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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775611/reduced-adiposity-by-compensatory-wat-browning-upon-ibat-removal-in-mice
#1
Zhengyu Piao, Baiqiang Zhai, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Meng Dong, Changguo Yan, Jun Lin, Wanzhu Jin
The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743343/multiple-effects-of-cold-exposure-on-livers-of-male-mice
#2
Aldo Grefhorst, Johanna C van den Beukel, Wieneke Dijk, Jacobie Steenbergen, Gardi J Voortman, Selmar Leeuwenburgh, Theo J Visser, Sander Kersten, Edith Ch Friesema, Axel Pn Themmen, Jenny A Visser
Cold exposure of mice is a common method to stimulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and induce browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) that has beneficial effects on whole body lipid metabolism, including reduced plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The liver is a key regulatory organ in lipid metabolism as it can take up as well as oxidize fatty acids. The liver can also synthesize, store and secrete triglycerides (TGs) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. The effects of cold exposure on murine hepatic lipid metabolism have not been addressed...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719734/collagen-overlays-can-inhibit-leptin-and-adiponectin-secretion-but-not-lipid-accumulation-in-adipocytes
#3
Sherri L Christian, Nikitha K Pallegar, Robert J Brown, Alicia M Viloria-Petit
Background: White adipose tissue (WAT) is essential for energy storage as well as being an active endocrine organ. The secretion of adipokines by adipocytes can affect whole body metabolism, appetite, and contribute to overall health. WAT is comprised of lipid-laden mature adipocytes, as well as immune cells, endothelial cells, pre-adipocytes, and adipose-derived stem cells. In addition, the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in WAT can actively influence adipocyte differentiation, growth, and function...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719227/a-strategy-for-discovery-of-endocrine-interactions-with-application-to-whole-body-metabolism
#4
Marcus M Seldin, Simon Koplev, Prashant Rajbhandari, Laurent Vergnes, Gregory M Rosenberg, Yonghong Meng, Calvin Pan, Thuy M N Phuong, Raffi Gharakhanian, Nam Che, Selina Mäkinen, Diana M Shih, Mete Civelek, Brian W Parks, Eric D Kim, Frode Norheim, Karthickeyan Chella Krishnan, Yehudit Hasin-Brumshtein, Margarete Mehrabian, Markku Laakso, Christian A Drevon, Heikki A Koistinen, Peter Tontonoz, Karen Reue, Rita M Cantor, Johan L M Björkegren, Aldons J Lusis
Inter-tissue communication via secreted proteins has been established as a vital mechanism for proper physiologic homeostasis. Here, we report a bioinformatics framework using a mouse reference population, the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP), which integrates global multi-tissue expression data and publicly available resources to identify and functionally annotate novel circuits of tissue-tissue communication. We validate this method by showing that we can identify known as well as novel endocrine factors responsible for communication between tissues...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718710/identification-of-hepatic-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-as-a-mediator-in-17%C3%AE-estradiol-induced-white-adipose-tissue-browning
#5
Lun Hua, Yong Zhuo, Dandan Jiang, Jing Li, Xiaohua Huang, Yingguo Zhu, Zhen Li, Lijun Yan, Chao Jin, Xuemei Jiang, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Jian Li, Bin Feng, De Wu
Both ovarian E2 and hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are critical for energy homeostasis and white adipose tissue browning. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is abundantly expressed in liver. However, whether FGF21 has a role in E2-induced white adipose tissue browning remains uncertain. In this study, we showed that hepatic Fgf21 expression and secretion during estrus cycle changed with the tetradian oscillatory secretion of circulation E2 in adult, female mice, with their peak expressions and secretions at the proestrus...
May 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705134/increase-in-liver-cytosolic-lipases-activities-and-vldl-tag-secretion-rate-do-not-prevent-the-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-cafeteria-diet-fed-rats
#6
Anderson Fernandes de Melo, Carolina Campos Lima Moreira, Camila Ferreira Sales, Thiago Rentz, Helena Fonseca Raposo, Maria Antonieta Rissato Garófalo, Leida Maria Botion, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, Helena Coutinho Franco de Oliveira, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves
We have previously shown that the cafeteria diet increases body fat mass, triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin plasma levels, glucose uptake by white and brown adipose tissues, as well as the sympathetic activity to both adipose tissues in Wistar rats. The metabolic pathways responsible for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were examined in cafeteria diet-fed rats. After 3 weeks offering cafeteria diet, we evaluated: (i) activity of the sympathetic nervous system by norepinephrine turnover rates; (ii) de novo fatty acid synthesis in vivo using 3H2O; (iii) secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG secretion measuring serum TAG levels after administration of lipase lipoprotein inhibitor, (iv) liver cytosolic lipases activity and (v) liver mRNA expression of enzymes involved in lipids secretion and oxidation by RT-PCR...
April 26, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687585/bone-another-potential-target-to-treat-prevent-and-predict-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Dong-Mei Liu, Ioanna Mosialou, Jian-Min Liu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is now a worldwide health problem with increasing prevalence. Mounting efforts have been made to treat, prevent and predict this chronic disease. In recent years, increasing evidence from mice and clinical studies suggest that bone-derived molecules modulate glucose metabolism. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of the interplay between bone and glucose metabolism and highlight potential new means for therapeutic intervention. The first molecule recognized as a link between bone and glucose metabolism in mice is osteocalcin, which functions in its active form, i...
April 23, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675584/brown-adipokines
#8
Francesc Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions. Peptidic and non-peptidic molecules, including miRNAs and lipids, are constituents of brown adipokines. Brown adipose tissue remodeling to meet thermogenic needs is dependent on the secretory properties of brown/beige adipocytes. The association between brown fat activity and a healthy metabolic profile, in relation to energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis, is influenced by the endocrine actions of brown adipokines...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669585/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-promotes-destabilization-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-by-regulating-gm-csf-paracrine
#9
Ru Ying, Sheng-Wei Li, Jia-Yuan Chen, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ying Yang, Zhen-Jie Gu, Yang-Xin Chen, Jing-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) accelerates plaque progression and increases cardiovascular risk. We tested the hypothesis that PVAT contributed to plaque vulnerability and investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in PVAT played an important role in vulnerable plaque. METHODS: We transplanted thoracic aortic PVAT or subcutaneous adipose tissue as a control, from donor mice to carotid arteries of recipient apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/- ) mice after removing carotid artery collar placed for 6 weeks...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587291/retinoic-acid-increases-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-irisin-expression-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-and-impacts-irisin-in-vivo
#10
Jaume Amengual, Francisco J García-Carrizo, Andrea Arreguín, Hana Mušinović, Nuria Granados, Andreu Palou, M Luisa Bonet, Joan Ribot
BACKGROUND/AIMS: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has protective effects against obesity and metabolic syndrome. We here aimed to gain further insight into the interaction of ATRA with skeletal muscle metabolism and secretory activity as important players in metabolic health. METHODS: Cultured murine C2C12 myocytes were used to study direct effects of ATRA on cellular fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate (using radioactively-labelled palmitate), glucose uptake (using radioactively-labelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose), triacylglycerol levels (by an enzymatic method), and the expression of genes related to FAO and glucose utilization (by RT-real time PCR)...
March 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574752/whole-body-arhgap21-reduction-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-high-fat-diet-obese-mice
#11
Gabriela M Soares, Lucas Zangerolamo, Elis G Azevedo, Jose M Costa-Júnior, Everardo M Carneiro, Sara T Saad, Antonio C Boschero, Helena C Barbosa-Sampaio
GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) are ubiquitously expressed, and their role in cellular adhesion and membrane traffic processes have been well described. TBC1D1, which is a Rab-GAP, is necessary for adequate glucose uptake by muscle cells, whereas increased TCGAP, which is a Rho-GAP, decreases GLUT4 translocation, and consequently glucose uptake in adipocytes. Here, we assessed the possible involvement of ARHGAP21, a Rho-GAP protein, in glucose homeostasis. For this purpose, wild type mice and ARHGAP21 transgenic whole-body gene-deficiency mice (heterozygous mice, expressing approximately 50% of ARHGAP21) were fed either chow (Ctl and Het) or high-fat diet (Ctl-HFD and Het-HFD)...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574218/central-irisin-administration-suppresses-thyroid-hormone-production-but-increases-energy-consumption-in-rats
#12
Suat Tekin, Yavuz Erden, Fatma Ozyalin, Ebru Etem Onalan, Yilmaz Cigremis, Cemil Colak, Ibrahim Tekedereli, Suleyman Sandal
Irisin, which is secreted from the skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and defined as a thermogenic peptide, may play an important role in energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones, which are one of the other influential factors on the metabolic status, increase heat production and are the main regulators of energy metabolism. This study was conducted to determine the possible effects of irisin administration on thyroid hormones. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups (n = 10)...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527793/identification-of-immunohistochemical-localization-of-irisin-in-the-dwarf-hamster-phodopus-roborovskii-tissues
#13
F M Gür, S Timurkaan, B Gençer Tarakçi, M H Yalçin, Z E Özkan, S B Baygeldi, S Yilmaz, H Eröksüz
Irisin is mainly secreted by heart and skeletal muscle cells. It is an exercise-induced protein that converts white adipose tissue to brown. Increased irisin expression was lead to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance. We investigated irisin immunoreactivity in various tissues of the dwarf hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii). Tissues were processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm and stained immunohistochemically for irisin. In the retina, irisin was found almost all layers, except outer nuclear layer...
April 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514893/exercise-induced-adaptations-to-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#14
REVIEW
Adam C Lehnig, Kristin I Stanford
The beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system have long been known. Recent studies have focused on investigating the effects of exercise on adipose tissue and the effects that these exercise-induced adaptations have on overall metabolic health. Examination of exercise-induced adaptations in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) has revealed marked differences in each tissue with exercise. In WAT, there are changes to both subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and visceral WAT (vWAT), including decreased adipocyte size and lipid content, increased expression of metabolic genes, altered secretion of adipokines and increased mitochondrial activity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487532/roles-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Kimie Tanaka, Masataka Sata
Traditionally, it is believed that white adipose tissues serve as energy storage, heat insulation, and mechanical cushion, whereas non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue. Recent evidence revealed that adipose tissue secretes many types of cytokines, called as adipocytokines, which modulate glucose metabolism, lipid profile, appetite, fibrinolysis, blood pressure, and inflammation. Most of the arteries are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT has been thought to be simply a structurally supportive tissue for vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486523/intestine-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-and-the-gut-microbiota-activate-g-protein-bile-acid-receptor-1-signaling-to-improve-metabolism
#16
Preeti Pathak, Xie Cen, Robert G Nichols, Jessica M Ferrell, Shannon Boehme, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez, John Y L Chiang
Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5) to regulate bile acid metabolism and glucose and insulin sensitivity. FXR and TGR5 are co-expressed in the enteroendocrine L cells but their roles in integrated regulation of metabolism are not completely understood. We reported recently that activation of FXR induces TGR5 to stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion to improve insulin sensitivity and hepatic metabolism. In this study, we used the intestine-restricted FXR agonist fexaramine (FEX) to study the effect of activation of intestinal FXR on the gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism, and FXR and TGR5 signaling...
February 27, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456634/limethason-reduces-airway-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-ovalbumin-induced-chronic-asthma-without-causing-side-effects
#17
Siyu Li, Zhiping Miao, Ye Tian, Haoyu Wang, Shuai Wang, Tianyuan He, Yue Yang, Peng Wang, Mengyao Ma, Tuanmin Yang, Tao Chen, Zhiyong Liu, Junhong Gao, Chu Chen, Airong Qian
Airway inflammation is the major pathological feature of asthma. Thus, the current therapeutic strategy for asthma is to control inflammation. Limethason, an anti-inflammation drug, is widely used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. The aim of the present study was to detect the anti-inflammatory effect and side effects of limethason on airways that were sensitized with ovalbumin in a murine model of chronic asthma. In the present study, BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin. Airway hyperresponsiveness was estimated, and hematoxylin and eosin staining, Periodic acid-Schiff staining and bronchoalveolar lavage were used to detect the effect on chronic asthma...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449715/leptin-and-brain-adipose-crosstalks
#18
REVIEW
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381744/irisin-physical-activity-and-fitness-status-in-healthy-humans-no-association-under-resting-conditions-in-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Nathalie Biniaminov, Susanne Bandt, Alexander Roth, Sascha Haertel, Rainer Neumann, Achim Bub
Regular physical activity and physical fitness are closely related to a positive health status in humans. In this context, the muscle becomes more important due to its function as an endocrine organ. Muscle tissue secretes "myokines" in response to physical activity and it is speculated that these myokines are involved in physical activity induced positive health effects. Recently, the newly discovered myokine Irisin thought to be secreted by the muscle in response to physical activity and might be related to the health inducing effect by inducing browning of white adipose tissue...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378832/membrane-trafficking-protein-cdp138-regulates-fat-browning-and-insulin-sensitivity-through-controlling-catecholamine-release
#20
Qiong L Zhou, Ye Song, Chun-Hong Huang, Jun-Yuan Huang, Zhenwei Gong, Zhangping Liao, Andria G Sharma, Lily Greene, Justin Z Deng, Michael C Rigor, Xiangyang Xie, Songtao Qi, Julio E Ayala, Zhen Y Jiang
CDP138 is a calcium- and lipid-binding protein that is involved in membrane trafficking. Here we report mice without CDP138 develop obesity under normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. CDP138-/- mice have lower energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and body temperature in comparison with wild-type (WT) mice. <u>CDP138 is exclusively expressed in adrenal medulla and is co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of sympathetic nervous terminals, in the inguinal fat. In comparison with WT controls, CDP138-/- mice had altered catecholamine levels in the circulation, adrenal grand, and inguinal fat...
January 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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