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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773653/inhibition-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-enhances-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#1
Lei Huang, Jehnan Liu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Katelyn Sibley, Sonia M Najjar, Mary M Lee, Joae Qiong Wu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) regulates gene expression either transcriptionallyly by symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3, or at the post-translational level by methylation of non-histone target proteins. While emerging evidence suggests that PRMT5 functions as an oncogene, its role in metabolic diseases is not well defined. We investigated the role of PRMT5 in promoting high fat-induced hepatic steatosis. High fat diet up-regulated PRMT5 levels in the liver, but not in other metabolically relevant tissues such as skeletal muscle or white and brown adipose tissue...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772437/sulforaphane-effects-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-culture-of-adult-cardiomyocytes
#2
Giana Blume Corssac, Cristina Campos-Carraro, Alexandre Hickmann, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Rafael Oliveira Fernandes, Adriane Belló-Klein
The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of sulforaphane (SFN) in cultures of adult cardiomyocytes, evaluating oxidative stress at different times. Cells were isolated, cultured, and divided into 4 groups: Control, SFN (5μM), H2 O2 (5μM), and SFN+H2 O2 (5μM both), and subdivided into groups undergoing 1 or 24 h of SFN incubation. After 1 h of incubation, reactive oxygen species production was 40% lower in the SFN group than the Control, and lipid peroxidation was 63% higher in the H2 O2 group than the Control, and it was reduced in both of the SFN groups...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768193/gsk3%C3%AE-regulates-brain-energy-metabolism
#3
Stephen A Martin, Dylan C Souder, Karl N Miller, Josef P Clark, Abdul Kader Sagar, Kevin W Eliceiri, Luigi Puglielli, T Mark Beasley, Rozalyn M Anderson
GSK3β is a serine threonine kinase implicated in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although the role of GSK3β in growth and pathology has been extensively studied, little is known about the metabolic consequences of GSK3β manipulation, particularly in the brain. Here, we show that GSK3β regulates mitochondrial energy metabolism in human H4 neuroglioma cells and rat PC12-derived neuronal cells and that inhibition of GSK3β in mice in vivo alters metabolism in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757056/whey-protein-augments-leucinemia-and-post-exercise-p70s6k1-activity-compared-to-a-hydrolysed-collagen-blend-when-in-recovery-from-training-with-low-carbohydrate-availability
#4
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
We examined the effects of whey versus collagen protein on skeletal muscle cell signalling responses associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in recovery from an acute training session completed with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability. In a repeated measures design (after adhering to a 36-h exercise-dietary intervention to standardise pre-exercise muscle glycogen), eight males completed a 75-min non-exhaustive cycling protocol and consumed 22 g of a hydrolysed collagen blend (COLLAGEN) or whey (WHEY) protein 45 min prior to exercise, 22 g during exercise and 22 g immediately post-exercise...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755339/therapeutic-potential-of-a-prolyl-hydroxylase-inhibitor-fg-4592-for-parkinson-s-diseases-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regulation-of-redox-biology-and-mitochondrial-function
#5
Xuan Li, Xin-Xin Cui, Ya-Jing Chen, Ting-Ting Wu, Huaxi Xu, Huiyong Yin, Yun-Cheng Wu
As the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular responses to hypoxia, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). HIF-1α is normally degraded through ubiquitination after hydroxylation by prolyl hydroxylases (PHD). Emerging evidence has suggested that HIF PHD inhibitors (HIF-PHI) may have neuroprotective effects on PD through increasing HIF-1α levels. However, the therapeutic benefit of HIF-PHI for PD remains poorly explored due to the lack of proper clinical compounds and understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749459/ctrp9-ameliorates-cellular-senescence-via-pgc%C3%A2-1%C3%AE-ampk-signaling-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Qun Li, Zhangzhang Zhu, Chengde Wang, Lin Cai, Jianglong Lu, Yongchun Wang, Jiadong Xu, Zhipeng Su, Weiming Zheng, Xianbin Chen
Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide, and thus, it imposes great financial burdens on both individuals and society. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a promising approach for ischemic brain injury. However, MSC treatment potential is progressively reduced with age, limiting their therapeutic efficacy for brain repair post‑stroke. C1q and tumor necrosis factor‑related protein 9 (CTRP9) is a novel cytoprotective cytokine with antioxidant effects, which is highly expressed in brain tissue...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742127/amelioration-of-huntington-s-disease-phenotypes-by-beta-lapachone-is-associated-with-increases-in-sirt1-expression-creb-phosphorylation-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-deacetylation
#7
Mijung Lee, Jae-Jun Ban, Jin-Young Chung, Wooseok Im, Manho Kim
Huntington's disease (HD) is one of the most devastating genetic neurodegenerative disorders with no effective medical therapy. β-Lapachone (βL) is a natural compound obtained from the bark of the Lapacho tree and has been reported to have beneficial effects on various diseases. Sirt1 is a deacetylase of the sirtuin family and deacetylates proteins including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) which is associated with mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740774/sirtuin-signaling-controls-mitochondrial-function-in-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia
#8
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) deficient in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α) is a metabolic disorder characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and a long-term complication of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in GSD-Ia but the underlying mechanism and its contribution to HCA/HCC development remain unclear. We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency leads to downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling that underlies defective hepatic autophagy in GSD-Ia...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739985/apple-procyanidins-promote-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-proteoglycan-biosynthesis-in-chondrocytes
#9
Isao Masuda, Masato Koike, Shohei Nakashima, Yu Mizutani, Yusuke Ozawa, Kenji Watanabe, Yoko Sawada, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Atsushi Sugimoto, Hidetoshi Nojiri, Koichi Sashihara, Koutaro Yokote, Takahiko Shimizu
Apples are well known to have various benefits for the human body. Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols found in apples that have demonstrated effects on the circulatory system and skeletal organs. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a locomotive syndrome that is histologically characterized by cartilage degeneration associated with the impairment of proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes. However, no useful therapy for cartilage degeneration has been developed to date. In the present study, we detected beneficial effects of apple polyphenols or their procyanidins on cartilage homeostasis...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738369/cardioprotective-effects-of-metformin
#10
Christine Driver, Kayode Dominion Samuel Bamitale, Aniessa Kazi, Mehnaaz Olla, Annah Ntsoaki Nyane, Peter Mark Oroma Owira
Metformin, routinely used as first-line drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes has been shown to have cardioprotective effects beyond its glycemic control. These have been attributed to increases in Akt concentrations and activation of protein kinases in the RISK pathways. which prevent the mitochondrial mPTP from opening and rupturing it and therefore protects myocyte viability. In myocardial infarction and subsequent reperfusion, metformin activation of AMPK promotes glycolysis and keeps the mPTP closed...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735636/potential-protective-mechanism-in-the-cardiac-microvascular-injury
#11
Xiuchuan Li, Juanni Hou, Jin Du, Jian Feng, Yi Yang, Yang Shen, Sha Chen, Juan Feng, Dachun Yang, De Li, Haifeng Pei, Yongjian Yang
Cardiac microvascular injury often occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who develop hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, besides reported contradictory roles in cardiac diseases, the function of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) in cardiac microvessels is not well defined. This study was performed to determine the detailed role of TRPV1 in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) in T2DM. T2DM mice were established by multiple injections of low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat feeding...
May 7, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730652/resistin-regulates-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-by-suppressing-expression-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activator-receptor-gamma-coactivator-1%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE
#12
Fang He, Jie-Qiong Jin, Qing-Qing Qin, Yong-Qin Zheng, Ting-Ting Li, Yun Zhang, Jun-Dong He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormal fatty acid β oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Resistin is an adipokine that has been considered as a potential factor in obesity-mediated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the effect of resistin on fatty acid β oxidation needs to be elucidated. METHODS: We detected the effects of resistin on the expression of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) transcriptional regulatory genes, the fatty acid transport gene, and mitochondrial β-oxidation genes using real-time PCR...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730292/altered-expression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-pdx1-and-their-methylation-status-are-associated-with-fetal-glucose-metabolism-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Lizhen Wang, Hailing Fan, Ludan Zhou, Yanjun Wu, Hongping Lu, Jing Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the expression and methylation of PGC-1α and PDX1 in placenta and their effects on fetal glucose metabolism. METHODS: 20 cases of full-term placenta without pregnancy complications and umbilical cord abnormalities and 20 cases of GDM group were collected. DNA and RNA were isolated from samples of tissue collected from the fetal side of the placenta immediately after delivery. DNA methylation was quantified at 7 CpG sites within the PGC-1α and PDX1 genes using PCR amplification of bisulfite treated DNA and subsequent DNA sequencing...
May 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729707/swainsonine-induces-apoptosis-of-rat-cardiomyocytes-via-mitochondria%C3%A2-mediated-pathway
#14
Xiang Zheng, Shushu Wang, Dakai Chen, Xiaoming Yang
Swainsonine is an Astragalus membranaceus extract. It is indole, alkaloid, and soluble in water. Its effect on rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis, and the mechanisms underlying that effect, were investigated by inducing apoptosis in H9c2 cells. This was detected by MTT assay, Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double staining and western blotting. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to confirm swainsonine's effect on mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species, while an ATP-dependent bioluminescence assay kit served to find the ATP contents...
April 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729358/doxorubicin-induced-mitophagy-and-mitochondrial-damage-is-associated-with-dysregulation-of-the-pink1-parkin-pathway
#15
Jian Yin, Jiabin Guo, Qiang Zhang, Lan Cui, Li Zhang, Tingfen Zhang, Jun Zhao, Jin Li, Alistair Middleton, Paul L Carmichael, Shuangqing Peng
The usefulness of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anticancer agent, is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mitochondria play a central role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity though the precise mechanisms are still obscure. Increasing evidence indicates that excessive activation of mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction are key causal events leading to DOX-induced cardiac injury. The PINK1/parkin pathway has emerged as a critical pathway in regulation of mitophagy as well as mitochondrial function. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of PINK1/parkin pathway in DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and cardiotoxicity...
May 3, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727016/metabolic-stress-dependent-regulation-of-the-mitochondrial-biogenic-molecular-response-to-high-intensity-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#16
M Fiorenza, T P Gunnarsson, M Hostrup, F M Iaia, F Schena, H Pilegaard, J Bangsbo
KEY POINTS: Low-volume high-intensity exercise training promotes muscle mitochondrial adaptations that resemble the ones associated with high-volume moderate-intensity exercise training. These training-induced mitochondrial adaptations stem from the cumulative effects of transient transcriptional responses to each acute exercise bout. However, whether metabolic stress is a key mediator of the acute molecular responses to high-intensity exercise is still incompletely understood. Herein we show that, by comparing different work-matched low-volume high-intensity exercise protocols, more marked metabolic perturbations were associated with enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis-related muscle mRNA responses...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723566/triptolide-induced-mitochondrial-damage-dysregulates-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#17
Yisen Cheng, Gaojian Chen, Li Wang, Jiamin Kong, Ji Pan, Yue Xi, Feihai Shen, Zhiying Huang
Triptolide is a major active ingredient of tripterygium glycosides, used for the therapy of immune and inflammatory diseases. However, its clinical applications are limited by severe male fertility toxicity associated with decreased sperm count, mobility and testicular injures. In this study, we determined that triptoide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction triggered reduction of lactate and dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism in mouse Sertoli cells. First, triptolide induced mitochondrial damage through the suppressing of proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) activity and protein...
April 30, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717261/antagonizing-cd105-enhances-radiation-sensitivity-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Anisha Madhav, Allen Andres, Frank Duong, Rajeev Mishra, Subhash Haldar, Zhenqiu Liu, Bryan Angara, Roberta Gottlieb, Zachary S Zumsteg, Neil A Bhowmick
Radiation therapy is the primary intervention for nearly half of the patients with localized advanced prostate cancer and standard of care for recurrent disease following surgery. The development of radiation-resistant disease is an obstacle for nearly 30-50% of patients undergoing radiotherapy. A better understanding of mechanisms that lead to radiation resistance could aid in the development of sensitizing agents to improve outcome. Here we identified a radiation-resistance pathway mediated by CD105, downstream of BMP and TGF-β signaling...
May 2, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717226/aldosterone-impairs-mitochondrial-function-in-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-via-a-kinase-anchor-protein-12
#19
Jaime Ibarrola, Rafael Sadaba, Ernesto Martinez-Martinez, Amaia Garcia-Peña, Vanessa Arrieta, Virginia Alvarez, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Alicia Gainza, Victoria Cachofeiro, Enrique Santamaria, Joaquin Fernandez-Irigoyen, Frederic Jaisser, Natalia Lopez-Andres
Aldosterone (Aldo) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac oxidative stress. Using a proteomic approach, A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)-12 has been identified as a down-regulated protein by Aldo in human cardiac fibroblasts. We aim to characterize whether AKAP-12 down-regulation could be a deleterious mechanism which induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in cardiac cells. Aldo down-regulated AKAP-12 via its mineralocorticoid receptor, increased oxidative stress and induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by decreased mitochondrial-DNA and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expressions in human cardiac fibroblasts...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715464/spermidine-spermine-n1-acetyltransferase-mediated-polyamine-catabolism-regulates-beige-adipocyte-biogenesis
#20
Fang Yuan, Lin Zhang, Yang Cao, Wei Gao, Can Zhao, Yuan Fang, Kamyar Zahedi, Manoocher Soleimani, Xiang Lu, Zhuyuan Fang, Qin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Cold and β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists activate beige adipocyte biogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). The two stimuli also induce expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT. The low-grade inflammation may further promote WAT browning. However, the mechanisms to reconcile these two biological processes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of the rate-limiting polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) in regulating beige adipocyte biogenesis and inflammation...
April 28, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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