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Computational AND Spinal Cord

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331931/cranial-thoracic-vertebral-canal-stenosis-in-three-juvenile-large-breed-brachycephalic-dogs-treated-by-unilateral-hemilaminectomy
#1
Amanda Miller, Andrew Marchevsky
OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical treatment and outcome for juvenile dogs with cranial thoracic vertebral canal stenosis treated by unilateral hemilaminectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Three large-breed brachycephalic dogs of various breeds (Dogue de Bordeaux, Australian Bulldog, Boerboel) with neurological signs consistent with a myelopathy of the third thoracic (T) to third lumbar (L) spinal cord segment. METHODS: Information on clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging, surgical procedures, postoperative complications, recovery and outcome is described...
March 23, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330804/cardiac-arrest-attributable-to-dysfunction-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-after-traumatic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Sei Won Kim, Chan Joo Park, Kyungil Kim, Yoon-Chung Kim
Bradycardia is the most common form of dysrhythmia developing after disruption of the sympathetic pathway by a spinal cord injury (SCI), and it can have fatal consequences, including cardiac arrest. Here, we report a case of cardiac arrest developing after cervical SCI attributable to sympathetic hypoactivity. A 26-year-old male pedestrian was admitted after a traffic accident. Radiologically, fractures were apparent at the C6-7 bilateral articular facets, and cord contusion with hemorrhage was evident at C4-7...
February 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329371/rare-spinal-cord-infarction-in-a-patient-with-acute-type-b-aortic-dissection
#3
Yuji Sekine, Takeshi Nishina, Yuichi Ueda
A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute epigastric discomfort and subsequent paraplegia. Computed tomography revealed acute type B aortic dissection with a thrombosed false lumen. Magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal spinal cord infarction. Paraplegia resolved completely within 1 h. However, on the following day, the patient developed motor impairment in the left leg, sensory disorder of the bilateral legs and urinary retention. The symptoms gradually improved with conservative medical therapy...
February 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327161/rehabilitation-of-hand-function-after-spinal-cord-injury-using-a-novel-handgrip-device-a-pilot-study
#4
Haydn Hoffman, Tiffany Sierro, Tianyi Niu, Melanie E Sarino, Majid Sarrafzadeh, David McArthur, V Reggie Edgerton, Daniel C Lu
BACKGROUND: Activity-based therapy (ABT) for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), which consists of repetitive use of muscles above and below the spinal lesion, improves locomotion and arm strength. Less data has been published regarding its effects on hand function. We sought to evaluate the effects of a weekly hand-focused therapy program using a novel handgrip device on grip strength and hand function in a SCI cohort. METHODS: Patients with SCI were enrolled in a weekly program that involved activities with the MediSens (Los Angeles, CA) handgrip...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325008/feasibility-of-an-ultra-low-power-digital-signal-processor-platform-as-a-basis-for-a-fully-implantable-brain-computer-interface-system
#5
Po T Wang, Keulanna Gandasetiawan, Colin M McCrimmon, Alireza Karimi-Bidhendi, Charles Y Liu, Payam Heydari, Zoran Nenadic, An H Do
A fully implantable brain-computer interface (BCI) can be a practical tool to restore independence to those affected by spinal cord injury. We envision that such a BCI system will invasively acquire brain signals (e.g. electrocorticogram) and translate them into control commands for external prostheses. The feasibility of such a system was tested by implementing its benchtop analogue, centered around a commercial, ultra-low power (ULP) digital signal processor (DSP, TMS320C5517, Texas Instruments). A suite of signal processing and BCI algorithms, including (de)multiplexing, Fast Fourier Transform, power spectral density, principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, Bayes rule, and finite state machine was implemented and tested in the DSP...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324978/influence-of-electrode-configuration-on-the-electric-field-distribution-during-transcutaneous-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-cervical-spine
#6
Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda
Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a recent technique with promising neuromodulatory effects on spinal neuronal circuitry. The main objective of the present study was to perform a finite element analysis of the electric field distribution in tsDCS in the cervical spine region, with varying electrode configurations and geometry. A computational model of a human trunk was generated with nine tissue meshes. Three electrode configurations were tested: A) rectangular saline-soaked sponge target and return electrodes placed over C3 and T3 spinous processes, respectively; B1) circular saline-soaked sponge target and return electrodes placed over C7 spinous process and right deltoid muscle, respectively; B2) same configuration as B1, considering circular shaped electrodes with sponge and rubber layers and a small circular connector on the top surface...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324971/a-small-portable-battery-powered-brain-computer-interface-system-for-motor-rehabilitation
#7
Colin M McCrimmon, Ming Wang, Lucas Silva Lopes, Po T Wang, Alireza Karimi-Bidhendi, Charles Y Liu, Payam Heydari, Zoran Nenadic, An H Do
Motor rehabilitation using brain-computer interface (BCI) systems may facilitate functional recovery in individuals after stroke or spinal cord injury. Nevertheless, these systems are typically ill-suited for widespread adoption due to their size, cost, and complexity. In this paper, a small, portable, and extremely cost-efficient (<;$200) BCI system has been developed using a custom electroencephalographic (EEG) amplifier array, and a commercial microcontroller and touchscreen. The system's performance was tested using a movement-related BCI task in 3 able-bodied subjects with minimal previous BCI experience...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324946/characterization-of-motor-cortex-activity-of-the-lower-limb-region
#8
Fadi Mikhail, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Matthew D Best, Kazutaka Takahashi, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
Understanding the functional properties of the motor cortex is a key step to developing effective neuroprosthetic and computer interfaces for amputees and patients with spinal cord injury. Most efforts have been directed towards studying the upper limb region of the motor cortex. Little has been done in the way of addressing lower limb motor cortical physiology. In this study, we implanted multiple microelectrode arrays along the central sulcus in the primary motor cortex of a macaque monkey. Using intracortical microstimulation, we identified neurons that evoked leg movements, either exclusively or mostly, and we studied their firing activity during a center-out arm movement task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317447/intraspinal-bronchogenic-cyst-series-of-case-reports-and-literature-review
#9
Xueying Ma, Wenfei Li, Chen Niu, Fengli Liang, Liping Guo, Tahir Mehmood Shakir, Ming Zhang
PURPOSE: Spinal bronchogenic cysts (SBCs) are rare congenital lesions. The clinical and imaging characteristics and treatment of SBCs are not well known. We studied three cases of SBCs retrospectively, which were registered in our department and analyzed eight case reports which were all published in English, focusing on providing a deeper knowledge of SBCs. METHODS: Three patients with SBCs registered in our department were retrospectively reviewed. Eight reported SBCs cases published from 1992 to 2015 were enrolled in our study...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306628/pediatric-spinal-cord-injury-without-radiographic-abnormality-in-the-era-of-advanced-imaging
#10
Caitlin A Farrell, Megan Hannon, Lois K Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review describes the current evidence on pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) with attention to the definition, epidemiology, and clinical presentation of the condition, as well as common MRI findings, management strategies, and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature demonstrates that with more widespread MRI use, our understanding of SCIWORA has improved. The new literature, although still limited, provides a more granular conceptualization of patterns of injury as well as potential prognostic stratification of patients based on MRI findings...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298579/computed-tomography-of-thoracolumbar-spine-trauma
#11
Teresa G Odle
Thoracolumbar spine trauma typically occurs when high-energy forces damage bony and ligamentous spinal structures and, in severe cases, the spinal cord. These injuries often cause considerable neurological deficits as a result of the damage. Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging method of choice for determining injury severity in most victims of multiple trauma. In addition to describing various types of thoracolumbar trauma, this article discusses the role of CT in emergency diagnosis and management of thoracolumbar injuries...
January 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297693/-a-case-of-central-type-disc-herniation-at-the-c7-t1-level-presenting-with-myelopathy
#12
Masatoshi Yunoki, Takahiro Kanda, Kenta Suzuki, Atsuhito Uneda, Koji Hirashita, Kimihiro Yoshino
In contrast to other levels of upper disc spaces, the Luschka joints are usually absent at the C7/T1 disc space. Therefore, it has been reported that the C7/T1 disc herniation is prone to herniate laterally rather than centrally. In this manuscript, we describe an extremely rare central-type disc herniation at the C7/T1 level presented with myelopathy. A 76-year-old man presented with a 20-day history of progressive gait disturbance. Physical examination revealed bilateral lower extremity hyperreflexia and mild foot numbness with no upper extremity motor weakness or sensory disturbance...
March 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297341/assessment-of-monte-carlo-algorithm-for-compliance-with-rtog-0915-dosimetric-criteria-in-peripheral-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#13
Damodar Pokhrel, Sumit Sood, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Christopher McClinton, Christopher Lominska, Parvesh Kumar, Fen Wang
The purpose of the study was to evaluate Monte Carlo-generated dose distributions with the X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm in the treatment of peripheral lung cancer patients using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with non-protocol dose-volume normalization and to assess plan outcomes utilizing RTOG 0915 dosimetric compliance criteria. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocols for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) currently require radiation dose to be calculated using tissue density heterogeneity corrections...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297335/on-the-accuracy-of-dose-prediction-near-metal-fixation-devices-for-spine-sbrt
#14
Zhangkai J Cheng, Regina M Bromley, Brad Oborn, Martin Carolan, Jeremy T Booth
The metallic fixations used in surgical procedures to support the spine mechanically usually consist of high-density materials. Radiation therapy to palliate spinal cord compression can include prophylactic inclusion of potential tumor around the site of such fixation devices. Determination of the correct density and shape of the spine fixation device has a direct effect on the dose calculation of the radiation field. Even with the application of modern computed tomography (CT), under- or overestimation of dose, both immediately next to the device and in the surrounding tissues, can occur due to inaccuracies in the dose prediction algorithm...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297300/on-correlations-in-imrt-planning-aims
#15
Arkajyoti Roy, Indra J Das, Omid Nohadani
The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279146/positional-accuracy-of-treating-multiple-versus-single-vertebral-metastases-with-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#16
Joe H Chang, Arnjeet Sangha, Derek Hyde, Hany Soliman, Sten Myrehaug, Mark Ruschin, Young Lee, Arjun Sahgal, Renee Korol
The aim of this study is to determine whether stereotactic body radiotherapy for multiple vertebral metastases treated with a single isocenter results in greater intrafraction errors than stereotactic body radiotherapy for single vertebral metastases and to determine whether the currently used spinal cord planning organ at risk volume and planning target volume margins are appropriate. Intrafraction errors were assessed for 65 stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments for vertebral metastases. Cone beam computed tomography images were acquired before, during, and after treatment for each fraction...
April 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275048/brain-machine-interfaces-from-basic-science-to-neuroprostheses-and-neurorehabilitation
#17
REVIEW
Mikhail A Lebedev, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) combine methods, approaches, and concepts derived from neurophysiology, computer science, and engineering in an effort to establish real-time bidirectional links between living brains and artificial actuators. Although theoretical propositions and some proof of concept experiments on directly linking the brains with machines date back to the early 1960s, BMI research only took off in earnest at the end of the 1990s, when this approach became intimately linked to new neurophysiological methods for sampling large-scale brain activity...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272090/subtentorial-meningioma-misdiagnosed-as-cerebral-hemorrhage-in-postmortem-computed-tomography-imaging-a-case-report
#18
Hui Qian, Yu Shao, Zhengdong Li, Donghua Zou, Jianhua Zhang, Maowen Wang, Lei Wan, Yijiu Chen
This report presents a case of a 52-year-old man who had a traffic accident and died later. External examination could not determine the cause of death. Approximately 3 weeks later, an autopsy was performed. Postmortem computed tomography was performed before the autopsy. Postmortem imaging was interpreted to show hemorrhage beneath the tentorium, and the C5 to C6 (the fifth and sixth cervical vertebra) disc space was widened. During the autopsy, a cervical spinal cord injury was confirmed. However, a meningioma was found under the tentorium instead of a hemorrhage...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269725/computational-models-of-non-invasive-brain-and-spinal-cord-stimulation
#19
Pedro C Miranda, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Sofia R Fernandes
Non-invasive brain and spinal cord stimulation techniques are increasingly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the induced electric field is necessary to interpret experimental results and to optimize field delivery. Since the induced electric field cannot be measured in vivo in humans, computational models play a fundamental role in determining the characteristics of the electric field. We produced computational models of the head and trunk to calculate the electric field induced in the brain and spinal cord by transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord direct current stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269706/a-stimulation-driven-exoskeleton-for-walking-after-paraplegia
#20
Sarah R Chang, Mark J Nandor, Lu Li, Kevin M Foglyano, John R Schnellenberger, Rudi Kobetic, Roger D Quinn, Ronald J Triolo
An untethered version of a stimulation-driven exoskeleton was evaluated for its ability to restore walking after paralysis from spinal cord injury. The hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP) combined a passive variable-constraint exoskeleton for stability and support with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to contract the paralyzed muscles to drive limb movement. This self-contained HNP was operated by an onboard controller that sampled sensor signals, generated appropriate commands to both the exoskeletal constraints and integrated stimulator, and transmitted data wirelessly via Bluetooth to an off-board computer for real-time monitoring and recording for offline analysis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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