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PGC-1α

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108329/exercise-increases-mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-and-drp1-expression-in-the-brains-of-aged-mice
#1
Aaron M Gusdon, Jason Callio, Giovanna DiStefano, Robert M O'Doherty, Bret H Goodpaster, Paul M Coen, Charleen T Chu
Exercise is known to have numerous beneficial effects. Recent studies indicate that exercise improves mitochondrial energetics not only in skeletal muscle but also in other tissues. While exercise elicits positive effects on memory, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity, the effects of exercise on brain mitochondrial energetics remain relatively unknown. Herein, we studied the effects of exercise training in old and young mice on brain mitochondrial energetics, in comparison to known effects on peripheral tissues that utilize fatty acid oxidation...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107769/the-transcriptional-modulator-ifrd1-controls-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-under-short-term-adrenergic-stimulation-in-brown-adipocytes
#2
Gyujin Park, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Kanayama, Kazuya Fukasawa, Takashi Iezaki, Yuki Onishi, Kakeru Ozaki, Yukari Nakamura, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada, Eiichi Hinoi
Sympathetic tone activates the function of classical brown adipocytes, which constitutively exist in the brown adipose tissue, and inducible brown adipocytes (so-called beige adipocytes), which sporadically reside within the white adipose tissue. Here we identified the transcriptional modulator interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) as a negative regulator of thermogenic and mitochondrial gene expression in brown adipocytes. Ifrd1 expression was markedly induced by cold exposure and administration of CL-316243 (a β3 adrenergic agonist) in interscapular brown adipose and inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal visceral white adipose tissue, in vivo...
January 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104916/trpv1-activation-counters-diet-induced-obesity-through-sirtuin-1-activation-and-prdm-16-deacetylation-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#3
P Baskaran, V Krishnan, K Fettel, P Gao, Z Zhu, J Ren, B Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Increasing metabolism and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) can help in overcoming obesity. Here, we investigated the effect of activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the upregulation of thermogenic proteins in BAT to counter diet-induced obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) on the expression of metabolically important thermogenic proteins in BAT of wild type and TRPV1(-/-) mice that received either a normal chow or high fat (±capsaicin; TRPV1 activator) diet by immunoblotting...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096382/mitochondrial-activation-chemicals-synergize-with-surface-receptor-pd-1-blockade-for-t-cell-dependent-antitumor-activity
#4
Kenji Chamoto, Partha S Chowdhury, Alok Kumar, Kazuhiro Sonomura, Fumihiko Matsuda, Sidonia Fagarasan, Tasuku Honjo
Although immunotherapy by PD-1 blockade has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, further improvement in efficacy is required to reduce the fraction of less sensitive patients. In mouse models of PD-1 blockade therapy, we found that tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) carry increased mitochondrial mass and more reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS generation by ROS precursors or indirectly by mitochondrial uncouplers synergized the tumoricidal activity of PD-1 blockade by expansion of effector/memory CTLs in DLNs and within the tumor...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095627/melatonin-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-porcine-oocytes
#5
Jun-Xue Jin, Sanghoon Lee, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Geon A Kim, Byeong Chun Lee
It is being increasingly recognized that the processes of lipogenesis and lipolysis are important for providing an essential energy source during oocyte maturation and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated that melatonin has a role in lipid metabolism regulation, including lipogenesis, lipolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of melatonin on lipid metabolism during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulated gene expression related to lipogenesis (ACACA, FASN, PPARγ, and SREBF1)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092746/supranutritional-selenium-intake-from-enriched-milk-casein-impairs-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-via-attenuated-irs-pi3k-akt-signaling-and-decreased-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Scott R L Cieslar, Jenny M Warrington, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
Selenium (Se)-enriched milk provides antioxidant benefits and has therapeutic potential against cancer. However, both antidiabetic and prodiabetic effects have been attributed to Se. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Se-enriched milk casein on insulin sensitivity in rats when given at the requirement of 0.25 ppm Se and supranutritionally on both low- and high-fat diets. Two hundred sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low- or high-fat diets containing one, two or eight times the Se requirement in a randomized block design...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091624/paracrine-cross-talk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-macrophages-in-exercise-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-controlled-bnp
#7
Regula Furrer, Petra S Eisele, Alexander Schmidt, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
Activation of resident and infiltrating immune cells is a central event in training adaptation and other contexts of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. A precise orchestration of inflammatory events in muscle fibers and immune cells is required after recurrent contraction-relaxation cycles. However, the mechanistic aspects of this important regulation remain largely unknown. We now demonstrate that besides a dominant role in controlling cellular metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) also has a profound effect on cytokine expression in muscle tissue...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091351/supplementing-the-maternal-diet-of-rats-with-butyrate-enhances-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-the-skeletal-muscles-of-weaned-offspring
#8
Yanping Huang, Shixing Gao, Guo Jun, Ruqian Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal dietary butyrate supplementation on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in offspring skeletal muscle and the possible mediating mechanisms. Virgin female rats were randomly assigned to either control or butyrate diets (1 % butyrate sodium) throughout gestation and lactation. At the end of lactation (21 d), the offspring were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta under anaesthesia. The results showed that maternal butyrate supplementation throughout gestation and lactation did not affect offspring body weight...
January 16, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090143/acute-exercise-regulates-adipogenic-gene-expression-in-white-adipose-tissue
#9
Y Shen, H Zhou, W Jin, H J Lee
White adipose tissue expansion is associated with both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes. Exercise training results in adipocyte hypotrophy by activating lipolysis, but it is poorly understood whether exercise regulates adipogenesis by altering adipogenic gene expression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of swimming exercise on adipogenic gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group and a 120-minute swimming exercise group...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087733/metformin-restores-the-mitochondrial-network-and-reverses-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-down-syndrome-cells
#10
Antonella Izzo, Maria Nitti, Nunzia Mollo, Simona Paladino, Claudio Procaccini, Deriggio Faicchia, Gaetano Calì, Rita Genesio, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Rita Cicatiello, Elena Polishchuk, Roman Polishchuk, Paolo Pinton, Giuseppe Matarese, Anna Conti, Lucio Nitsch
Alterations in mitochondrial activity and morphology have been demonstrated in human cells and tissues from individuals with Down syndrome (DS), as well as in DS mouse models. An impaired activity of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α/PPARGC1Adue to the overexpression of chromosome 21 genes, such as NRIP1/RIP140, has emerged as an underlying cause of mitochondrial dysfunction in DS. We tested the hypothesis that the activation of the PGC-1α pathway might indeed reverse this mitochondrial dysfunction.
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079150/sustained-kidney-biochemical-derangement-in-treated-experimental-diabetes-a-clue-to-metabolic-memory
#11
Antonio Anax F de Oliveira, Tiago F de Oliveira, Larissa L Bobadilla, Camila C M Garcia, Carolina Maria Berra, Nadja C de Souza-Pinto, Marisa H G Medeiros, Paolo Di Mascio, Roberto Zatz, Ana Paula de M Loureiro
The occurrence of biochemical alterations that last for a long period of time in diabetic individuals even after adequate handling of glycemia is an intriguing phenomenon named metabolic memory. In this study, we show that a kidney pathway is gradually altered during the course of diabetes and remains persistently changed after late glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. This pathway comprises an early decline of uric acid clearance and pAMPK expression followed by fumarate accumulation, increased TGF-β expression, reduced PGC-1α expression, and downregulation of methylation and hydroxymethylation of mitochondrial DNA...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078253/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-mitochondrial-dna-replication-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-c2c12-muscle-cells
#12
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sohee Moon, Seunghae Kim, Yangha Kim
Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process requiring coordinated expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and it controls mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication within diverse tissues, including muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on mtDNA copy number and PGC-1α promoter activity in C2C12 muscle cells...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074493/ampk-does-not-play-a-requisite-role-in-regulation-of-ppargc1a-gene-expression-via-the-alternative-promoter-in-endurance-trained-human-skeletal-muscle
#13
Daniil V Popov, Evgeny A Lysenko, Alexey D Butkov, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Dmitriy V Perfilov, Olga L Vinogradova
In human skeletal muscle, PGC-1α is constitutively expressed via the canonical promoter. By contrast, the expression of PGC-1α mRNA via the alternative promoter was found to be highly dependent on the intensity of exercise and to contribute largely to the post-exercise increase of total PGC-1α mRNA. This study investigated the role of AMPK in regulating PGC-1α gene expression via the alternative promoter through a cAMP responsive element-binding protein-1 (CREB1)-dependent mechanism in human skeletal muscle...
January 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073778/overexpression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-increases-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-human-primary-myotubes
#14
Tai-Yu Huang, Donghai Zheng, Joseph A Houmard, Jeffrey J Brault, Robert C Hickner, Ronald N Cortright
Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles for lipid metabolism in humans and their biogenesis has been assumed to be under regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, recent studies in hepatocytes suggest that the mitochondrial proliferator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha) also acts as an upstream transcriptional regulator for enhancing peroxisomal abundance and associated activity. It is unknown whether the regulatory mechanism(s) for enhancing peroxisomal function is through the same node as mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle (HSkM) and whether fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is affected...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070015/inhaled-resveratrol-treatments-slow-ageing-related-degenerative-changes-in-mouse-lung
#15
Barbara Driscoll, Sonia Navarro, Raghava Reddy, Jooeun Lee, David Warburton
BACKGROUND: Lung ageing, a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases such as COPD and emphysema, is characterised by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function. Likewise, in prematurely ageing telomerase null (terc-/-) mice, p53 stabilisation within diminishing numbers of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2) accompanies reduced lung function. Resveratrol (RSL) is a plant phytoalexin that has previously showed efficacy in enhancing invertebrate longevity and supporting mammalian muscle metabolism when delivered orally...
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059465/rosmarinic-acid-mediates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-insulin-resistant-skeletal-muscle-through-activation-of-ampk
#16
Govindaraj Jayanthy, Vellai Roshana Devi, Kaliappan Ilango, Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a polyphenol, is known to improve hepatic insulin sensitivity in experimental type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance is meagerly understood. The present study was aimed to investigate the upstream and downstream mediators of the molecular targets of RA in attenuating insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle both in vivo and in vitro. We found that supplementation of RA increased the expression of key genes involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1α, SIRT-1 and TFAM via activation of AMPK in the skeletal muscle of insulin resistant rats as well as in L6 myotubes...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055234/scriptaid-upregulates-expression-of-development-related-genes-inhibits-apoptosis-and-improves-the-development-of-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-mini-pig-embryos
#17
Li Zhang, Yuemeng Huang, Yanjun Wu, Jinglei Si, Yanna Huang, Qinyang Jiang, Ganqiu Lan, Yafen Guo, Hesheng Jiang
The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms by which Scriptaid treatment improves the developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) mini-pig embryos in vitro. We found that treatment with 500 nmol/L Scriptaid for 15 hours significantly improved the development of mini-pig SCNT embryos. Compared with the control group, the blastocyst rate was higher (18.3% vs. 10.7%; p < 0.05). The acetylation level on H3K14 of the Scriptaid-treated group was higher compared with the control group in SCNT embryos at two-cell, four-cell, and blastocyst stages (p < 0...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054981/the-root-extract-of-pueraria-lobata-and-its-main-compound-puerarin-prevent-obesity-by-increasing-the-energy-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
Hyo Won Jung, An Na Kang, Seok Yong Kang, Yong-Ki Park, Mi Young Song
Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053050/parkin-functionally-interacts-with-pgc-1%C3%AE-to-preserve-mitochondria-and-protect-dopaminergic-neurons
#19
Lu Zheng, Nathalie Bernard-Marissal, Norman Moullan, Davide D'Amico, Johan Auwerx, Darren J Moore, Graham Knott, Patrick Aebischer, Bernard L Schneider
To understand the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to determine the functional interactions between factors linked to the disease. Parkin is associated to autosomal recessive early-onset PD, and controls the transcription of PGC-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. These two factors functionally interact to regulate the turnover and quality of mitochondria, by increasing both mitophagic activity and mitochondria biogenesis. In cortical neurons, co-expressing PGC-1α and Parkin increases the number of mitochondria, enhances maximal respiration, and accelerates the recovery of the mitochondrial membrane potential following mitochondrial uncoupling...
January 4, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049732/nadph-oxidase-4-nox4-suppresses-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-bioenergetics-in-lung-fibroblasts-via-a-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-nrf2-dependent-pathway
#20
Karen Bernard, Naomi J Logsdon, Veronica Miguel, Gloria A Benavides, Jianhua Zhang, A Brent Carter, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Victor J Thannickal
Mitochondrial bioenergetics are critical for cellular homeostasis and stress responses. The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes, including cellular differentiation, host defense and tissue fibrosis. In this study, we explored the role of constitutive Nox4 activity in regulating mitochondrial function. An increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reserve capacity was observed in murine and human lung fibroblasts with genetic deficiency (or silencing) of Nox4...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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