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Computational AND Spinal Cord

Rachael N Martinez, Bella Etingen, Dustin D French, Marissa A Vallette, Balmatee Bidassie, Huberta T Cozart, Frances M Weaver
PURPOSE: Guided by an ecological perspective, the purpose of this study was to identify multilevel factors that influenced the implementation of environmental control units (ECUs) in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Spinal Cord Injury/Disorders (SCI/D) Centres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mixed methods including an online survey and qualitative interviews of VHA healthcare employees. RESULTS: VHA healthcare employees participated in the online survey (n = 153, 21% participation rate) and semi-structured interview (n = 28; 54% participation rate)...
November 19, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Shenghua Ning, Sidong Yang, Wenyuan Ding, Tianxiao Ma, Zhanyong Wu
BACKGROUND: Atlantoaxial dislocation usually results from hyperextension trauma and is almost always accompanied by odontoid fracture and neurological symptoms. In most cases, patients with atlantoaxial dislocation die instantly. This is a rare report of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture and neurological symptoms effectively treated by transoral-posterior approach surgery, and only eleven similar cases have been previously reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe the very rare case of an adult posterior atlantoaxial dislocation patient without fracture who was neurologically treated using transoral-posterior approach surgery and to review the relevant literature...
November 17, 2018: European Spine Journal
Eiji Nakata, Shinsuke Sugihara, Masaaki Kataoka, Natsumi Yamashita, Takayuki Furumatsu, Tomoyuki Takigawa, Tomoko Tetsunaga, Toshifumi Ozaki
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the therapeutic outcomes in patients with bone metastases receiving radiotherapy (RT), it is important to use objective radiological response criteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in pain and re-ossification after RT for painful vertebral bone metastases without paralysis by malignant spinal cord compression. METHODS: The participants included 55 patients who received RT for painful vertebral bone metastases without paralysis in our institution between 2012 and 2016...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Sei-Ichiro Motegi, Akiko Sekiguchi, Yukio Yonemoto, Tokue Mieda, Hirotaka Chikuda, Osamu Ishikawa
The objective was to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with spinal calcinosis. Paraspinal and intraspinal calcinosis was assessed blindly by orthopedic surgeons specializing in spinal diseases using chest high-resolution computed tomography (CT) that was performed for the screening and prospecting of interstitial lung disease in 159 Japanese SSc patients. Among these patients, we identified 27 (17%) with spinal calcinosis, and the most common site was cervical level at 77...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Malik Ghannam, Shaden Mansour, Fareed Jumah, Brent Berry, Albertine Beard
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a rare, malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma that can arise in the brain, spinal cord, eye, leptomeninges, or cranial nerves. Primary central nervous system lymphoma is rare, accounting for 2-6% of all primary brain neoplasms and 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and it usually presents as a solitary lesion. Cerebellar involvement is present in only 9% of cases. We present an unusual case of primary central nervous system lymphoma presenting as multiple lesions in the cerebellum in an immunocompetent host...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jeffrey M Weiss, Sharlene N Flesher, Robert Franklin, Jennifer L Collinger, Robert A Gaunt
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical microstimulation has shown promise as a means of evoking somatosensory percepts as part of a bidirectional brain-computer interface (BCI). However, microstimulation generates large electrical artifacts that dominate the recordings necessary for BCI control. These artifacts must be eliminated from the signal in real-time to allow for uninterrupted BCI decoding. APPROACH: We present a simple, robust modification to an existing clinical BCI system to allow for simultaneous recording and stimulation using a combination of signal blanking and digital filtering, without needing to explicitly account for varying parameters such as electrode locations or amplitudes...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Carlo Giussani, Lelio Guida, Francesco Canonico, Erik P Sganzerla
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical features of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) patients mainly involve the presence of cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) abnormalities and the development of communicating hydrocephalus. CVJ pathology is a critical aspect that severely influences the morbidity and mortality of MPS patients. Hydrocephalus is slowly progressing; it must be differentiated from cerebral atrophy, and rarely requires treatment. The aim of this paper was to review the literature concerning these conditions, highlighting their clinical, radiological, and surgical aspects to provide a practical point of view for clinicians...
November 16, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Shana Snarrenberg, Brinda Nishith Sevak, James L Patton
Nerve function loss can result from a variety of conditions that are either sudden onset like head and spinal cord trauma or slowly develop from chronic pressure as in the case of carpal tunnel syndrome. In either case we see compression ofthe nerve ultimately resulting in axon demyelination and loss of signal conduction. For chronic conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, treatments focus on alleviating symptoms. Some patients undergo surgery which can be successful in relieving pressure on the median nerve by inflamed surrounding tendons...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Tyler J Loftus, Mauricio Pipkin, Tiago Machuca, Olusola Oduntan
INTRODUCTION: Posterior mediastinal masses present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, particularly when large highly vascularized tumors extend toward or emanate from the spinal cord. The rare nature of these tumors precludes the development of standardized management algorithms, underscoring the importance of case reports. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 57 year old female presented with exertional dyspnea and right chest pressure. Chest radiography followed by computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a 13 cm posterior mediastinal mass involving the T7 vertebral body...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Mathieu Lalumiere, Guillaume Desroches, Philippe Gourdou, François Routhier, Laurent Bouyer, Dany H Gagnon
Teaching manual wheelchair users to perform wheelies using various rolling resistances is expected to facilitate learning of this advanced wheelchair skill. However, limited scientific evidence is available to support this approach. This study aimed to measure and compare postural stability and control requirements when maintaining a stationary wheelie on different rolling resistances. Eighteen manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury performed in a random order and maintained four 30-second wheelies on four rolling resistances: natural hard floor (NAT), 5-cm thick soft foam (LOW), 5-cm thick memory foam (MOD), and rear wheels blocked by wooden blocks (HIGH)...
November 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
Yong-Liang Zhong, Rui-Dong Qi, Wei-Guo Ma, Yi-Peng Ge, Zhi-Yu Qiao, Cheng-Nan Li, Jun-Ming Zhu, Li-Zhong Sun
Background: Several methods of arch vessel reconstruction, such as en bloc (island) and branched graft techniques, have been proposed to treat aortic arch pathologies during total arch replacement (TAR). We seek to review our experience with modified en bloc technique and left subclavian (LSCA)-left carotid artery (LCCA) transposition in TAR and frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure for chronic type A aortic dissection (CTAAD). Methods: From September 2010 to September 2016, 35 consecutive patients with CTAAD underwent modified en bloc arch reconstruction with LSCA-LCCA transposition during TAR and FET procedure...
September 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Shazia Rahat Chaudhry, Caleb Tsetse, Sajeev Ezhapilli Chennan
Ewing sarcoma of the cervical spine is a rare diagnosis. Early recognition and treatment of this condition improves survival. Reported is a case of a 20-year-old male patient who presented with increasing neck pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass with a primary differential diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma. As a result of mass effect and spinal cord compression, immediate medical intervention was deemed necessary to prevent neurologic deficits.
February 2019: Radiology case reports
Christopher Kurz, Philipp Süss, Carolin Arnsmeyer, Jonas Haehnle, Katrin Teichert, Guillaume Landry, Jan Hofmaier, Florian Exner, Lucas Hille, Florian Kamp, Christian Thieke, Ute Ganswindt, Chiara Valentini, Tobias Hölscher, Esther Troost, Mechthild Krause, Claus Belka, Karl-Heinz Küfer, Katia Parodi, Christian Richter
Proton radiotherapy (PT) requires accurate target alignment before each treatment fraction, ideally utilizing 3D in-room X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Typically, the optimal patient position is determined based on anatomical landmarks or implanted markers. In the presence of non-rigid anatomical changes, however, the planning scenario cannot be exactly reproduced and positioning should rather aim at finding the optimal position in terms of the actually applied dose. In this work, dose-guided patient alignment, implemented as multicriterial optimization (MCO) problem, was investigated in the scope of intensity-modulated and double-scattered PT (IMPT and DSPT) for the first time...
November 5, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
Shintaro Kimura, Midori Yamazaki, Manabu Tomohisa, Takashi Mori, Tokuma Yanai, Sadatoshi Maeda, Hiroaki Kamishina
A 4-year-old, male Bernese mountain dog was evaluated for a 1-year history of right hemiparesis. Computed tomography revealed a large hypoattenuating mass severely deforming the C5 vertebral arch, invading the C6 spinal canal, and causing spinal cord compression. The signal characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging indicated a lesion composed of adipose tissue. The mass was removed via right hemilaminectomy, and histopathological examination confirmed it was an infiltrative lipoma. The compressive lesion remained unresolved, so the dog underwent a second operation, after which he regained some ambulatory function...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Jinhan Zhu, Jun Zhang, Bo Qiu, Yimei Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Lixin Chen
BACKGROUND: In this study, a deep convolutional neural network (CNN)-based automatic segmentation technique was applied to multiple organs at risk (OARs) depicted in computed tomography (CT) images of lung cancer patients, and the results were compared with those generated through atlas-based automatic segmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An encoder-decoder U-Net neural network was produced. The trained deep CNN performed the automatic segmentation of CT images for 36 cases of lung cancer...
November 6, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Helmut Kern, Paolo Gargiulo, Amber Pond, Giovanna Albertin, Andrea Marcante, Ugo Carraro
After spinal cord injury (SCI), patients spend daily several hours in wheelchairs, sitting on their hamstring muscles. SCI causes muscle atrophy and wasting, which is especially severe after complete and permanent damage to lower motor neurons. A European Union (EU)-supported work demonstrates that electrical fields produced by large electrodes and purpose-developed electrical stimulators recover both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, producing a cushioning effect capable of benefitting SCI patients, even in the worst case of complete and long-term lower motor neuron denervation of leg muscles...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hiroaki Nakashima, Tokumi Kanemura, Hideki Yagi, Fumihiko Kato, Koji Sato, Mitsuhiro Kamiya, Hisatake Yoshihara, Kenyu Ito, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter case-controlled study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantitatively examine imaging findings of idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) and determine the relationship between the image findings and the severity of pre- and postoperative neurological symptoms. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Many radiographic types of ISCH have been identified with regard to the location of the hernial opening or amount of herniated spinal cord...
November 15, 2018: Spine
Emanuele Formento, Karen Minassian, Fabien Wagner, Jean Baptiste Mignardot, Camille G Le Goff-Mignardot, Andreas Rowald, Jocelyne Bloch, Silvestro Micera, Marco Capogrosso, Gregoire Courtine
Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of the spinal cord restores locomotion in animal models of spinal cord injury but is less effective in humans. Here we hypothesized that this interspecies discrepancy is due to interference between EES and proprioceptive information in humans. Computational simulations and preclinical and clinical experiments reveal that EES blocks a significant amount of proprioceptive input in humans, but not in rats. This transient deafferentation prevents modulation of reciprocal inhibitory networks involved in locomotion and reduces or abolishes the conscious perception of leg position...
October 31, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Weiping Zhu, Han Zhang, Xuning Chen, Kan Jin, Le Ning
Spinal cord injury (SCI) followed by extensive cell loss, inflammation, and scarring, often permanently damages neurological function. Biomaterial scaffolds are promising but currently have limited applicability in SCI because after entering the scaffold, regenerating axons tend to become trapped and rarelyre-enter the host tissue, the reasons for which remain to be completely explored. Here, we propose a mathematical model and computer simulation for characterizing regenerative axons growing along a scaffold following SCI, and how their growth may be guided...
2018: PloS One
Manuel J Ferreira-Pinto, Ludwig Ruder, Paolo Capelli, Silvia Arber
Locomotion is regulated by distributed circuits and achieved by the concerted activation of body musculature. While the basic properties of executive circuits in the spinal cord are fairly well understood, the precise mechanisms by which the brain impacts locomotion are much less clear. This Review discusses recent work unraveling the cellular identity, connectivity, and function of supraspinal circuits. We focus on their involvement in the regulation of the different phases of locomotion and their interaction with spinal circuits...
October 24, 2018: Neuron
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