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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103663/biological-photothermal-nanodots-based-on-self-assembly-of-peptide-porphyrin-conjugates-for-antitumor-therapy
#2
Qianli Zou, Manzar Abbas, Luyang Zhao, Shukun Li, Guizhi Shen, Xuehai Yan
Photothermal agents can harvest light energy and convert it into heat, offering a targeted and remote-controlled way to destroy carcinomatous cells and tissues. Inspired by the biological organization of polypeptides and porphyrins in living systems, here we have developed a supramolecular strategy to fabricate photothermal nanodots through peptide-modulated self-assembly of photoactive porphyrins. The self-assembling nature of porphyrins induces the formation of J-aggregates as substructures of the nanodots, and thus enables the fabrication of nanodots with totally inhibited fluorescence emission and singlet oxygen production, leading to a high light-to-heat conversion efficiency of the nanodots...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099079/lymphangioleiomyomatosis-a-monogenic-model-of-malignancy
#3
Vera P Krymskaya, Francis X McCormack
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade, metastasizing neoplasm that arises from an unknown source, spreads via the lymphatics, and targets the lungs. All pulmonary structures become infiltrated with benign-appearing spindle and epithelioid cells (LAM cells) that express smooth-muscle and melanocyte-lineage markers, harbor mTOR-activating mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, and recruit abundant stromal cells. Elaboration of lymphangiogenic growth factors and matrix remodeling enzymes by LAM cells enables their access to lymphatic channels and likely drives the cystic lung remodeling that often culminates in respiratory failure...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098631/after-the-fall-the-tapestry-of-disturbance-and-recovery
#4
Nalini M Nadkarni
On July 3, 2015, Nalini Nadkarni, a world-renowned ecologist who had been studying the biologic processes of ecosystem disturbance and recovery, sustained a catastrophic 50-foot free-fall from the top of the rainforest canopy to the forest floor at her remote field research site. She lost consciousness in shock and sustained life-threatening injuries. Her accompanying students hiked out, radio-called 911, and the Harborview Medical Center (Seattle) Medivac team arrived 4 hours later to rescue her. Her prognosis was extremely grim; her family gathered in anticipation of her death as she underwent four operations during her 10 days in the ICU...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092361/designed-cell-consortia-as-fragrance-programmable-analog-to-digital-converters
#5
Marius Müller, Simon Ausländer, Andrea Spinnler, David Ausländer, Julian Sikorski, Marc Folcher, Martin Fussenegger
Synthetic biology advances the rational engineering of mammalian cells to achieve cell-based therapy goals. Synthetic gene networks have nearly reached the complexity of digital electronic circuits and enable single cells to perform programmable arithmetic calculations or to provide dynamic remote control of transgenes through electromagnetic waves. We designed a synthetic multilayered gaseous-fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converter (ADC) allowing for remote control of digital gene expression with 2-bit AND-, OR- and NOR-gate logic in synchronized cell consortia...
January 16, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087323/severe-hemorrhagic-syndrome-after-lonomia-caterpillar-envenomation-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon-how-many-more-cases-are-there
#6
João Hugo A Santos, Sâmella S Oliveira, Eliane C Alves, Iran Mendonça-da-Silva, Jacqueline A G Sachett, Antonio Tavares, Luiz Carlos Ferreira, Hui Wen Fan, Marcus V G Lacerda, Wuelton M Monteiro
Contact with Lonomia caterpillars can cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. In Brazil, Lonomia obliqua and Lonomia achelous are known to cause this venom-induced disease. In the Brazilian Amazon, descriptions of this kind of envenomation are scarce. Herein, we report a severe hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia envenomation in the Amazonas state, Western Brazilian Amazon. The patient showed signs of hemorrhage lasting 8 days and required Lonomia antivenom administration, which resulted in resolution of hemorrhagic syndrome...
January 10, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075596/yeast-microcapsule-mediated-targeted-delivery-of-diverse-nanoparticles-for-imaging-and-therapy-via-the-oral-route
#7
Xing Zhou, Xiangjun Zhang, Songling Han, Yin Dou, Mengyu Liu, Lin Zhang, Jia Wei Guo, Qing Shi, Genghao Gong, Ruibing Wang, Jiang Hu, Xiaohui Li, Jianxiang Zhang
Targeting of nanoparticles to distant diseased sites after oral delivery remains highly challenging, due to the existence of many biological barriers in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report targeted oral delivery of diverse nanoparticles in multiple disease models, via a 'Trojan horse' strategy based on a bioinspired yeast capsule (YC). Diverse charged nanoprobes including quantum dots (QDs), iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), and assembled organic fluorescent nanoparticles can be effectively loaded into YC through electrostatic force-driven spontaneous deposition, resulting in different diagnostic YC assemblies...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074044/diabetic-myonecrosis-a-rare-complication-of-diabetes-mellitus-mimicking-deep-vein-thrombosis
#8
Himanshu K Khanna, Andrew C Stevens
BACKGROUND Diabetic myonecrosis is an uncommon complication of long-standing poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. It presents as acute non-traumatic swelling and pain of the lower extremity, which can mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The clinical course is usually self-limiting and patients respond well to supportive medical therapy. CASE REPORT A 54-year-old male with past medical history of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type II, hyperlipidemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and remote history of DVT presented to our emergency department with 2-week history of progressively worsening left calf pain and swelling...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066893/content-and-cultural-validity-in-the-development-of-the-indigenous-play-partner-scale
#9
Alma M Dender, Karen E Stagnitti
BACKGROUND/AIM: Culturally relevant assessments of Australian Indigenous children's social pretend play do not exist. This study investigated the content validity and cultural validity of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale (I-PPS). METHODS: Six pairs of children (i.e. 12 children) aged four-six years from a remote Australian town were videoed playing in pairs, and 14 community elders and mothers participated across three focus groups. The social interactions between the children were transcribed from the videos...
January 8, 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063002/gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer
#10
REVIEW
R Gao, Z Gao, L Huang, H Qin
The gut microbiota is considered as a forgotten organ in human health and disease. It maintains gut homeostasis by various complex mechanisms. However, disruption of the gut microbiota has been confirmed to be related to gastrointestinal diseases such as colorectal cancer, as well as remote organs in many studies. Colorectal cancer is a multi-factorial and multi-stage involved disorder. The role for microorganisms that initiate and facilitate the process of colorectal cancer has become clear. The candidate pathogens have been identified by culture and next sequencing technology...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057773/inverse-remodelling-of-k2p3-1-k-channel-expression-and-action-potential-duration-in-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-atrial-fibrillation-implications-for-patient-specific-antiarrhythmic-drug-therapy
#11
Constanze Schmidt, Felix Wiedmann, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Jordi Heijman, Niels Voigt, Antonius Ratte, Siegfried Lang, Stefan M Kallenberger, Chiara Campana, Alexander Weymann, Raffaele De Simone, Gabor Szabo, Arjang Ruhparwar, Klaus Kallenbach, Matthias Karck, Joachim R Ehrlich, István Baczkó, Martin Borggrefe, Ursula Ravens, Dobromir Dobrev, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence increases with advanced stages of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Remote proarrhythmic effects of ventricular dysfunction on atrial electrophysiology remain incompletely understood. We hypothesized that repolarizing K2P3.1 K(+ )channels, previously implicated in AF pathophysiology, may contribute to shaping the atrial action potential (AP), forming a specific electrical substrate with LV dysfunction that might represent a target for personalized antiarrhythmic therapy...
January 4, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056401/toxicity-evaluation-of-magnetic-hyperthermia-induced-by-remote-actuation-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-in-3d-micrometastasic-tumor-tissue-analogs-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#12
Nathanael A Stocke, Pallavi Sethi, Amar Jyoti, Ryan Chan, Susanne M Arnold, J Zach Hilt, Meenakshi Upreti
Magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality is acquiring increased recognition for loco-regional therapy of primary and metastatic lung malignancies by pulmonary delivery of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). The unique characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles to induce localized hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) allows for preferential killing of cells at the tumor site. In this study we demonstrate the effect of hyperthermia induced by low and high dose of MNP under the influence of an AMF using 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) representing the micrometastatic, perfusion independent stage of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that infiltrates the lungs...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048734/su-f-j-193-efficient-dose-extinction-method-for-water-equivalent-path-length-wepl-of-real-tissue-samples-for-validation-of-ct-hu-to-stopping-power-conversion
#13
R Zhang, E Baer, K Jee, G Sharp, J Flanz, H Lu
PURPOSE: For proton therapy, an accurate model of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) conversion is essential. In current practice, validation of these models relies solely on measurements of tissue substitutes with standard compositions. Validation based on real tissue samples would be much more direct and can address variations between patients. This study intends to develop an efficient and accurate system based on the concept of dose extinction to measure WEPL and retrieve RSP in biological tissue in large number of types...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048639/tu-h-209-02-quality-assurance-and-qmp-for-brachytherapy-treatment-delivery-and-treatment-planning-system
#14
M Chilukuri
Learnings Objectives: 1. Although brachytherapy is the oldest form of radiation therapy, the rapid advancement of the methods of dose calculation, treatment planning and treatment delivery pushes us to keep updating our knowledge and experience to new procedures all the time. Our purpose is to present the newest applicators used in Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) and the techniques of using them for a maximum effective treatment. Our objective will be to get the user familiar with the Savi, Contura and ML Mammosite from the detailed description and measurements to cavity eval and choice or size, to acceptance tests and use of each...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048221/su-f-t-617-remotely-pre-planned-stereotactic-ablative-radiation-therapy-validation-of-treatment-plan-quality
#15
T Juang, K Bush, B Loo, M Gensheimer
PURPOSE: We propose a workflow to improve access to stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) for rural patients. When implemented, a separate trip to the central facility for simulation can be eliminated. Two elements are required: (1) Fabrication of custom immobilization devices to match positioning on prior diagnostic CT (dxCT). (2) Remote radiation pre-planning on dxCT, with transfer of contours/plan to simulation CT (simCT) and initiation of treatment same-day or next day. In this retrospective study, we validated part 2 of the workflow using patients already treated with SABR for upper lobe lung tumors...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048147/su-f-e-14-global-radiation-oncology-education-and-training-in-medical-physics-powered-by-information-and-communication-technologies
#16
W Ngwa, E Sajo, T Ngoma, J Dachi, J Julius Mwaiselage, O Kenton, S Avery
PURPOSE: Recent publications have highlighted the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to catalyze collaborations in cancer care, research and education in global radiation oncology. This work reports on the use of ICTs for global Medical Physics education and training across three countries: USA, Tanzania and Kuwait METHODS: An online education platform was established by Radiation Oncology Faculty from Harvard Medical School, and the University of Pennsylvania with integrated Medical Physics Course modules accessible to trainees in Tanzania via partnership with the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, and the Ocean Road Cancer Institute...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047974/tu-h-209-03-planning-and-treatment-delivery-for-apbi-using-savi-contura-and-ml-mammosite
#17
S Pella
Learnings Objectives: 1. Although brachytherapy is the oldest form of radiation therapy, the rapid advancement of the methods of dose calculation, treatment planning and treatment delivery pushes us to keep updating our knowledge and experience to new procedures all the time. Our purpose is to present the newest applicators used in Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) and the techniques of using them for a maximum effective treatment. Our objective will be to get the user familiar with the Savi, Contura and ML Mammosite from the detailed description and measurements to cavity eval and choice or size, to acceptance tests and use of each...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047732/th-cd-bra-02-3d-remote-dosimetry-for-mri-guided-radiation-therapy-a-hybrid-approach
#18
L Rankine, S Mein, J Adamovics, B Cai, A Curcuru, T Juang, D Miles, S Mutic, Y Wang, M Oldham, H Li
PURPOSE: To validate the dosimetric accuracy of a commercially available MR-IGRT system using a combination of 3D dosimetry measurements (with PRESAGE(R) radiochromic plastic and optical-CT readout) and an in-house developed GPU-accelerated PENELOPE Monte-Carlo dose calculation system. METHODS: (60) Co IMRT subject to a 0.35T lateral magnetic field has recently been commissioned in our institution following AAPM's TG-119 recommendations. We performed PRESAGE(R) sensitivity studies in 4ml cuvettes to verify linearity, MR-compatibility, and energy-independence...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047638/su-f-p-09-a-global-medical-physics-collaboration-for-implementation-of-modern-radiotherapy-in-botswana
#19
R Makufa, M Bvochora-Nsingo, T Karumekayi, R J Schneider, J A Efstathiou, S Dryden-Peterson, A Odom, A Shulman, Y Pipman, D P Gierga
PURPOSE: The global burden of cancer is considerable, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute have partnered with the oncology community and government of Botswana to form BOTSOGO (BOTSwana Oncology Global Outreach) to address the rising burden of cancer in Botswana. Currently, radiation therapy (RT) is only available at a single linear accelerator (LINAC) in Gaborone Private Hospital (GPH). BOTSOGO worked to limit the absence of RT during a LINAC upgrade and ensure a safe transition to modern radiotherapy techniques...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047323/su-f-t-168-development-and-implementation-of-an-anthropomorphic-head-neck-phantom-for-the-assessment-of-proton-therapy-treatment-procedures
#20
D Branco, P Taylor, S Frank, H Li, X Zhang, H Mehrens, M Guindani, D Followill
PURPOSE: To design a Head and Neck (H&N) anthropomorphic QA phantom that the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC-H) can use to verify the quality of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) H&N treatments for institutions participating in NCI clinical trials. METHODS: The phantom was created to serve as a remote auditing tool for IROC-H to evaluate an institution's IMPT planning and delivery abilities. The design was based on the composition, size, and geometry of a generalized oropharyngeal tumor and contains critical structures (parotids and spinal cord)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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