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Computational AND Spinal Cord

Abhijit Pawar, Chirag Manwani, Raghavendra Thete, Mihir Bapat, Vishal Peshettiwar, Satishchandra Gore
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: In this study, we describe an endoscopic method of effectively treating tubercular lumbar spondylodiskitis with early onset epidural spinal cord compression in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Percutaneous aspiration and biopsy of spondylodiskitis under ultrasonography and computer tomography scan invariably provides an inadequate diagnosis. METHODS: From May 2015 to May 2017, 18 patients presented with intractable back pain and were diagnosed with tubercular spondylodiskitis on MRI; these patients were enrolled in this study...
October 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Sotirios Apostolakis, Athanasios Mitropoulos, Kalliopi Diamantopoulou, Konstantinos Vlachos
Background: Cavernomas are benign malformations of the vasculature. In the central nervous system, they are mostly located supratentorially. However, in adults, cavernomas also comprise about 3% of all subdural spinal cord tumors. Notably, cavernomas of the cauda equina are extremely rare, with only 23 cases reported in the literature. Here, we report the 24th case involving a 77-year-old male. Case Description: A 77-year-old male presented with low back pain for 3 years duration...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Susan D Newman, Sherwood L Toatley, Marka D Rodgers
OBJECTIVE: To develop educational content and pilot test the use of tablet computers (iPads), online content management platform (iTunes U) and video conferencing (FaceTime) for delivery of a peer supported, spinal cord injury self-management intervention, using a community-engaged research approach. DESIGN: Cross-sectional convenience sampled pilot study; evaluation using a combination of observation and questionnaires. SETTING: Community-based...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
T Cervinka, L Giangregorio, H Sievanen, A M Cheung, B C Craven
In 2015, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) position statement regarding peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) did not recommend routine use of pQCT, in clinical settings until consistency in image acquisition and analysis protocols are reached, normative studies conducted, and treatment thresholds identified. To date, the lack of consensus-derived recommendations regarding pQCT implementation remains a barrier to implementation of pQCT technology. Thus, based on description of available evidence and literature synthesis, this review recommends the most appropriate pQCT acquisition and analysis protocols for clinical care and research purposes, and recommends specific measures for diagnosis of osteoporosis, assigning fracture risk, and monitoring osteoporosis treatment effectiveness, among patients with neurological impairment...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Patrick W Hitchon, Toshio Moritani, Royce W Woodroffe, Kingsley Abode-Iyamah, Najib E El Tecle, Jennifer Noeller, Reem K Elwy, Kirill V Nourski
OBJECTIVE: Causation and avoidance of C5 palsy after laminectomy have proven elusive, with multiple factors incriminated including width of the laminectomy, spinal cord migration, C5 neural foraminal stenosis, or intraoperative C5 root traction. In an attempt to identify risk factors for C5 palsy after decompression in cervical stenosis and myelopathy, the following review was conducted. This report is from a single center with consistent criteria for diagnosis and management of cervical stenosis and myelopathy...
August 22, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Mücahid Barstuğan, Rahime Ceylan, Semih Asoglu, Hakan Cebeci, Mustafa Koplay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adrenal tumors, which occur on adrenal glands, are incidentally determined. The liver, spleen, spinal cord, and kidney surround the adrenal glands. Therefore, tumors on the adrenal glands can be adherent to other organs. This is a problem in adrenal tumor segmentation. In addition, low contrast, non-standardized shape and size, homogeneity, and heterogeneity of the tumors are considered as problems in segmentation. METHODS: This study proposes a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to segment adrenal tumors by eliminating the above problems...
October 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Filip Pankowski, Grzegorz Bogiel, Sławomir Paśko, Filip Rzepiński, Joanna Misiewicz, Alfred Staszak, Joanna Bonecka, Małgorzata Dzierzęcka, Bartłomiej J Bartyzel
The conservation of the common buzzard is assured by the European Union law. In Poland, this wild bird is under strict species protection and it is used as a bioindicator for heavy metals in the environment. A case of the fatal shooting of a buzzard with a firearm by an unidentified shooter is described here. Macroscopic evaluation, X-ray imaging, post-mortem computed tomography, ballistic examination of the isolated bullets and finally a simulation of the assumed position of the bird at the time of the shot were performed...
August 31, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Stefan Washausen, Thomas Scheffel, Guido Brunnett, Wolfgang Knabe
The now classical idea that programmed cell death (apoptosis) contributes to a plethora of developmental processes still has lost nothing of its impact. It is, therefore, important to establish effective three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction as well as simulation techniques to decipher the exact patterns and functions of such apoptotic events. The present study focuses on the question whether and how apoptosis promotes neurulation-associated processes in the spinal cord of Tupaia belangeri (Tupaiidae, Scandentia, Mammalia)...
August 29, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Arash Fattahi, Abdoulhadi Daneshi
Background: There are multiple surgical treatment options for traumatic thoracic spine spondyloptosis, a three-column spinal injury typically attributed to high-energy trauma. Case Description: A 20-year-old male presented with back deformity attributed to a fall. On neurological examination, he had complete spinal cord injury below the T6 level. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging documented a T8 vertebral fracture and complete T7/T8 spondyloptosis...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Gunjan Agarwal, Matthew A Robertson, Harshal Sonar, Jamie Paik
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
August 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel C Lu, Tyson Hadduck, Haydn A Hoffman, Christian S Geannette, J Pablo Villablanca
Sterile postoperative seromas can develop after posterior spinal surgery and cause pain, weakness, and numbness. Management typically involves operative evacuation. We propose that these collections can be managed with percutaneous computed tomography (CT) guided aspiration, potentially saving the patient an additional surgery. Here, we evaluate the safety and efficacy of this approach. Patients who developed symptomatic postoperative seromas within 60 days following surgery for spinal canal stenosis and had stable neurologic exams were considered for CT-guided percutaneous aspiration...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
M Hamzeei, A Modiri, N Kazemzadeh, A Hagan, A Sawant
PURPOSE: We present a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based technique to create deliverable four-dimensional (4D=3D+time) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The 4D planning concept uses respiratory motion as an additional degree of freedom to achieve further sparing of organs at risk (OARs). The 4D-IMRT plan involves the delivery of an order of magnitude more IMRT apertures (~15,000 - 20,000), with potentially large inter-aperture variations in the delivered fluence, compared to conventional (i...
August 28, 2018: Medical Physics
Mario Ricciardi, Angela Campanella, Gloria Grieco, Roberta Zammit
Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have revolutionized diagnostic potential in small animal practice, providing adequate assessment of spinal diseases at levels comparable to that achieved in human radiology. T2-weighted MRI images are extremely sensitive to intramedullary parenchymal disorders, while balanced steady-state free precession sequences provide high-quality myelographic images of the spine without the need of intrathecal contrast medium administration...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Jinzhong Yang, Harini Veeraraghavan, Samuel G Armato, Keyvan Farahani, Justin S Kirby, Jayashree Kalpathy-Kramer, Wouter van Elmpt, Andre Dekker, Xiao Han, Xue Feng, Paul Aljabar, Bruno Oliveira, Brent van der Heyden, Leonid Zamdborg, Dao Lam, Mark Gooding, Gregory C Sharp
PURPOSE: This report presents the methods and results of the Thoracic Auto-Segmentation Challenge organized at the 2017 Annual Meeting of American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The purpose of the challenge was to provide a benchmark dataset and platform for evaluating performance of auto-segmentation methods of organs at risk (OARs) in thoracic CT images. METHODS: Sixty thoracic CT scans provided by three different institutions were separated into 36 training, 12 offline testing, and 12 online testing scans...
August 24, 2018: Medical Physics
Laleh Golestanirad, John T Gale, Nauman F Manzoor, Hyun-Joo Park, Lyall Glait, Frederick Haer, James A Kaltenbach, Giorgio Bonmassar
Electrical stimulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems - such as deep brain stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and epidural cortical stimulation are common therapeutic options increasingly used to treat a large variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Despite their remarkable success, there are limitations which if overcome, could enhance outcomes and potentially reduce common side-effects. Micromagnetic stimulation (μMS) was introduced to address some of these limitations. One of the most remarkable properties is that μMS is theoretically capable of activating neurons with specific axonal orientations...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Valeria Meier, Jürgen Besserer, Malgorzata Roos, Carla Rohrer Bley
Previous trials showed the importance of administering radiation therapy (RT) with small doses per fraction in canine pelvic tumours to maintain acceptable toxicity levels. With increased accuracy/precision of RT, namely intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), this approach might be challenged. Theoretical toxicity calculations for a new definitive-intent moderately hypofractionated RT protocol for canine anal sac adenocarcinomas (ASAC) were performed, focussing on the risk of toxicity in pelvic organs at risk (OAR)...
August 22, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Yuichi Fujita, Hideo Aihara, Hiroaki Nagashima, Akitsugu Morishita, Kenji Aoki, Hiroyuki Takayama, Toshihiko Harada, Yoshiki Tohma, Yoshie Hara, Eiji Kohmura
OBJECTIVE: Vertebral artery injury(VAI)associated with cervical spine trauma has the potential to cause catastrophic vertebrobasilar stroke. However, there are no well-defined treatment recommendations for VAI. The purpose of this study was to identify an effective treatment strategy for VAI following cervical spine trauma. METHODS: Ninety-seven patients with blunt cervical spine trauma were treated at Hyogo Prefectural Kakogawa Medical Center between January 2013 and September 2017...
August 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Madiha Tariq, Pavel M Trivailo, Milan Simic
Over recent years, brain-computer interface (BCI) has emerged as an alternative communication system between the human brain and an output device. Deciphered intents, after detecting electrical signals from the human scalp, are translated into control commands used to operate external devices, computer displays and virtual objects in the real-time. BCI provides an augmentative communication by creating a muscle-free channel between the brain and the output devices, primarily for subjects having neuromotor disorders, or trauma to nervous system, notably spinal cord injuries (SCI), and subjects with unaffected sensorimotor functions but disarticulated or amputated residual limbs...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rodolfo G Gatto, Weiguo Li, Jin Gao, Richard L Magin
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exhibits contrast that identifies macro- and microstructural changes in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have shown that MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can observe changes in spinal cord white matter in animals and humans affected with symptomatic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The goal of this preclinical work was to investigate the sensitivity of DTI for the detection of signs of tissue damage before symptoms appear. High-field MRI data were acquired using a 9...
August 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Joel Haakon Borgstedt-Bakke, Peter Duel, Mikkel Mylius Rasmussen
We present a case of a 55-year-old farmer who suddenly experienced an electric sensation in the left half of his body during lawn mowing. Neurological examination discovered neurological deficits corresponding to an incomplete spinal cord injury. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed an artifact in the cervical region. Following, a computer tomography imaging showed a metal object, located intramedullary, in the cervical spinal cord. The conclusion was a traumatic lesion from the metal object obtained during lawn mowing...
October 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
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