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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323267/scaffold-free-generation-of-uniform-adipose-spheroids-for-metabolism-research-and-drug-discovery
#1
Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Francoise A Gourronc, Anna Chaly, David A Wadkins, Anthony J Burand, Kathleen R Markan, Sharon O Idiga, Meng Wu, Matthew J Potthoff, James A Ankrum
Adipose tissue dysfunction is critical to the development of type II diabetes and other metabolic diseases. While monolayer cell culture has been useful for studying fat biology, 2D culture often does not reflect the complexity of fat tissue. Animal models are also problematic in that they are expensive, time consuming, and may not completely recapitulate human biology because of species variation. To address these problems, we have developed a scaffold-free method to generate 3D adipose spheroids from primary or immortal human or mouse pre-adipocytes...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279426/-central-regulation-of-appetite-and-energy-metabolism
#2
Yasuhiko Minokoshi
Recent advances of neuroscience shed a light in the neural pathway and mechanisms for food intake regulation. The central nervous system(CNS)has also been recognized as a crucial organ to regulate metabolism in peripheral tissues. This includes the increase in glucose and fatty acid utilization in skeletal muscle as well as in brown adipose tissue and the heart, improving type 1 diabetes without change in insulin secretion. CNS regulation for food intake and energy metabolism is important to understand the mechanism for homeostatic regulation in living body...
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249968/purinergic-receptors-in-adipose-tissue-as-potential-targets-in-metabolic-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Marco Tozzi, Ivana Novak
Extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides, such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are involved in many physiological and pathological processes in adipose tissue (AT). It is becoming accepted that, in addition to the well-established sympathetic and hormonal system, purinergic receptors contribute significantly to regulation of adipocyte functions. Several receptor subtypes for both adenosine (P1) and ATP (P2X and P2Y) have been characterized in white adipocytes (WA) and brown adipocytes (BA). The effects mediated by adenosine and ATP on adipocytes are multiple and often differing, depending on specific receptors activated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247377/ccn5-wisp2-and-metabolic-diseases
#4
REVIEW
John R Grünberg, Johannes Elvin, Alexandra Paul, Shahram Hedjazifar, Ann Hammarstedt, Ulf Smith
Obesity and type 2 diabetes increase worldwide at an epidemic rate. It is expected that by the year 2030 around 500 million people will have diabetes; predominantly type 2 diabetes. The CCN family of proteins has become of interest in both metabolic and other common human diseases because of their effects on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) proliferation and differentiation as well as being important regulators of fibrosis. We here review current knowledge of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2 (CCN5/WISP2)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230933/biology-and-pathological-implications-of-brown-adipose-tissue-promises-and-caveats-for-the-control-of-obesity-and-its-associated-complications
#5
Pablo Tapia, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Fermín Robledo, Pablo Mardones, José E Galgani, Víctor A Cortés
The discovery of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has fuelled the research of diverse aspects of this previously neglected tissue. BAT is solely present in mammals and its clearest physiological role is non-shivering thermogenesis, owing to the capacity of brown adipocytes to dissipate metabolic energy as heat. Recently, a number of other possible functions have been proposed, including direct regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis and the secretion of a number of factors with diverse regulatory actions...
December 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208699/regulation-of-fatty-acid-trafficking-in-liver-by-thioesterase-superfamily-member-1
#6
Anal Desai, Michele Alves-Bezerra, Yingxia Li, Cafer Ozdemir, Curtis J Bare, Yue Li, Susan J Hagen, David E Cohen
Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1) is an acyl CoA-thioesterase that is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue where it functions to suppress energy expenditure. Lower Them1 expression levels in the liver are upregulated in response to high fat feeding. Lower Them1 expression levels in the liver are upregulated in response to high fat feeding. Them1-/- mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance, but the contribution of Them1 in liver is unclear. To examine its liver-specific functions, we created conditional transgenic mice, which when bred to Them1-/- mice and activated, expressed Them1 exclusively in the liver...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176631/lack-of-adipocyte-fndc5-irisin-expression-and-secretion-reduces-thermogenesis-and-enhances-adipogenesis
#7
D Pérez-Sotelo, A Roca-Rivada, I Baamonde, J Baltar, A I Castro, E Domínguez, M Collado, F F Casanueva, M Pardo
Irisin is a browning-stimulating molecule secreted from the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 precursor (FNDC5) by muscle tissue upon exercise stimulation. Despite its beneficial role, there is an unmet and clamorous need to discern many essential aspects of this protein and its mechanism of action not only as a myokine but also as an adipokine. Here we contribute to address this topic by revealing the nature and role of FNDC5/irisin in adipose tissue. First, we show that FNDC5/irisin expression and secretion are induced by adipocyte differentiation and confirm its over-secretion by human obese visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158739/human-admc-derived-adipocyte-thermogenic-capacity-is-regulated-by-il-4-receptor
#8
Fernando Lizcano, Diana Vargas, Ángela Gómez, Astrid Torrado
Type two innate immune system is anti-inflammatory and may play an important role as the means whereby "browning" is induced in subcutaneous adipocytes. It was shown that IL-4 may influence the fate of adipose cell precursors by promoting differentiation towards more thermogenic adipocytes in mice. Here, we investigated the influence of IL-4 and IL-4 receptor, a type two immune cytokine pathway, on the metabolic activity and thermogenic potential of human adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) obtained from subcutaneous samples of healthy women undergoing abdominoplasty...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138472/functional-characterization-of-the-ucp1-associated-oxidative-phenotype-of-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#9
Kanta Chechi, Pierre Voisine, Patrick Mathieu, Mathieu Laplante, Sébastian Bonnet, Frédéric Picard, Philippe Joubert, Denis Richard
Brown fat presence and metabolic activity has been associated with lower body mass index, higher insulin sensitivity and better cardiometabolic profile in humans. We, and others, have previously reported the presence of Ucp1, a marker of brown adipocytes, in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Characterization of the metabolic activity and associated physiological relevance of Ucp1 within eAT, however, is still awaited. Here, we validate the presence of Ucp1 within human eAT and its 'beige' nature. Using in-vitro analytical approaches, we further characterize its thermogenic potential and demonstrate that human eAT is capable of undergoing enhanced uncoupling respiration upon stimulation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#10
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113711/the-lives-and-times-of-brown-adipokines
#11
REVIEW
Francesc Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis. Moreover, brown fat secretes regulatory factors, so-called brown adipokines, that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. Brown adipokines are either polypeptides or nonpeptidic molecules including lipid molecules and microRNAs. The secretory properties of brown fat are essential for tissue remodeling adaptations to thermogenic necessities. The endocrine properties of brown adipokines are thought to contribute to the association between BAT activity and a healthy metabolic profile in relation to glucose and lipid homeostasis...
November 4, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113012/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-drives-day-night-variations-in-postprandial-triglyceride-uptake-into-skeletal-muscle-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#12
Sofía Moran-Ramos, Natali N Guerrero-Vargas, Rebeca Mendez-Hernandez, Maria Del Carmen Basualdo, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
What is the central question of this study? What are the factors influencing day-night variations in postprandial triglycerides? What is the main finding and its importance? Rats show low postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations early in the active period that are attributable to a higher uptake by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. We show that these day-night variations in uptake are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, probably via a Rev-erbα-mediated mechanism and independent of locomotor activity...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080336/bile-acid-physiology
#13
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, Raquel Lunardi Baccetto, Emilio Molina-Molina, Leonilde Bonfrate, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031721/cdkal1-a-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-gene-regulates-mitochondrial-function-in-adipose-tissue
#14
Colin J Palmer, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Lawrence Kazak, Jonathan Z Long, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Katherine B LeClair, Jessica A Hall, Shangyu Hong, Peter-James H Zushin, Kyle L Smith, Steven P Gygi, Susan Hagen, David E Cohen, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVES: Understanding how loci identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathogenesis requires new mechanistic insights. Variants within CDKAL1 are strongly linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Investigations in mouse models have focused on the function of Cdkal1 as a tRNA(Lys) modifier and downstream effects of Cdkal1 loss on pro-insulin translational fidelity in pancreatic β-cells. However, Cdkal1 is broadly expressed in other metabolically relevant tissues, including adipose tissue...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027533/factors-associated-with-circulating-concentrations-of-irisin-in-the-general-population-cohort-of-the-abcd-study
#15
S Buscemi, D Corleo, S Vasto, C Buscemi, M F Massenti, D Nuzzo, G Lucisano, A M Barile, G Rosafio, V Maniaci, C Giordano
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that irisin is a myokine secreted following physical exercise, and that it induces the remodeling of white adipose tissue toward brown adipose tissue. Therefore, a protective role of irisin against obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic and cardiovascular conditions has been hypothesized. However, data in humans are contradictory and few data are available concerning the general population. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the association between serum irisin concentrations and habitual physical activity, as well as other metabolic and cardiovascular factors in a general population in a Mediterranean area...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020342/lack-of-ovarian-secretions-reverts-the-anabolic-action-of-olanzapine-in-female-rats
#16
Silje Skrede, Ismael González-García, Luís Martins, Rolf Kristian Berge, Ruben Nogueiras, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Gunnar Mellgren, Vidar Martin Steen, Miguel López, Johan Fernø
Background: Olanzapine (OLZ) is an orexigenic antipsychotic drug associated with serious metabolic adverse effects in humans. Development of valid rodent models for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects is hampered by the fact that such effects occur in females only. Estradiol (E2) is a predominant female hormone that regulates energy balance. We hypothesized that the female-specific hyperphagia and weight gain induced by OLZ in the rat are dependent on the presence of estrogens...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949928/second-messenger-signaling-mechanisms-of-the-brown-adipocyte-thermogenic-program-an-integrative-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Fubiao Shi, Sheila Collins
β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are well established for conveying the signal from catecholamines to adipocytes. Acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) they stimulate lipolysis and also increase the activity of brown adipocytes and the 'browning' of adipocytes within white fat depots (so-called 'brite' or 'beige' adipocytes). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are enriched with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is a regulated proton channel that allows the dissipation of chemical energy in the form of heat...
September 26, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945846/cold-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-alters-plasma-fatty-acids-and-improves-glucose-metabolism-in-men
#18
K Alexander Iwen, Jenny Backhaus, Melanie Cassens, Maren Waltl, Oana C Hedesan, Martin Merkel, Joerg Heeren, Christian Sina, Leonie Rademacher, Anne Windjäger, Alexander R Haug, Florian W Kiefer, Hendrik Lehnert, Sebastian M Schmid
Context: Mounting evidence suggests beneficial effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation on glucose and lipid metabolism in humans. It is unclear whether cold-induced BAT activation affects not only insulin sensitivity but also insulin secretion. Likewise, the role in clearing circulating fatty acids (FAs) has not been fully explored. Objective: Exploring the effects of cold-induced BAT activation on insulin sensitivity and secretion, as well as on plasma FA profiles...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944087/exercise-induced-irisin-in-bone-and-systemic-irisin-administration-reveal-new-regulatory-mechanisms-of-bone-metabolism
#19
Jin Zhang, Paloma Valverde, Xiaofang Zhu, Dana Murray, Yuwei Wu, Liming Yu, Hua Jiang, Michel M Dard, Jin Huang, Zhiwei Xu, Qisheng Tu, Jake Chen
Irisin is a polypeptide hormone derived from the proteolytic cleavage of fibronectin-type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein. Once released to circulation upon exercise or cold exposure, irisin stimulates browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression, leading to an increase in total body energy expenditure by augmented UCP1-mediated thermogenesis. It is currently unknown whether irisin is secreted by bone upon exercise or whether it regulates bone metabolism in vivo...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942436/the-color-of-fat-and-its-central-role-in-the-development-and-progression-of-metabolic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Melania Gaggini, Fabrizia Carli, Amalia Gastaldelli
Excess caloric intake does not always translate to an expansion of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and increase in fat mass. It is now recognized that adipocyte type (white, WAT, or brown, BAT), size (large vs. small) and metabolism are important factors for the development of cardiometabolic diseases. When the subcutaneous adipose tissue is not able to expand in response to increased energy intake the excess substrate is stored as visceral adipose tissue or as ectopic fat in tissues as muscle, liver and pancreas...
September 25, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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