationship between the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), working-memory (WM), and executive tasks, and whether these cognitive processes could be considered as mechanisms underlying a decision-making deficit. Moreover, the relationship between the IGT and executive measures is examined based on a limited number of executive tasks, within different populations showing diffuse damage. In addition, there are fewer studies carried out within control participants, with those studies also being inconclusive...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667262/pretreatment-neurocognitive-function-and-self-reported-symptoms-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-head-and-neck-cancer-compared-with-noncancer-cohort
#7
Lori J Bernstein, Gregory R Pond, Hui K Gan, Kattleya Tirona, Kelvin K Chan, Andrew Hope, John Kim, Eric X Chen, Lillian L Siu, Albiruni R Abdul Razak
BACKGROUND: Newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer may be at risk for impaired neurocognitive function (NCF) due to disease, treatment, and lifestyle factors. METHODS: Eighty pretreatment patients with head and neck cancer and 40 control patients without cancer completed assessment of NCF and self-reported cognition, fatigue, and mood. Blood samples to evaluate organ reserves, hormones, and cytokines were collected. RESULTS: Patients experienced worse symptoms of cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, and anxiety than controls...
April 17, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667155/association-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-neurogranin-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Lijun Wang
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Neurogranin has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for cognitive decline and brain injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test whether CSF Neurogranin levels are increased in AD and its association with cognitive decline, we examined 99 cognitively normal (CN) subjects, 171 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 81 patients with AD in the cross-sectional study from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The results showed that CSF Neurogranin was increased in both AD and MCI compared with controls...
April 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667152/falls-in-mexican-older-adults-aged-60-years-and-older
#9
Luis M Valderrama-Hinds, Soham Al Snih, Nai-Wei Chen, Martin A Rodriguez, Rebeca Wong
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major cause of disability, morbidity, institutionalization, and mortality in older adults. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine the risk factors for falls among Mexican older adults aged 60 years and older. METHODS: This study included 6247 participants and their spouse or partner aged 60 years and older from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, an ongoing longitudinal study (2001-2012) conducted in Mexico...
April 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667108/5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor-6-antagonist-sb258585-exerts-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-model-of-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi, Siamak Shahidi, Sara Soleimani-Asl, Alireza Komaki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline. It has been suggested that 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 (5-HT6R) might be involved in AD pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 5-HT6R antagonist on cognition, learning, memory, and hippocampal apoptosis in an experimental rat model of AD. AD was induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg, 10 μL, twice). Adult, male rats were divided into the following groups: control, sham, AD (saline treatment, 1 μL icv for 30 days), and AD + SB258585 (5-HT6R antagonist, 1 μg/μL icv for 30 days)...
April 17, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667043/abnormalities-in-thalamo-cortical-connections-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-two-tensor-tractography-study
#11
Hesham M Hamoda, A T Makhlouf, J Fitzsimmons, Y Rathi, N Makris, R I Mesholam-Gately, J D Wojcik, J Goldstein, R W McCarley, L J Seidman, M Kubicki, M E Shenton
The "cognitive dysmetria" hypothesis suggests that impairments in cognition and behavior in patients with schizophrenia can be explained by disruptions in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit. In this study we examine thalamo-cortical connections in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ). White matter pathways are investigated that connect the thalamus with three frontal cortex regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), and lateral oribitofrontal cortex (LOFC)...
April 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666594/association-of-lower-spiritual-well-being-social-support-self-esteem-subjective-well-being-optimism-and-hope-scores-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-dementia
#12
Sabrina B Dos Santos, Gabrielli P Rocha, Liana L Fernandez, Analuiza C de Padua, Caroline T Reppold
Introduction: Positive psychology (PP) constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia. Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group. Methods: Cross-sectional study...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666577/the-study-of-evaluation-and-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-different-cognitive-impairment-phases-based-on-virtual-reality-and-eeg
#13
Dong Wen, Xifa Lan, Yanhong Zhou, Guolin Li, Sheng-Hsiou Hsu, Tzyy-Ping Jung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666388/the-cognitive-complexity-of-concurrent-cognitive-motor-tasks-reveals-age-related-deficits-in-motor-performance
#14
Anderson Souza Oliveira, Mikkel Staall Reiche, Cristina Ioana Vinescu, Sif Amalie Halkjær Thisted, Carina Hedberg, Miguel Nobre Castro, Martin Gronbech Jørgensen
Aging reduces cognitive functions, and such impairments have implications in mental and motor performance. Cognitive function has been recently linked to the risk of falls in older adults. Physical activities have been used to attenuate the declines in cognitive functions and reduce fall incidence, but little is known whether a physically active lifestyle can maintain physical performance under cognitively demanding conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether physically active older adults present similar performance deficits during upper limb response time and precision stepping walking tasks when compared to younger adults...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666204/mapping-the-contribution-and-strategic-distribution-patterns-of-neuroimaging-features-of-small-vessel-disease-in-poststroke-cognitive-impairment
#15
Lin Shi, Lei Zhao, Fu Ki Yeung, Shun Yiu Wong, Ronald K T Chan, Ming Fai Tse, Sze Chun Chan, Yee Ching Kwong, Ka Chun Li, Kai Liu, Jill M Abrigo, Alexander Y L Lau, Adrian Wong, Bonnie Y K Lam, Thomas W H Leung, Jianhui Fu, Winnie C W Chu, Vincent C T Mok
OBJECTIVES: Individual neuroimaging features of small vessel disease (SVD) have been reported to influence poststroke cognition. This study aimed to investigate the joint contribution and strategic distribution patterns of multiple types of SVD imaging features in poststroke cognitive impairment. METHODS: We studied 145 first-ever ischaemic stroke patients with MRI and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) examined at baseline. The local burdens of acute ischaemic lesion (AIL), white matter hyperintensity, lacune, enlarged perivascular space and cross-sectional atrophy were quantified and entered into support vector regression (SVR) models to associate with the global and domain scores of MoCA...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666163/neurodevelopmental-impairment-among-extremely-preterm-infants-in-the-neonatal-research-network
#16
Ira Adams-Chapman, Roy J Heyne, Sara B DeMauro, Andrea F Duncan, Susan R Hintz, Athina Pappas, Betty R Vohr, Scott A McDonald, Abhik Das, Jamie E Newman, Rosemary D Higgins
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the spectrum of neurodevelopmental outcome in a contemporary cohort of extremely preterm infants. We hypothesize that the rate of severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) decreases over time. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants ≤27 weeks' gestational age (GA) from a Neonatal Research Network center that completed neurodevelopmental follow-up assessments between April 1, 2011, and January 1, 2015...
April 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666129/preventing-emergency-department-ed-visits-and-hospitalisations-of-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment-compared-with-the-general-senior-population-what-do-we-know-about-avoidable-incidents-results-from-a-scoping-review
#17
Mireille Gagnon-Roy, Benyahia Hami, Mélissa Généreux, Nathalie Veillette, Marie-Josée Sirois, Mary Egan, Véronique Provencher
OBJECTIVES: Older cognitively impaired adults present a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality following a visit to the emergency department (ED). Better understanding of avoidable incidents is needed to prevent them and the associated ED presentations in community-dwelling adults. This study aimed to synthetise the actual knowledge concerning these incidents leading this population to ED presentation, as well as possible preventive measures to reduce them. DESIGN: A scoping review was performed according to the Arksey and O'Malley framework...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665875/global-cerebrovascular-burden-and-long-term-clinical-outcomes-in-asian-elderly-across-the-spectrum-of-cognitive-impairment
#18
Xin Xu, Yiong Huak Chan, Qun Lin Chan, Bibek Gyanwali, Saima Hilal, Boon Yeow Tan, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen
ABSTRACTBackground/Aim:To investigate the predictive ability of the previously established global cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) burden scale on long-term clinical outcomes in a longitudinal study of Asian elderly participants across the spectrum of cognitive impairment. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted over a 2-year period involving participants with no cognitive impairment, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Annually, cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale was used to stage disease severity...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665808/critical-role-of-nlrp3-caspase-1-pathway-in-age-dependent-isoflurane-induced-microglial-inflammatory-response-and-cognitive-impairment
#19
Zhi Wang, Shiyu Meng, Lin Cao, Ying Chen, Zhiyi Zuo, Shuling Peng
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients are more likely to suffer from postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after surgery and anesthesia. Except for declined organ function, the particular pathogenesis of POCD in elderly patients remains unknown. This study is carried out to determine the critical role of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-caspase-1 pathway in isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. METHODS: Young (6-8 months old) and aged (14 months old) healthy male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665767/nano-cuo-impairs-spatial-cognition-associated-with-inhibiting-hippocampal-ltp-via-affecting-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-rats
#20
Xiaoliang Li, Wei Sun, Lei An
Manufactured metal nanoparticles and their applications are continuously expanding because of their unique characteristics while their increasing use may predispose to potential health problems. Several studies have reported the adverse effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) relative to ecotoxicity and cell toxicity, whereas little is known about the neurotoxicity of nano-CuO. The present study aimed to examine its effects on spatial cognition, hippocampal function, and the possible mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were used to establish an animal model, and nano-CuO was administered at a dose of 0...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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