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exercise prescription AND outcomes AND obesity

Melbourne F Hovell, Katharine E Schmitz, Sandy Liles, Kristi Robusto, C Richard Hofstetter, Jeanne F Nichols, Cheryl L Rock, Veronica Irvin, Melanie S Parker, Santiago A Surillo, David Noel
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test whether brief exercise and diet advice provided during child patient visits to their orthodontic office could improve diet, physical activity, and age-and-gender-adjusted BMI. METHODS: We enrolled orthodontic offices in Southern California and Tijuana, Mexico, and recruited their patients aged 8-16 to participate in a two-year study. At each office visit, staff provided the children with "prescriptions" for improving diet and exercise behaviors...
May 7, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Kerry S Courneya, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Nathalie Sami, Kyuwan Lee, Thomas A Buchanan, Darcy V Spicer, Debu Tripathy, Leslie Bernstein, Joanne E Mortimer
Purpose Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer recurrence in survivors of breast cancer. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of a 16-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers among ethnically diverse, sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Methods Eligible survivors of breast cancer (N = 100) were randomly assigned to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Mariana D Ulian, Bruno Gualano, Fabiana B Benatti, Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz, Desire Coelho, Odilon J Roble, Fernanda Sabatini, Isabel Perez, Luiz Aburad, Ana Jéssica Pinto, André Vessoni, Jhessica Campos Victor, Victoria Kupper Lima, Ramiro Fernandez Unsain, Priscila de Morais Sato, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Tatiana Natasha Toporcov, Fernanda B Scagliusi
BACKGROUND: This manuscript describes the design and rationale of a clinical trial that aims to investigate the multiple physiological, attitudinal, nutritional, and behavioral effects of a new interdisciplinary intervention based on the Health at Every Size® (HAES®) approach in obese women. METHODS: This will be a prospective, 7-month, randomized (2:1), mixed-method clinical trial. Obese women will be recruited and randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group (I-HAES®; proposed n = 40) will undertake a novel HAES®-based intervention...
December 2017: Nutrition and Health
Megan S Farris, Kerry S Courneya, Rachel O'Reilly, Christine M Friedenreich
BACKGROUND: We previously reported no postintervention differences in quality of life and other psychosocial outcomes when comparing 12-month high versus moderate volume of aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Here, we report the 24-month follow-up for these outcomes. METHODS: At 24-month follow-up, 333 out of 400 postmenopausal women were randomized to a year-long intervention of 150 (moderate) or 300 (high) minutes per week of aerobic exercise returned a battery of self-reported measures assessing quality of life, psychosocial outcomes, and sleep quality, also assessed at baseline and postintervention...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Jian Yong, Dong Lin, Xue-Rui Tan
Over the past two decades, the percentage of Chinese who is 60 years or older has increased from 5.2% in 1995 to 10.5% in 2015. Approximately 16% of the population in China was 60 years old and above in 2015. Since 1990, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death in China. Cardiovascular medications of older adults are usually more complicated than younger age groups due to polypharmacy, the presence of comorbidities and more susceptible to treatment-related adverse outcomes. Therefore, effective primary prevention of CVD for older adults is important in sustaining the health of older adults and reducing the burden of the healthcare system...
September 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Daniel J van den Hoek, Clint T Miller, Steve F Fraser, Steve E Selig, John B Dixon
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a decline in health-related quality of life (HRQOL), while weight loss and exercise training have a positive influence. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effects of energy restriction (ER) alone intervention to diet and exercise intervention on HRQOL. METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomised controlled trials examining HRQOL through lifestyle interventions which examined ER and energy restriction plus exercise in obese adults...
October 2017: Quality of Life Research
Rachel A Tinius, Alison G Cahill, W Todd Cade
Maternal obesity and associated metabolic disease contribute to adverse outcomes in women and their offspring, and many of these outcomes have significant acute and chronic implications for both mother and neonate. Targeted movement (ie, physical activity or exercise training) during pregnancy has been shown to be safe and effective for improving many of these outcomes in women at a healthy weight and women who are obese. However, movement prescription and advice during pregnancy are often not addressed by health care providers; this situation creates a unique opportunity for physical therapists to use their expertise in movement with patients who are pregnant...
January 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
Owen J Kelly, Jennifer C Gilman
BACKGROUND: Body composition changes occur with aging; bone and muscle mass decrease while fat mass increases. The collective term for these changes is osteosarcopenic obesity. It is known that conventional resistance exercise programs build/maintain lean mass and reduce fat mass. However, unconventional (to Western society/medicine) forms of exercise may be viable for the treatment/prevention of osteosarcopenic obesity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to assess relatively unconventional exercises for their efficacy in maintaining/improving bone and muscle mass and reducing fat mass...
2017: Current Aging Science
Katrin A Dias, Jeff S Coombes, Daniel J Green, Sjaan R Gomersall, Shelley E Keating, Arnt Erik Tjonna, Siri Marte Hollekim-Strand, Mansoureh Sadat Hosseini, Torstein Baade Ro, Margrete Haram, Else Marie Huuse, Peter S W Davies, Peter A Cain, Gary M Leong, Charlotte B Ingul
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents...
April 4, 2016: BMJ Open
Maria A Kennelly, Kate Ainscough, Karen Lindsay, Eileen Gibney, Mary Mc Carthy, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
OBJECTIVE: Maternal adiposity confers an increased risk of GDM in pregnancy. A low glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention has been found to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce gestational weight gain. Mobile Health (mHealth) Technology-assisted interventions are becoming commonplace as an aid to treating many chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a 'healthy lifestyle package' with mHealth smart phone technology as support compared with usual care on the incidence of GDM in an overweight and obese pregnant population...
January 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Edgar D Hernández-Álvarez, María V Valero-Bernal, Erica M Mancera-Soto
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of prescribing physical activity to the population of overweight and obese children, in accordance with the levels of evidence. METHODS: To find literature pertaining to the intervention of physical activity in overweight and obese children. four electronic databases were used: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane and Lilacs. The search was conducted with a cut-off date of June 2012. Randomized controlled clinical trials of intervention programs involving physical activity for both overweight and obese children were selected...
January 2015: Revista de Salud Pública
Katrin A Dias, Daniel J Green, Charlotte B Ingul, Toby G Pavey, Jeff S Coombes
CONTEXT: Conduit artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive index of preclinical atherosclerosis in humans. Exercise interventions can improve FMD in both healthy and clinical populations. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the effect of exercise training on FMD in overweight and obese children and adolescents as well as investigate the role of cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption [Vo2peak]) on effects observed...
September 2015: Pediatrics
Christine M Friedenreich, Heather K Neilson, Rachel O'Reilly, Aalo Duha, Yutaka Yasui, Andria R Morielli, Scott C Adams, Kerry S Courneya
IMPORTANCE: Body fat increases postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Physical activity may decrease risk through adiposity changes, but the optimal dose of activity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 300 vs 150 min/wk of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise on body fat in postmenopausal women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta was a 12-month, 2-armed, 2-center randomized dose-comparison trial conducted from June 2010 through June 2013...
September 2015: JAMA Oncology
Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena, Damon L Swift, Neil M Johannsen, Xuemei Sui, Duck-Chul Lee, Conrad P Earnest, Timothy S Church, James H O'Keefe, Richard V Milani, Steven N Blair
Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure...
July 3, 2015: Circulation Research
Carole A Paley, Mark I Johnson
INTRODUCTION: The increasing prevalence of chronic pain and obesity has significant health and cost implications for economies in the developed and developing world. Evidence suggests that there is a positive correlation between obesity and chronic pain and the link between them is thought to be systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this narrative review was to explore the physiological links between chronic musculoskeletal pain and obesity and to consider the potential role of regular physical activity in providing a means of managing obesity-related chronic pain...
April 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Francesca Maria Trovato, Daniela Catalano, Giuseppe Musumeci, Guglielmo M Trovato
Relationship between adipose tissue and fatty liver, and its possible evolution in fibrosis, is supported by clinical and research experience. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatments for various contributory risk factors have been proposed; however, there is no single validated therapy or drug association recommended for all cases which can stand alone. Mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance are displayed along with recommendations and position points...
2014: EPMA Journal
Sandra A Tsai, Nan Lv, Lan Xiao, Jun Ma
Few studies have used nationally representative data to focus specifically on gender differences in weight-related outcomes. This article examines gender differences in weight-related outcomes across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum in overweight and obese adults. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed. Weight-related outcomes were accurate weight perception, weight dissatisfaction, attempted weight loss, successful weight loss, and weight loss strategies. Compared with women, overweight and obese men were less likely to have accurate weight perception (odds ratio [OR] = 0...
September 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Nikki Milne, Nancy Low Choy, Gary M Leong, Roger Hughes, Wayne Hing
This study explored current physiotherapy practice trends for management of children who are overweight or obese. The professional needs of physiotherapists working with this population were also assessed, including the perceived need for physiotherapy clinical guidelines for prevention and management of children with obesity. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with questionnaires purposefully distributed through 13 key physiotherapy services throughout Australia. Snowball sampling resulted in completed questionnaires from 64 physiotherapists who provided services to children...
2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Helen P Booth, A Toby Prevost, Martin C Gulliford
OBJECTIVES: To investigate access to weight management interventions for overweight and obese patients in primary care. SETTING: UK primary care electronic health records. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 91 413 overweight and obese patients aged 30-100 years was sampled from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with body mass index (BMI) values ≥25 kg/m(2) recorded between 2005 and 2012 were included. BMI values were categorised using WHO criteria...
January 13, 2015: BMJ Open
Shane A Phillips, Abeer M Mahmoud, Michael D Brown, Jacob M Haus
Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for the development of obesity and other cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the development of CVD and is associated with a sedentary lifestyle in otherwise healthy adults. In addition, vascular endothelial dysfunction may be exacerbated in sedentary individuals who are obese and insulin resistant, since excess body fat is associated with elevated levels of pro-atherogenic inflammatory adipokines and cytokines that reduce the nitric oxide (NO) and other upstream paracrine signaling substances which reduces vascular health...
March 2015: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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