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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242773/adipose-specific-deletion-of-kif5b-exacerbates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Ju Cui, Jing Pang, Ya-Jun Lin, Huan Gong, Zhen-He Wang, Yun-Xuan Li, Jin Li, Zai Wang, Ping Jiang, Da-Peng Dai, Jian Li, Jian-Ping Cai, Jian-Dong Huang, Tie-Mei Zhang
Recent studies have shown that KIF5B (conventional kinesin heavy chain) mediates glucose transporter type 4 translocation and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting an involvement of KIF5B in the homeostasis of metabolism. However, the in vivo physiologic function of KIF5B in adipose tissue remains to be determined. In this study, adipose-specific Kif5b knockout (F-K5bKO) mice were generated using the Cre-LoxP strategy. F-K5bKO mice had similar body weights to controls fed on a standard chow diet...
February 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240264/overexpressing-the-novel-autocrine-endocrine-adipokine-wisp2-induces-hyperplasia-of-the-heart-white-and-brown-adipose-tissues-and-prevents-insulin-resistance
#2
John R Grünberg, Jenny M Hoffmann, Shahram Hedjazifar, Annika Nerstedt, Lachmi Jenndahl, Johannes Elvin, John Castellot, Lan Wei, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic, Claes Ohlsson, Louise Mannerås Holm, Fredrik Bäckhed, Ismail Syed, Fatima Bosch, Alan Saghatelian, Barbara B Kahn, Ann Hammarstedt, Ulf Smith
WISP2 is a novel adipokine, most highly expressed in the adipose tissue and primarily in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. As a secreted protein, it is an autocrine/paracrine activator of canonical WNT signaling and, as an intracellular protein, it helps to maintain precursor cells undifferentiated. To examine effects of increased WISP2 in vivo, we generated an aP2-WISP2 transgenic (Tg) mouse. These mice had increased serum levels of WISP2, increased lean body mass and whole body energy expenditure, hyperplastic brown/white adipose tissues and larger hyperplastic hearts...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211512/physiology-and-role-of-irisin-in-glucose-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Nikolaos Perakakis, Georgios A Triantafyllou, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Joo Young Huh, Kyung Hee Park, Jochen Seufert, Christos S Mantzoros
Irisin is a myokine that leads to increased energy expenditure by stimulating the 'browning' of white adipose tissue. In the first description of this hormone, increased levels of circulating irisin, which is cleaved from its precursor fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5, were associated with improved glucose homeostasis by reducing insulin resistance. Consequently, several studies attempted to characterize the role of irisin in glucose regulation, but contradictory results have been reported, and even the existence of this hormone has been questioned...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191637/mammary-alveolar-epithelial-cells-convert-to-brown-adipocytes-in-post-lactating-mice
#4
Antonio Giordano, Jessica Perugini, David M Kristensen, Loris Sartini, Andrea Frontini, Shingo Kajimura, Karsten Kristiansen, Saverio Cinti
During pregnancy and lactation, subcutaneous white adipocytes in the mouse mammary gland transdifferentiate reversibly to milk-secreting epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that in the post-lactating mammary gland interscapular multilocular adipocytes found close to the mammary alveoli contain milk protein granules. Use of the Cre-loxP recombination system allowed showing that the involuting mammary gland of whey acidic protein-Cre/R26R mice, whose secretory alveolar cells express the lacZ gene during pregnancy, contains some X-Gal-stained and uncoupling protein 1-positive interscapular multilocular adipocytes...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147449/exercise-effects-on-perivascular-adipose-tissue-endocrine-and-paracrine-determinants-of-vascular-function
#5
REVIEW
B C S Boa, J S Yudkin, V W M van Hinsbergh, E Bouskela, E C Eringa
Obesity is a global epidemic, accompanied by increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue hypertrophy is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, which alters secretion of adipose tissue-derived bioactive products, known as adipokines. Adipokines determine vessel wall properties such as smooth muscle tone and vessel wall inflammation. Exercise is a mainstay of prevention of chronic, non-communicable diseases, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in particular. Aside from reducing adipose tissue mass, exercise has been shown to reduce inflammatory activity in this tissue...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130074/loss-of-ucp2-impairs-cold-induced-non-shivering-thermogenesis-by-promoting-a-shift-toward-glucose-utilization-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#6
Alexandre Caron, Sébastien M Labbé, Sophie Carter, Marie-Claude Roy, Roger Lecomte, Daniel Ricquier, Frédéric Picard, Denis Richard
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was discovered in 1997 and classified as an uncoupling protein largely based on its homology of sequence with UCP1. Since its discovery, the uncoupling function of UCP2 has been questioned and there is yet no consensus on the true function of this protein. UCP2 was first proposed to be a reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulator and an insulin secretion modulator. More recently, it was demonstrated as a regulator of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which prompted us to investigate its role in the metabolic and thermogenic functions of brown adipose tissue...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117404/apoa-iv-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-glucose-uptake-in-mouse-adipocytes-via-pi3k-akt-signaling
#7
Xiaoming Li, Fei Wang, Min Xu, Philip Howles, Patrick Tso
Insulin resistance is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effect of ApoA-IV on glucose uptake in the adipose and muscle tissues of mice and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that treatment with ApoA-IV lowered fasting blood glucose in both WT and diabetic KKAy mice by increasing glucose uptake in cardiac muscle, white adipose tissue, and brown adipose tissue through a mechanism that was partially insulin independent. Cell culture experiments showed that ApoA-IV improved glucose uptake in adipocytes in the absence of insulin by upregulating GLUT4 translocation by PI3K mediated activation of Akt signaling pathways...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081177/first-behavioural-characterisation-of-a-knockout-mouse-model-for-the-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15
#8
Jac Kee Low, Ananthan Ambikairajah, Kani Shang, David A Brown, Vicky W W Tsai, Samuel N Breit, Tim Karl
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049943/repeated-cold-stress-enhances-the-acute-restraint-stress-induced-hyperthermia-in-mice
#9
Tomoyoshi Miyamoto, Yoshinori Funakami, Erika Kawashita, Ai Nomura, Nanako Sugimoto, Haruka Saeki, Maho Tsubota, Seiji Ichida, Atsufumi Kawabata
The rodents exposed to repeated cold stress according to a specific schedule, known as specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART), exhibit autonomic imbalance, and is now used as an experimental model of fibromyalgia. To explore the susceptibility of SART-stressed animals to novel acute stress, we tested whether exposure of mice to SART stress for 1 week alters the extent of acute restraint stress-induced hyperthermia. Mice were subjected to 7-d SART stress sessions; i.e., the mice were alternately exposed to 24 and 4°C at 1-h intervals during the daytime (09:00-16:00) and kept at 4°C overnight (16:00-09:00)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951473/oleuropein-aglycone-enhances-ucp1-expression-in-brown-adipose-tissue-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats-by-activating-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling
#10
Yuriko Oi-Kano, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Tatsuo Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Goto, Teruo Kawada, Kenichi Watanabe, Kazuo Iwai
Oleuropein is the pungent principle of raw olives. Oleuropein aglycone (OA) is a major phenolic compound in extra virgin olive oil and the absorbed form of oleuropein. We aimed to determine the mechanism underlying the nutritional effects of oleuropein and OA on interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) in rats with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity by examining the agonistic activity of oleuropein and OA toward the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an HF (palm oil 30% wt:wt) diet alone or with oleuropein (HF-O, 1 g/kg diet) for 28 days...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927722/age-dependent-control-of-energy-homeostasis-by-brown-adipose-tissue-in-progeny-subjected-to-maternal-diet-induced-fetal-programming
#11
Olivier Dumortier, Estelle Roger, Didier F Pisani, Virginie Casamento, Nadine Gautier, Patricia Lebrun, Hereroa Johnston, Pascal Lopez, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Céline Jousse, Pierre Fafournoux, Marc Prentki, Charlotte Hinault, Emmanuel Van Obberghen
Epidemiological and animal studies show that deleterious maternal environments predispose aging offspring to metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes. Young progeny in a rat model of maternal low protein diet (LP) is normoglycemic despite collapsed insulin secretion. However, without further worsening of the insulin secretion defect glucose homeostasis deteriorates in aging LP descendants. Here we report that normoglycemic and insulinopenic 3-month-old LP progeny shows increased body temperature and energy dissipation in association with enhanced brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity...
December 7, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883936/relationship-between-fgf21-and-ucp1-levels-under-time-restricted-feeding-and-high-fat-diet
#12
Nava Chapnik, Yoni Genzer, Oren Froy
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) exhibits a circadian oscillation, and its induction is critical during fasting. When secreted by liver and skeletal muscle, FGF21 enhances thermogenic activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by utilizing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) to dissipate energy as heat. Recently, it has been reported that UCP1 is not required for FGF21-mediated reduction in body weight or improvements in glucose homeostasis. As the relationship between FGF21 and UCP1 induction in tissues other than BAT is less clear, we tested the effect of restricted feeding (RF) and high dietary fat on FGF21 circadian expression and its correlation with UCP1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870972/mek-erk-signaling-is-involved-in-the-role-of-vegf-and-igf1-in-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#13
Chunhui Wang, Wenhui Liu, Xianning Zhang, Yinghui Wang, Huan Liu, Haifang Li
BACKGROUND: We found that mouse brown adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (BATDCs), but not white adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (WATDCs), could spontaneously differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells in a simple culture medium. This study would find out some critical trophic factors that were responsible for such difference in differentiation, and further determine the involved signaling pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cardiomyocyte differentiation capacity of cells was identified by morphological observations, immunofluorescence staining, and evaluation of expression of cardiomyocyte specific markers...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865196/-browning-the-cardiac-and-peri-vascular-adipose-tissues-to-modulate-cardiovascular-risk
#14
REVIEW
Peter Aldiss, Graeme Davies, Rachel Woods, Helen Budge, Harold S Sacks, Michael E Symonds
Excess visceral adiposity, in particular that located adjacent to the heart and coronary arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In the pathophysiological state, dysfunctional adipose tissue secretes an array of factors modulating vascular function and driving atherogenesis. Conversely, brown and beige adipose tissues utilise glucose and lipids to generate heat and are associated with improved cardiometabolic health. The cardiac and thoracic perivascular adipose tissues are now understood to be composed of brown adipose tissue in the healthy state and undergo a brown-to-white transition i...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855539/mouse-p2y4-nucleotide-receptor-is-a-negative-regulator-of-cardiac-adipose-derived-stem-cell-differentiation-and-cardiac-fat-formation
#15
Anne Lemaire, Marion Vanorlé, Michael Horckmans, Larissa di Pietrantonio, Sophie Clouet, Bernard Robaye, Jean-Marie Boeynaems, Didier Communi
Cardiac adipose tissue-derived stem cells (cASCs) have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages giving them a high potential for use in regenerative medicine. Cardiac fat tissue still raises many unsolved questions related to its formation and features. P2Y nucleotide receptors have already been described as regulators of differentiation of bone-marrow derived stem cells, but remain poorly investigated in cASCs. We defined, in this study, the P2Y4 nucleotide receptor as a negative regulator of cardiac fat formation and cASC adipogenic differentiation...
December 23, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832316/bone-derived-factors-a-new-gateway-to-regulate-glycemia
#16
Nicolas Bonnet
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis are two major disorders which prevalence increases with aging and is predicted to worsen in the coming years. Preclinical investigations suggest common mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of both disorders. Recent evidence has established that there is a clear link between glucose and bone metabolism. The emergence of bone as an endocrine regulator through FGF23 and osteocalcin has led to the re-evaluation of the role of bone cells and bone-derived factors in the development of metabolic diseases such as T2DM...
November 10, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818258/adipocyte-ceramides-regulate-subcutaneous-adipose-browning-inflammation-and-metabolism
#17
Bhagirath Chaurasia, Vincent Andre Kaddai, Graeme Iain Lancaster, Darren C Henstridge, Sandhya Sriram, Dwight Lark Anolin Galam, Venkatesh Gopalan, K N Bhanu Prakash, S Sendhil Velan, Sarada Bulchand, Teh Jing Tsong, Mei Wang, Monowarul Mobin Siddique, Guan Yuguang, Kristmundur Sigmundsson, Natalie A Mellet, Jacquelyn M Weir, Peter J Meikle, M Shabeer Bin M Yassin, Asim Shabbir, James A Shayman, Yoshio Hirabayashi, Sue-Anne Toh Ee Shiow, Shigeki Sugii, Scott A Summers
Adipocytes package incoming fatty acids into triglycerides and other glycerolipids, with only a fraction spilling into a parallel biosynthetic pathway that produces sphingolipids. Herein, we demonstrate that subcutaneous adipose tissue of type 2 diabetics contains considerably more sphingolipids than non-diabetic, BMI-matched counterparts. Whole-body and adipose tissue-specific inhibition/deletion of serine palmitoyltransferase (Sptlc), the first enzyme in the sphingolipid biosynthesis cascade, in mice markedly altered adipose morphology and metabolism, particularly in subcutaneous adipose tissue...
December 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811232/mobility-of-hspg-bound-lpl-explains-how-lpl-is-able-to-reach-gpihbp1-on-capillaries
#18
Christopher M Allan, Mikael Larsson, Rachel S Jung, Michael Ploug, André Bensadoun, Anne P Beigneux, Loren G Fong, Stephen G Young
In mice lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), the LPL secreted by adipocytes and myocytes remains bound to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on all cells within tissues. That observation raises a perplexing issue: Why isn't the freshly secreted LPL in wild-type mice captured by the same HSPGs, thereby preventing LPL from reaching GPIHBP1 on capillaries? We hypothesized that LPL-HSPG interactions are transient, allowing the LPL to detach and move to GPIHBP1 on capillaries...
January 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787838/a-clinical-perspective-contribution-of-dysfunctional-perivascular-adipose-tissue-pvat-to-cardiovascular-risk
#19
REVIEW
Xiaoming Lian, Maik Gollasch
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an important paracrine organ influencing the homeostasis of the vessel wall, regional blood flow and peripheral arterial resistance. There is remarkable phenotypic variability and plasticity of PVAT among various vascular beds, exhibiting phenotypes from white to brown and beige adipocytes. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by disturbed secretion of various adipokines, which, together with endothelial dysfunction, contribute to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
November 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751202/invited-review-pre-and-postnatal-adipose-tissue-development-in-farm-animals-from-stem-cells-to-adipocyte-physiology
#20
REVIEW
I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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