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exercise prescription AND outcomes AND obesity

Rachel A Tinius, Alison G Cahill, W Todd Cade
Maternal obesity and associated metabolic disease contribute to adverse outcomes in women and their offspring, and many of these outcomes have significant acute and chronic implications for both mother and neonate. Targeted movement (ie, physical activity or exercise training) during pregnancy has been shown to be safe and effective for improving many of these outcomes in women at a healthy weight and women who are obese. However, movement prescription and advice during pregnancy are often not addressed by health care providers; this situation creates a unique opportunity for physical therapists to use their expertise in movement with patients who are pregnant...
July 14, 2016: Physical Therapy
Owen J Kelly, Jennifer C Gilman
Unconventional (to Western society/medicine) forms of exercise may be viable for the treatment of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO). It is well known that conventional resistance exercise builds or maintains muscle mass. Clinically, functional loss may also be relevant; therefore, articles that investigated the effects of unconventional exercises and devices on measures of functionality, strength, balance and Quality of Life (QoL) were included. The exercises, Tai Chi, Yoga, and Pilates, in addition to whole body vibration, electrical stimulation of muscle, and the Alexander Technique were reviewed due to their low impact nature...
May 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Katrin A Dias, Jeff S Coombes, Daniel J Green, Sjaan R Gomersall, Shelley E Keating, Arnt Erik Tjonna, Siri Marte Hollekim-Strand, Mansoureh Sadat Hosseini, Torstein Baade Ro, Margrete Haram, Else Marie Huuse, Peter S W Davies, Peter A Cain, Gary M Leong, Charlotte B Ingul
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents...
April 4, 2016: BMJ Open
Maria A Kennelly, Kate Ainscough, Karen Lindsay, Eileen Gibney, Mary Mc Carthy, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
OBJECTIVE: Maternal adiposity confers an increased risk of GDM in pregnancy. A low glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention has been found to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce gestational weight gain. Mobile Health (mHealth) Technology-assisted interventions are becoming commonplace as an aid to treating many chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a 'healthy lifestyle package' with mHealth smart phone technology as support compared with usual care on the incidence of GDM in an overweight and obese pregnant population...
January 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Edgar D Hernández-Álvarez, María V Valero-Bernal, Erica M Mancera-Soto
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of prescribing physical activity to the population of overweight and obese children, in accordance with the levels of evidence. METHODS: To find literature pertaining to the intervention of physical activity in overweight and obese children. four electronic databases were used: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane and Lilacs. The search was conducted with a cut-off date of June 2012. Randomized controlled clinical trials of intervention programs involving physical activity for both overweight and obese children were selected...
January 2015: Revista de Salud Pública
Katrin A Dias, Daniel J Green, Charlotte B Ingul, Toby G Pavey, Jeff S Coombes
CONTEXT: Conduit artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive index of preclinical atherosclerosis in humans. Exercise interventions can improve FMD in both healthy and clinical populations. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the effect of exercise training on FMD in overweight and obese children and adolescents as well as investigate the role of cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption [Vo2peak]) on effects observed...
September 2015: Pediatrics
Christine M Friedenreich, Heather K Neilson, Rachel O'Reilly, Aalo Duha, Yutaka Yasui, Andria R Morielli, Scott C Adams, Kerry S Courneya
IMPORTANCE: Body fat increases postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Physical activity may decrease risk through adiposity changes, but the optimal dose of activity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 300 vs 150 min/wk of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise on body fat in postmenopausal women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta was a 12-month, 2-armed, 2-center randomized dose-comparison trial conducted from June 2010 through June 2013...
September 2015: JAMA Oncology
Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena, Damon L Swift, Neil M Johannsen, Xuemei Sui, Duck-Chul Lee, Conrad P Earnest, Timothy S Church, James H O'Keefe, Richard V Milani, Steven N Blair
Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure...
July 3, 2015: Circulation Research
Carole A Paley, Mark I Johnson
INTRODUCTION: The increasing prevalence of chronic pain and obesity has significant health and cost implications for economies in the developed and developing world. Evidence suggests that there is a positive correlation between obesity and chronic pain and the link between them is thought to be systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this narrative review was to explore the physiological links between chronic musculoskeletal pain and obesity and to consider the potential role of regular physical activity in providing a means of managing obesity-related chronic pain...
April 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Francesca Maria Trovato, Daniela Catalano, Giuseppe Musumeci, Guglielmo M Trovato
Relationship between adipose tissue and fatty liver, and its possible evolution in fibrosis, is supported by clinical and research experience. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatments for various contributory risk factors have been proposed; however, there is no single validated therapy or drug association recommended for all cases which can stand alone. Mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance are displayed along with recommendations and position points...
2014: EPMA Journal
Sandra A Tsai, Nan Lv, Lan Xiao, Jun Ma
Few studies have used nationally representative data to focus specifically on gender differences in weight-related outcomes. This article examines gender differences in weight-related outcomes across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum in overweight and obese adults. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed. Weight-related outcomes were accurate weight perception, weight dissatisfaction, attempted weight loss, successful weight loss, and weight loss strategies. Compared with women, overweight and obese men were less likely to have accurate weight perception (odds ratio [OR] = 0...
September 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Nikki Milne, Nancy Low Choy, Gary M Leong, Roger Hughes, Wayne Hing
This study explored current physiotherapy practice trends for management of children who are overweight or obese. The professional needs of physiotherapists working with this population were also assessed, including the perceived need for physiotherapy clinical guidelines for prevention and management of children with obesity. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with questionnaires purposefully distributed through 13 key physiotherapy services throughout Australia. Snowball sampling resulted in completed questionnaires from 64 physiotherapists who provided services to children...
2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Helen P Booth, A Toby Prevost, Martin C Gulliford
OBJECTIVES: To investigate access to weight management interventions for overweight and obese patients in primary care. SETTING: UK primary care electronic health records. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 91 413 overweight and obese patients aged 30-100 years was sampled from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with body mass index (BMI) values ≥25 kg/m(2) recorded between 2005 and 2012 were included. BMI values were categorised using WHO criteria...
January 13, 2015: BMJ Open
Shane A Phillips, Abeer M Mahmoud, Michael D Brown, Jacob M Haus
Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for the development of obesity and other cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the development of CVD and is associated with a sedentary lifestyle in otherwise healthy adults. In addition, vascular endothelial dysfunction may be exacerbated in sedentary individuals who are obese and insulin resistant, since excess body fat is associated with elevated levels of pro-atherogenic inflammatory adipokines and cytokines that reduce the nitric oxide (NO) and other upstream paracrine signaling substances which reduces vascular health...
March 2015: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
A K Ronnberg, I Ostlund, H Fadl, T Gottvall, K Nilsson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if a feasible, low-cost intervention could decrease the percentage of women gaining weight above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations on gestational weight gain (GWG) compared with standard maternity care. DESIGN: A randomised controlled interventional design. SETTING: Antenatal clinics (n = 14) in Örebro county, Sweden, participated. POPULATION: Healthy women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥19 kg/m(2), age ≥18 years and adequate knowledge of Swedish language who signed in for maternity care at ≤16 weeks of gestation...
March 2015: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Shannon M Looney, Hollie A Raynor
This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription...
2013: Health Services Insights
B Schönhofer
BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory failure is caused by insufficiency of the inspiratory muscles, i.e. mainly the diaphragm, which represents the so-called "respiratory pump". Insufficiency of the respiratory pump causes hypercapnia. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION: Diseases with chronic hypercapnia are characterized by reduced survival. Mechanical ventilation-mostly applied as noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV)-improves ventilation and unloads the inspiratory muscles...
April 2015: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Sumudu N Seneviratne, Lesley M E McCowan, Wayne S Cutfield, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman
An increasing number of women are entering pregnancy in an overweight or obese state. Obese women and their offspring are at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, which may be improved by regular moderate-intensity antenatal exercise. Current guidelines recommend that all pregnant women without contraindications engage in ≥30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a daily basis. However, obese women are usually less physically active and tend to further reduce activity levels during pregnancy. This commentary summarizes the potential short- and long-term benefits of antenatal exercise in obese pregnant women, highlights the challenges they face, and discusses means of improving their exercise levels...
April 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Justin C Brown, Kathryn H Schmitz
PURPOSE: Clinical guidelines recommend that oncologists prescribe exercise to their patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, 84% of oncologists do not prescribe exercise, citing concerns of safety and feasibility. Data are inadequate regarding the proportion of CRC survivors that could be safely prescribed with the dose of exercise recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), American Cancer Society (ACS), or National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in an unsupervised setting...
December 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kaberi Dasgupta, Ellen Rosenberg, Stella S Daskalopoulou
BACKGROUND: With increasing numbers of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and hypertension patients, there is a pressing need for effective, time-efficient and sustainable strategies to help physicians support their patients to achieve higher physical activity levels. SMARTER will determine whether physician-delivered step count prescriptions reduce arterial stiffness over a one-year period, compared with usual care, in sedentary overweight/obese adults with DM2/hypertension. DESIGN: Randomized, allocation-concealed, assessor-blind, multisite clinical trial...
January 6, 2014: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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