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Adipose secretions brown

I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Xu Zhang, Qianni Cheng, Yixiang Wang, Po Sing Leung, Kinglun Kingston Mak
Bone plays a role in energy metabolism, but the interplay between bone and other organs in this process is not completely understood. Here, we show that upregulated Hh signaling in bones results in increased whole-body energy expenditure, white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, hypoglycemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that Hh signaling induces PTHrP secretion from bones and causes WAT browning. Injection of PTHrP-neutralizing antibody attenuates WAT browning and improves the circulating blood glucose level while high-fat diet treatment only rescues hypoglycemia...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Céline Domange, Sophie Calderari, Andrea Rodríguez Martínez, Rafael Ayala, Steven P Wilder, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Stephan C Collins, Robert H Wallis, Quan Gu, Yulan Wang, Christophe Hue, Georg W Otto, Karène Argoud, Vincent Navratil, Steve C Mitchell, John C Lindon, Elaine Holmes, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Jeremy K Nicholson, Dominique Gauguier
BACKGROUND: The genetic regulation of metabolic phenotypes (i.e., metabotypes) in type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs through complex organ-specific cellular mechanisms and networks contributing to impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Genome-wide gene expression profiling systems can dissect the genetic contributions to metabolome and transcriptome regulations. The integrative analysis of multiple gene expression traits and metabolic phenotypes (i.e., metabotypes) together with their underlying genetic regulation remains a challenge...
September 30, 2016: Genome Medicine
Christian Schlein, Joerg Heeren
Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of heat production by thermogenic adipose tissues is based on a complex crosstalk between the autonomous nervous system, intracellular and secreted factors...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Florian W Kiefer
The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Alexandra M Gouveia, Inês O Gonçalves, Sara Becerril, Beatriz Ramírez, Jorge Beleza, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
AIMS: Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets...
September 27, 2016: Life Sciences
Gregory Lacraz, Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Sebastien M Labbé, Mathieu Vernier, Christophe Noll, Marian Mayhue, Jana Stankova, Adel Schwertani, Guillaume Grenier, André Carpentier, Denis Richard, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Julie Fradette, Marek Rola-Pleszczynski, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Sheela Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by many cell types. IL-15 is also produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscle and has been reported to reduce weight gain in mice. Contrarily, our findings on IL-15 knockout (KO) mice indicate that IL-15 promotes obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pro-obesity role of IL-15 in adipose tissues. METHODS: Control and IL-15 KO mice were maintained on high fat diet (HFD) or normal control diet...
2016: PloS One
Camille Attané, Marie-Line Peyot, Roxane Lussier, Pegah Poursharifi, Shangang Zhao, Dongwei Zhang, Johane Morin, Marco Pineda, Shupei Wang, Olivier Dumortier, Neil B Ruderman, Grant A Mitchell, Brigitte Simons, S R Murthy Madiraju, Erik Joly, Marc Prentki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To directly assess the role of beta cell lipolysis in insulin secretion and whole-body energy homeostasis, inducible beta cell-specific adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient (B-Atgl-KO) mice were studied under normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. METHODS: Atgl (flox/flox) mice were cross-bred with Mip-Cre-ERT mice to generate Mip-Cre-ERT(/+);Atgl (flox/flox) mice. At 8 weeks of age, these mice were injected with tamoxifen to induce deletion of beta cell-specific Atgl (also known as Pnpla2), and the mice were fed an ND or HFD...
September 27, 2016: Diabetologia
Tarek A M Almabrouk, Azizah B Ugusman, Omar J Katwan, Ian P Salt, Simon Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds most blood vessels and secretes numerous active substances, including adiponectin which produce a net anticontractile effect in healthy PVAT. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key mediator of cellular energy balance and may mediate the vascular effects of adiponectin. In this study we investigated the role of AMPK within PVAT in mediating the anticontractile effect of PVAT. METHODS: Endothelium-denuded aortic rings from wild-type (Sv129) and α1 AMPK knockout (KO) mice were mounted on a wire myograph...
September 26, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Shuting Ji, Kyohei Tokizane, Yuki Ohkawa, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Ryoichi Banno, Tetsuya Okajima, Hiroshi Kiyama, Koichi Furukawa, Keiko Furukawa
Gangliosides are widely involved in the regulation of cells and organs. However, little is known about their roles in adipose tissues and hypothalamus. In GD3 synthase-knockout (GD3S KO) mice, deletion of b-series gangliosides resulted in the reduction of serum leptin due to disturbed secretion from adipocytes. To examine whether leptin signals altered, leptin/leptin receptor (ObR)-mediated signaling in hypothalamus was analyzed. Hypothalamus of GD3S KO mouse showed increased expression of GM1 and GD1a, and increased activation of ObR-mediated signals such as pSTAT3 and c-Fos...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sylvie Casteras, Aya Abdul-Wahed, Maud Soty, Fanny Vulin, Hervé Guillou, Mélanie Campana, Hervé Le Stunff, Luciano Pirola, Fabienne Rajas, Gilles Mithieux, Amandine Gautier-Stein
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Despite the strong correlation between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis is associated with greater whole-body insulin sensitivity in several models. We previously reported that the inhibition of hepatic glucose production (HGP) protects against the development of obesity and diabetes despite severe steatosis, thanks to the secretion of specific hepatokines such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and angiopoietin-related growth factor...
September 9, 2016: Diabetologia
Saverio Cinti
In all mammals, adipocytes are cells with abundant cytoplasmic lipids forming the parenchyma of the adipose organ. White adipocytes store highly energetic molecules to release them, in the form of free fatty acids to survive between meals. Brown adipocytes trough their unique mitochondrial UCP1 protein burn glucose and lipids to perform thermogenesis in order to survive in cold environments. A third type of adipocytes appears in the subcutaneous depot of the adipose organ of female mice during pregnancy and lactation: the pink adipocytes...
September 10, 2016: Biochimie
Ying Lv, Song-Yang Zhang, Xianyi Liang, Heng Zhang, Zhi Xu, Bo Liu, Ming-Jiang Xu, Changtao Jiang, Jin Shang, Xian Wang
Adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2) is an endogenous bioactive peptide belonging to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family. Our previous studies showed overexpression of ADM2 in mice reduced obesity and insulin resistance by increasing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the effects of ADM2 in another thermogenic adipocyte, beige adipocyte, remain to be understood. The plasma ADM2 levels were inversely correlated with obesity in humans and the adipo-ADM2-tg mice displayed resistance to HFD-induced obesity with increased energy expenditure...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Panos G Ziros, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Gerasimos P Sykiotis
As a dedicated hormone-secreting organ, the thyroid gland possesses a complement of proteostatic systems, including antioxidant, unfolded protein, and autophagic responses. The vast majority of animal investigations of thyroid physiology and, more recently, proteostasis, have utilized as model the rat, rather than the mouse. This is due to the very small size of the thyroid gland in the latter, with a total weight of ~2 mg (~1 mg per thyroid lobe). However, this strategy has limited the utilization of genetic approaches, such as taking advantage of the various transgenic and knockout mouse models...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paul Cohen, Bruce M Spiegelman
The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion...
August 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
J Kuryszko, P Sławuta, G Sapikowski
There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Bruno Martinez-Perez, Miriam Ejarque, Cristina Gutierrez, Catalina Nuñez-Roa, Kelly Roche, Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Mónica Ballesteros, Ibon Redondo-Angulo, Anna Planavila, Francesc Villarroya, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Ana Megía
Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8), a protein implicated in lipid and glucose homeostasis, is present only in mammals, suggesting that it is involved in processes unique to these vertebrates such as pregnancy and homeothermy. We explored the role of ANGPTL8 in maternal-fetal crosstalk and its relationship with newborn adiposity. In a longitudinal analysis of healthy pregnant women, ANGPTL8 levels decreased progressively during pregnancy although remained higher than levels in the postpartum period. In a cross-sectional observational study of women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and their offspring, ANGPTL8 levels were higher in venous cord blood than those in maternal blood and were significantly lower in GDM patients than those in healthy women...
July 9, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Niki Katsiki, Vasilios G Athyros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fatmay play a beneficialrole in cardiometabolic disordersBrown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat...
July 22, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Pierre Hardouin, Tareck Rharass, Stéphanie Lucas
Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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