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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320364/cardiometabolic-effects-of-psychotropic-medications
#1
REVIEW
Oluchi Abosi, Sneha Lopes, Samantha Schmitz, Jess G Fiedorowicz
Background Many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression convey an excess burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The medications used to treat these conditions may further adversely affect cardiovascular risk and exacerbate health disparities for vulnerable populations. There is a clinical need to appreciate the cardiometabolic adverse effects of psychotropic medications. Methods This paper reviews the most relevant cardiometabolic effects of psychotropic medications, organized around the components of metabolic syndrome...
January 10, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283284/endothelial-dysfunction-occurs-independently-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-yucatan-miniature-swine
#2
Thomas J Jurrissen, T Dylan Olver, Nathan C Winn, Zachary I Grunewald, Gabriela S Lin, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Craig A Emter, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
In rodents, experimentally-induced ovarian hormone deficiency increases adiposity and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, which is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, whether this occurs in a translationally-relevant large animal model remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that ovariectomy would promote visceral and perivascular AT (PVAT) inflammation, as well as subsequent insulin resistance and peripheral vascular dysfunction in female swine...
December 28, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258552/effects-of-stevia-on-synaptic-plasticity-and-nadph-oxidase-level-of-cns-in-conditions-of-metabolic-disorders-caused-by-fructose
#3
V A Chavushyan, K V Simonyan, R M Simonyan, A S Isoyan, G M Simonyan, M A Babakhanyan, L E Hovhannisyian, Kh H Nahapetyan, L G Avetisyan, M A Simonyan
BACKGROUND: Excess dietary fructose intake associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Previous animal studies have reported that diabetic animals have significantly impaired behavioural and cognitive functions, pathological synaptic function and impaired expression of glutamate receptors. Correction of the antioxidant status of laboratory rodents largely prevents the development of fructose-induced plurimetabolic changes in the nervous system...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235659/effect-of-metabolic-syndrome-on-late-life-depression-associations-with-disease-severity-and-treatment-resistance
#4
John S Mulvahill, Ginger E Nicol, David Dixon, Eric J Lenze, Jordan F Karp, Charles F Reynolds, Daniel M Blumberger, Benoit H Mulsant
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the co-occurrence of obesity and metabolic derangements. Prior research implicates MetS in prolongation of the course of depression in older adults, but its effect on antidepressant response is unknown in this population. The objective was to determine whether MetS and related metabolic dyscrasias are associated with decreased rate of remission from depression in older adults treated pharmacologically for depression. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial...
December 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#5
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190710/the-association-between-depressive-symptoms-and-insulin-resistance-inflammation-and-adiposity-in-men-and-women
#6
M'Balu Webb, Melanie Davies, Nuzhat Ashra, Danielle Bodicoat, Emer Brady, David Webb, Calum Moulton, Khalida Ismail, Kamlesh Khunti
INTRODUCTION: Depression has been shown to be associated with elevated leptin levels, low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. These derangements are often measured in mixed gender cohorts despite the different body compositions and hormonal environments of men and women and gender-specific prevalence and responses to depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a cohort of 639 participants from the ADDITION-Leicester dataset to assess differences in markers of diabetes risk, cardiovascular risk and inflammation in depressed and non-depressed individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180223/insulin-resistance-an-unmasked-culprit-in-depressive-disorders-promises-for-interventions
#7
REVIEW
Kathleen Watson, Carla Nasca, Linn Aasly, Bruce McEwen, Natalie Rasgon
Depressive disorder (DD) is a debilitating disease with psychological, societal, economic and humanitarian consequences for millions of people worldwide. Scientists are beginning to understand the reciprocal communication between the brain and the rest of the body in the etiology and treatment of this disease. In particular, scientists have noted a connection between depressive disorder (DD), a disease that is primarily seen as brain-based, and, insulin resistance (IR), a modifiable metabolic pro-inflammatory state that is typically seen as peripheral...
November 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163137/multiple-evidences-for-association-between-cognitive-impairment-and-dysglycemia-in-parkinson-s-disease-implications-for-clinical-practice
#8
Liu Yang, Zhilin Chen, Bo Li, Meihua Wang, Lijia Yu, Ying Wan, Jing Gan, Yu Zhang, Zhenguo Liu, Xijin Wang
Background and purpose: It remains unclear about the etiopathogenesis of cognitive impairment (CI) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Since diabetes mellitus (DM) has been shown to be associated with CI in several diseases, we examined the association between CI and dysglycemia in PD. Methods: Enrolled PD patients completed a series of clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Motor symptoms were determined by Hohen-Yahr staging (H-Y staging) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - motor score (UPDRS-III)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141949/microvascular-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-and-brain-occurs-early-in-the-development-of-juvenile-obesity-in-pigs
#9
T Dylan Olver, Zachary Ian Grunewald, Thomas J Jurrissen, Rebecca Ek MacPherson, Paul J LeBlanc, Teagan R Schnurbusch, Alana M Czajkowski, Maurice Harold Laughlin, R Scott Rector, Shawn B Bender, Eric M Walters, Craig A Emter, Jaume Padilla
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular insulin signaling may develop prior to overt indices of microvascular endothelial dysfunction and represent an early pathological feature of adolescent obesity. Using a translational porcine model of juvenile obesity, we tested the hypotheses that in the early stages of obesity development, impaired insulin signaling manifests in skeletal muscle (triceps), brain (prefrontal cortex) and corresponding vasculatures, and that depressed insulin-induced vasodilation is reversible with acute inhibition of protein kinase C beta (PKCβ)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118840/too-many-pills-to-swallow-a-case-of-a-mixed-overdose
#10
Louise Emily Hopkins, Jonathan Sunkersing, Andrew Jacques
Propranolol is a highly lipid-soluble beta-receptor antagonist. We describe a case of mixed overdose, including propranolol, amlodipine and olanzapine, resulting in severe resistant hypotension which was successfully treated. A 21-year-old student ingested 6.4 g of propranolol, 280 mg of amlodipine and 560 mg of olanzapine. The patient was brought to the emergency department and exhibited signs of severe systemic toxicity - profound hypotension and circulatory collapse, respiratory depression and coma...
August 2017: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068789/the-beneficial-effects-of-pumpkin-extract-on-atherogenic-lipid-insulin-resistance-and-oxidative-stress-status-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#11
Atefe Ghahremanloo, Reza Hajipour, Mina Hemmati, Maryam Moossavi, Zabihullah Mohaqiq
Background Prevention and treatment of obesity is a way to reduce cardiovascular disease, diabetes and depression. Pumpkin as a favorable plant has different properties notably antioxidant, lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic potential. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of pumpkin in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=6) of healthy control, dietary fatty control rats, and three experimental dietary fatty rats that received hydro-alcoholic extract of pumpkin once daily at doses 100 and 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041003/depression-in-the-context-of-medical-disorders-new-pharmacological-pathways-revisited
#12
Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
The depressive state has been characterised as one of elevated inflammation, changed cardiovascular parameters and a deranged metabolic situation all of which holds promise for a better understanding and handling of treatment-resistance in affective disorders as well as for future developments in treatment algorithms. In this context several biomarkers are differentially regulated by antidepressant treatment and connected to metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and apoptotic components of the pathophysiology, i...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031771/a-nonrandomized-controlled-clinical-pilot-trial-on-8%C3%A2-wk-of%C3%A2-intermittent-fasting-24%C3%A2-h-wk
#13
Christian S Kessler, Rainer Stange, Maike Schlenkermann, Michael Jeitler, Andreas Michalsen, Antonia Selle, Franca Raucci, Nico Steckhan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether intermittent fasting (IF) is an effective preventive measure, and whether it is feasible for healthy volunteers under every day conditions. METHODS: A nonrandomized controlled clinical trial on IF was performed with healthy volunteers over a period of 8 wk, and a subsequent 4-mo follow-up. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, after 8 wk, and after 6 mo. Volunteers who were not interested in fasting served as a control group...
August 12, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933062/hypothalamic-dysfunction-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders
#14
Sara Carmo-Silva, Cláudia Cavadas
The hypothalamus is the brain region responsible for the maintenance of energetic homeostasis. The regulation of this process arises from the ability of the hypothalamus to orchestrate complex physiological responses such as food intake and energy expenditure, circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility. Metabolic alterations such as obesity can compromise these hypothalamic regulatory functions. Alterations in circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility further contribute to aggravate the metabolic dysfunction of obesity and contribute to the development of chronic disorders such as depression and infertility...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929349/depression-and-anxiety-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-etiology-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Laura G Cooney, Anuja Dokras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women and is associated with an increased prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms. This review presents potential mechanisms for this increased risk and outlines treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Women with PCOS have increased odds of depressive symptoms (OR 3.78; 95% CI 3.03-4.72) and anxiety symptoms (OR 5.62; 95% CI 3.22-9.80). Obesity, insulin resistance, and elevated androgens may partly contribute to this association...
September 20, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925048/the-association-between-insulin-resistance-metabolic-variables-and-depressive-symptoms-in-mexican-american-elderly-a-population-based-study
#16
Breno S Diniz, Susan Fisher-Hoch, Joseph McCormick
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common among older adults with obesity and diabetes. Nonetheless, the mechanisms for this association are not clear but may involve changes in the insulin cascade signaling. We aimed to investigate the association, and potential mediators, between obesity, insulin resistance, and depressive symptoms among older adults from a homogenous cohort of Mexican-Americans. METHODS: We included a total of 500 Mexican-American older adults assessed in the Cameron County Health Study...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925030/drug-repurposing-may-generate-novel-approaches-to-treating-depression
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed Elsaed Ebada
OBJECTIVES: The breakthrough advancements in scientific medical research have greatly improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, encouraging drug discoverers to take a shorter path than ever through drug repurposing to generate new antidepressant medications. In addition to reduced noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain, other coincidence features such as glutamate neurotoxicity, inflammation and/or cerebrovascular insufficiency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and late-life depression...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894050/compounds-of-psoriasis-with-obesity-and-overweight
#18
Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Waldemar Placek
Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17) and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin). They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889049/the-potential-impact-of-biochemical-mediators-on-telomere-attrition-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-implications-for-future-study-designs-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Andrei Manoliu, Oliver G Bosch, Janis Brakowski, Annette B Brühl, Erich Seifritz
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been proposed to represent a "disease of premature aging", which is associated with certain biomarkers of cellular ageing and numerous other age-related diseases. Over the last decade, telomere length (TL) arose as a surrogate for cellular aging. Recent data suggests that TL might be reduced in patients with MDD, however, results are still inconclusive. This might be explained by the lack of assessment of potential biochemical mediators that are directly associated with telomere shortening and frequently observed in patients with MDD...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791972/hcv-co-infection-is-associated-with-metabolic-abnormalities-among-haart-naive-hiv-infected-persons
#20
M A Kuti, J O Akinyemi, B O Ogunbosi, K M Kuti, O A Adesina, O A Awolude, O S Michael, I F Adewole
OBJECTIVES: To determine the metabolic abnormalities among Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) co infected HAART naïve HIV infected persons within the adult ARV clinic of the University College Hospital/University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Methods: This was a retrospective study involving the review of clinical records of newly recruited HIV-infected persons in the adult antiretroviral (ARV) clinic over a 12 month period (January - December 2006). Baseline results for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting lipid profile were retrieved...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
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