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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723637/increasing-ucp2-expression-and-decreasing-nox1-4-expression-maintain-chondrocyte-phenotype-by-reducing-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#1
Yansong Miao, Yuefu Dong, Ping Huang, Xiang Zhao, Zhenyu Huang, Jufang Yao, He Li, Qingrong Xu
The aim of this study is to demonstrate that improving the mitochondrial function can inhibite the loss of chondrocyte phenotype by regulating the expression of uncoupling protein 2(UCP2) and NADPH oxidase1/4(NOX1/4) to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species(ROS). The effects of mitochondrial biogenesis "master regular" peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM), UCP2, and NOX1/4 on chondrocyte phenotype was examined. It was found that when the chondrocyte phenotype was lost, PGC-1α, UCP2, and TFAM expression decreased, while NOX1/4 expression increased...
July 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723567/cold-inducible-sirt6-regulates-thermogenesis-of-brown-and-beige-fat
#2
Lu Yao, Xiaona Cui, Qi Chen, Xiaoying Yang, Fude Fang, Jun Zhang, Guoqing Liu, Wanzhu Jin, Yongsheng Chang
Promoting development and function of brown and beige fat may reduce obesity. Here, we show that fat SIRT6 expression is markedly induced by cold exposure and a β-adrenergic agonist. Deletion of SIRT6 in adipose tissue impairs the thermogenic function of brown adipocytes, causing a morphological "whitening" of brown fat, reduced oxygen (O2) consumption, obesity, decreased core body temperature, and cold sensitivity. Fat SIRT6-deleted mice exhibit increased blood glucose levels, severe insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720712/regulation-of-the-autophagy-system-during-chronic-contractile-activity-induced-muscle-adaptations
#3
Yuho Kim, David A Hood
Skeletal muscle is adaptable to exercise stimuli via the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and recent studies have suggested that autophagy also plays a role in exercise-induced muscle adaptations. However, it is still obscure how muscle regulates autophagy over the time course of training adaptations. This study examined the expression of autophagic proteins in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to chronic contractile activity (CCA; 6 h/day, 9V, 10 Hz continuous, 0.1 msec pulse duration) for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 8/group)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719892/cinnamaldehyde-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-by-inducing-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#4
Jiacheng Zuo, Dandan Zhao, Na Yu, Xin Fang, Qianqian Mu, Yue Ma, Fangfang Mo, Rui Wu, Rufeng Ma, Lili Wang, Ruyuan Zhu, Haixia Liu, Dongwei Zhang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity has become a major health concern with few effective medications. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether CA shows anti-obesity activity remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effects of CA on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice fed an HFD for 12 weeks were supplemented with CA (40 mg/kg/day) via gavage for an additional 8 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715885/the-effects-of-exercise-and-cold-exposure-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-and-white-adipose-tissue
#5
Nana Chung, Jonghoon Park, Kiwon Lim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise or/and cold exposure regulate mitochondria biogenesis-related gene expression in soleus and inguinal adipose tissue of mice. METHODS: Forty ICR 5-week old male mice were divided into four groups: thermoneutrality-untrained (23 ± 1 °C in room temperature, n=10), cold-water immersion (24 ± 1 °C, n=10), exercise in neutral temperature (34 ± 1 °C, n=10), and exercise in cold temperature (24 ± 1 °C, n=10)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713989/effects-of-proton-beam-irradiation-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-a-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#6
Byung Geun Ha, Sung Suk Jung, Yun Hee Shon
Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713491/mulberry-anthocyanin-extract-ameliorates-oxidative-damage-in-hepg2-cells-and-prolongs-the-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-mapk-and-nrf2-pathways
#7
Fujie Yan, Yushu Chen, Ramila Azat, Xiaodong Zheng
Mulberry anthocyanins possess many pharmacological effects including liver protection, anti-inflammation, and anticancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE) exerts beneficial effects against oxidative stress damage in HepG2 cells and Caenorhabditis elegans. In vitro, MAE prevented cytotoxicity, increased glucose consumption and uptake, and eliminated excessive intracellular free radicals in H2O2-induced cells. Moreover, MAE pretreatment maintained Nrf2, HO-1, and p38 MAPK stimulation and abolished upregulation of p-JNK, FOXO1, and PGC-1α that were involved in oxidative stress and insulin signalling modulation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712868/salicylates-promote-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-regulating-the-expression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-murine-3t3-l1-pre-adipocytes
#8
Yimin Yan, Xiaohong Yang, Tao Zhao, Yi Zou, Rui Li, Yancheng Xu
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Decreased mitochondrial density and mitochondrial copy numbers have been found in insulin-resistant individuals. Restoration of the number of mitochondria and normal mitochondrial function has become an important therapeutic target of diabetes. Salicylate, the main active ingredient in aspirin, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. Little information regarding the effects of salicylate on mitochondrial function has been reported...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711948/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE-regulates-the-expression-of-b-cell-lymphoma-leukemia-2-bcl-2-and-promotes-the-survival-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-via-pgc-1%C3%AE-err%C3%AE-interaction-in-the-absence-of-serum-hypoxia-and-high-glucose
#9
Min Wang, Guangxin Yang, Xiaoyan Jiang, Debin Lu, Hao Mei, Bing Chen
BACKGROUND To study the effect of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) apoptosis, and further investigated its detailed molecular mechanisms in the absence of serum, hypoxia, and high glucose conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS In our study, we first evaluated the expression rates of CD14, CD34, CD45, CD44, CD29, and Sca-1 surface markers on MSCs by flow cytometry. Then, the ability of osteogenic and fatty differentiation of MSCs was determined by osteogenic differentiation and adipogenesis reagent kit...
July 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706558/qiliqiangxin-enhances-cardiac-glucose-metabolism-and-improves-diastolic-function-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#10
Jingfeng Wang, Zhiming Li, Yanyan Wang, Jingjing Zhang, Weipeng Zhao, Mingqiang Fu, Xueting Han, Jingmin Zhou, Junbo Ge
Cardiac diastolic dysfunction has emerged as a growing type of heart failure. The present study aims to explore whether Qiliqiangxin (QL) can benefit cardiac diastolic function in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) through enhancement of cardiac glucose metabolism. Fifteen 12-month-old male SHRs were randomly divided into QL-treated, olmesartan-treated, and saline-treated groups. Age-matched WKY rats served as normal controls. Echocardiography and histological analysis were performed. Myocardial glucose uptake was determined by (18)F-FDG using small-animal PET imaging...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706491/early-life-exposure-to-lead-induces-cognitive-impairment-in-elder-mice-targeting-sirt1-phosphorylation-and-oxidative-alterations
#11
Lijie Zhang, Runqi Tu, Yawei Wang, Yazhen Hu, Xing Li, Xuemin Cheng, Yanyan Yin, Wenjie Li, Hui Huang
Pb is a potential risk factor for cognition, mainly mediated by enhanced oxidative stress. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with crucial anti-oxidative property, is recently implicated in preventing cognitive deficits in normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Its beneficial effects have been linked to sirtuin 1(SIRT1) activation. The aim of this work is to investigate the possible linkage between alterations in Pb-induced oxidative damage and cognitive impairment by prolonged treatment of resveratrol...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694700/role-of-sirt1-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-autistic-spectrum-disorder
#12
Xiaosong Bu, De Wu, Xiaomei Lu, Li Yang, Xiaoyan Xu, Juan Wang, Jiulai Tang
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder and has a high prevalence in children. Recently, mitochondrial oxidative stress has been proposed to be associated with ASD. Besides, SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling plays an important role in combating oxidative stress. In this study, we sought to determine the role of SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling in the ASD lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In this study, the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1/PGC-1α axis genes were assessed in 35 children with ASD and 35 healthy controls (matched for age, gender, and IQ)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681509/akt2-ablation-prolongs-life-span-and-improves-myocardial-contractile-function-with-adaptive-cardiac-remodeling-role-of-sirt1-mediated-autophagy-regulation
#13
Jun Ren, Lifang Yang, Li Zhu, Xihui Xu, Asli F Ceylan, Wei Guo, Jian Yang, Yingmei Zhang
Aging is accompanied with unfavorable geometric and functional changes in the heart involving dysregulation of Akt and autophagy. This study examined the impact of Akt2 ablation on life span and cardiac aging as well as the mechanisms involved with a focus on autophagy and mitochondrial integrity. Cardiac geometry, contractile, and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated using echocardiography, IonOptix(®) edge-detection and fura-2 techniques. Levels of Sirt1, mitochondrial integrity, autophagy, and mitophagy markers were evaluated using Western blot...
July 5, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679683/cold-water-immersion-following-sprint-interval-training-does-not-alter-endurance-signaling-pathways-or-training-adaptations-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#14
James R Broatch, Aaron C Petersen, David John Bishop
We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms by which post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) may alter key markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following both a single session and six weeks of sprint interval training (SIT). Nineteen males performed a single SIT session, followed by one of two 15-min recovery conditions: cold-water immersion (COLD; 10°C) or a passive room-temperature control (CON; 23°C). Sixteen of these participants also completed six weeks SIT, each session followed immediately by their designated recovery condition...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678735/browning-formation-markers-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-relation-to-resting-energy-expenditure-physical-activity-and-diet-in-humans
#15
Petros C Dinas, Angelica Valente, Marnie Granzotto, Marco Rossato, Roberto Vettor, Aikaterini Zacharopoulou, Andres E Carrillo, Natalie A Davies, Paraskevi Gkiata, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Yiannis Koutedakis, George S Metsios, Andreas D Flouris
Background Regular exercise and diet may contribute to white adipose tissue (WAT) conversion into a brown adipose-like phenotype that may increase resting energy expenditure (REE), leading to weight loss. We examined the relationship between REE, physical activity (PA) participation and diet with browning formation markers of subcutaneous WAT in healthy men. Materials and methods We assessed REE, diet and body composition of 32 healthy men [age (years): 36.06 ± 7.36, body mass index (BMI): 27.06 ± 4.62 (kg/m2)]...
July 5, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676551/increased-fndc5-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#16
Brianne L Guilford, Jake C Parson, Caleb W Grote, Stephanie N Vick, Janelle M Ryals, Douglas E Wright
FNDC5/irisin, has recently been identified as a novel protein that stimulates the "browning" of white adipose by inducing thermogenesis via increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). We tested the hypothesis that high fat diet-induced prediabetic mice would exhibit increased FNDC5 and this effect would be attenuated by chronic exercise. C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups for the 4 week intervention: Standard diet (Std, n = 12), High fat diet (HF, n = 14), or High fat diet and free access to a running wheel (HFEX, n = 14)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668760/effect-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-liver-mitochondrial-function-in-chinook-salmon
#17
Andrew Yeh, David J Marcinek, James P Meador, Evan P Gallagher
We previously reported the bioaccumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and perfluorinated compounds, in field-collected juvenile Chinook salmon from urban estuaries of Puget Sound, WA (Meador et al., 2016). Although the toxicological impacts of CECs on salmon are poorly understood, several of the detected contaminants disrupt mitochondrial function in other species. Here, we sought to determine whether environmental exposures to CECs are associated with hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in juvenile Chinook...
June 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665260/weight-changes-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-calorie-restricted-obese-mice-fed-high-fat-diets-containing-corn-or-flaxseed-oil-physiological-role-of-sugar-replacement-with-polyphenol-rich-grape
#18
Hastimansooreh Ansar, Negar Zamaninour, Abolghassem Djazayery, Hamideh Pishva, Mohammadreza Vafa, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Aydin Dilmaghanian, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Farzad Shidfar
OBJECTIVE: Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. METHODS: Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663335/mitochondrial-quality-control-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells-damaged-by-s-aureus-pneumonia-in-mice
#19
Hagir B Suliman, Bryan D Kraft, Raquel R Bartz, Lingye Chen, Karen E Welty-Wolf, Claude A Piantadosi
(242 words) Mitochondrial damage is often overlooked in acute lung injury (ALI), but most of the lung's physiological processes, such as airway tone, muco-ciliary clearance, Va/Q matching, and immune surveillance require aerobic energy provision. Because the cell's processes of mitochondrial quality control (QC) regulate the elimination and replacement of damaged mitochondria to support cell survival, we evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in the alveolar region of mice in a validated S. aureus pneumonia model...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659826/no-additional-benefits-of-block-over-evenly-distributed-high-intensity-interval-training-within-a-polarized-microcycle
#20
Kerry McGawley, Elisabeth Juudas, Zuzanna Kazior, Kristoffer Ström, Eva Blomstrand, Ola Hansson, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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