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Adipose secretions brown

F M Gür, S Timurkaan, B Gençer Tarakçi, M H Yalçin, Z E Özkan, S B Baygeldi, S Yilmaz, H Eröksüz
Irisin is mainly secreted by heart and skeletal muscle cells. It is an exercise-induced protein that converts white adipose tissue to brown. Increased irisin expression was lead to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance. We investigated irisin immunoreactivity in various tissues of the dwarf hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii). Tissues were processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm and stained immunohistochemically for irisin. In the retina, irisin was found almost all layers, except outer nuclear layer...
April 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Adam C Lehnig, Kristin I Stanford
The beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system have long been known. Recent studies have focused on investigating the effects of exercise on adipose tissue and the effects that these exercise-induced adaptations have on overall metabolic health. Examination of exercise-induced adaptations in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) has revealed marked differences in each tissue with exercise. In WAT, there are changes to both subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and visceral WAT (vWAT), including decreased adipocyte size and lipid content, increased expression of metabolic genes, altered secretion of adipokines and increased mitochondrial activity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kimie Tanaka, Masataka Sata
Traditionally, it is believed that white adipose tissues serve as energy storage, heat insulation, and mechanical cushion, whereas non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue. Recent evidence revealed that adipose tissue secretes many types of cytokines, called as adipocytokines, which modulate glucose metabolism, lipid profile, appetite, fibrinolysis, blood pressure, and inflammation. Most of the arteries are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT has been thought to be simply a structurally supportive tissue for vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Preeti Pathak, Xie Cen, Robert G Nichols, Jessica M Ferrell, Shannon Boehme, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez, John Y L Chiang
Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5) to regulate bile acid metabolism and glucose and insulin sensitivity. FXR and TGR5 are co-expressed in the enteroendocrine L cells but their roles in integrated regulation of metabolism are not completely understood. We reported recently that activation of FXR induces TGR5 to stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion to improve insulin sensitivity and hepatic metabolism. In this study, we used the intestine-restricted FXR agonist fexaramine (FEX) to study the effect of activation of intestinal FXR on the gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism, and FXR and TGR5 signaling...
February 27, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Siyu Li, Zhiping Miao, Ye Tian, Haoyu Wang, Shuai Wang, Tianyuan He, Yue Yang, Peng Wang, Mengyao Ma, Tuanmin Yang, Tao Chen, Zhiyong Liu, Junhong Gao, Chu Chen, Airong Qian
Airway inflammation is the major pathological feature of asthma. Thus, the current therapeutic strategy for asthma is to control inflammation. Limethason, an anti-inflammation drug, is widely used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. The aim of the present study was to detect the anti-inflammatory effect and side effects of limethason on airways that were sensitized with ovalbumin in a murine model of chronic asthma. In the present study, BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin. Airway hyperresponsiveness was estimated, and hematoxylin and eosin staining, Periodic acid-Schiff staining and bronchoalveolar lavage were used to detect the effect on chronic asthma...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Nathalie Biniaminov, Susanne Bandt, Alexander Roth, Sascha Haertel, Rainer Neumann, Achim Bub
Regular physical activity and physical fitness are closely related to a positive health status in humans. In this context, the muscle becomes more important due to its function as an endocrine organ. Muscle tissue secretes "myokines" in response to physical activity and it is speculated that these myokines are involved in physical activity induced positive health effects. Recently, the newly discovered myokine Irisin thought to be secreted by the muscle in response to physical activity and might be related to the health inducing effect by inducing browning of white adipose tissue...
2018: PloS One
Qiong L Zhou, Ye Song, Chun-Hong Huang, Jun-Yuan Huang, Zhenwei Gong, Zhangping Liao, Andria G Sharma, Lily Greene, Justin Z Deng, Michael C Rigor, Xiangyang Xie, Songtao Qi, Julio E Ayala, Zhen Y Jiang
CDP138 is a calcium- and lipid-binding protein that is involved in membrane trafficking. Here we report mice without CDP138 develop obesity under normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. CDP138-/- mice have lower energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and body temperature in comparison with wild-type (WT) mice.<u>CDP138 is exclusively expressed in adrenal medulla and is co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of sympathetic nervous terminals, in the inguinal fat. In comparison with WT controls, CDP138-/- mice had altered catecholamine levels in the circulation, adrenal grand, and inguinal fat...
January 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Clifford J Rosen
Adipocytes are heterogeneous cells strongly linked to energy storage and disposal. In parallel, adipocytes are endowed with an extensive portfolio of endocrine molecules, whose secretion varies depending on nutritional status. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) has specific characteristics that are not shared by white (WAT) or brown (BAT) adipose tissue. First, marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts are terminally differentiated cells that originate from the same bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell. Differently from WAT adipocytes, marrow adipocytes expand under conditions of energy restriction and seem to be not influenced by energy surplus, at least in humans...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Ishwarlal Jialal, Sridevi Devaraj
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common global problem that comprises the cardio-metabolic cluster and predisposes to both diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although the pathogenic mechanisms have not been elucidated, both increased inflammation and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. It appears that both monocyte/macrophages and adipose tissue (AT) conspire to accentuate both the pro-inflammatory state and increased insulin resistance. Whilst there are scant data on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) biology, there are data on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) dysregulation...
January 20, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Ziru Li, Julie Hardij, Devika P Bagchi, Erica L Scheller, Ormond A MacDougald
Most adipocytes exist in discrete depots throughout the body, notably in well-defined white and brown adipose tissues. However, adipocytes also reside within specialized niches, of which the most abundant is within bone marrow. Whereas bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) shares many properties in common with white adipose tissue, the distinct functions of BMAT are reflected by its development, regulation, protein secretion, and lipid composition. In addition to its potential role as a local energy reservoir, BMAT also secretes proteins, including adiponectin, RANK ligand, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and stem cell factor, which contribute to local marrow niche functions and which may also influence global metabolism...
January 14, 2018: Bone
Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Francoise A Gourronc, Anna Chaly, David A Wadkins, Anthony J Burand, Kathleen R Markan, Sharon O Idiga, Meng Wu, Matthew J Potthoff, James A Ankrum
Adipose tissue dysfunction is critical to the development of type II diabetes and other metabolic diseases. While monolayer cell culture has been useful for studying fat biology, 2D culture often does not reflect the complexity of fat tissue. Animal models are also problematic in that they are expensive, time consuming, and may not completely recapitulate human biology because of species variation. To address these problems, we have developed a scaffold-free method to generate 3D adipose spheroids from primary or immortal human or mouse pre-adipocytes...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yasuhiko Minokoshi
Recent advances of neuroscience shed a light in the neural pathway and mechanisms for food intake regulation. The central nervous system(CNS)has also been recognized as a crucial organ to regulate metabolism in peripheral tissues. This includes the increase in glucose and fatty acid utilization in skeletal muscle as well as in brown adipose tissue and the heart, improving type 1 diabetes without change in insulin secretion. CNS regulation for food intake and energy metabolism is important to understand the mechanism for homeostatic regulation in living body...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Marco Tozzi, Ivana Novak
Extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides, such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are involved in many physiological and pathological processes in adipose tissue (AT). It is becoming accepted that, in addition to the well-established sympathetic and hormonal system, purinergic receptors contribute significantly to regulation of adipocyte functions. Several receptor subtypes for both adenosine (P1) and ATP (P2X and P2Y) have been characterized in white adipocytes (WA) and brown adipocytes (BA). The effects mediated by adenosine and ATP on adipocytes are multiple and often differing, depending on specific receptors activated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
John R Grünberg, Johannes Elvin, Alexandra Paul, Shahram Hedjazifar, Ann Hammarstedt, Ulf Smith
Obesity and type 2 diabetes increase worldwide at an epidemic rate. It is expected that by the year 2030 around 500 million people will have diabetes; predominantly type 2 diabetes. The CCN family of proteins has become of interest in both metabolic and other common human diseases because of their effects on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) proliferation and differentiation as well as being important regulators of fibrosis. We here review current knowledge of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2 (CCN5/WISP2)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Pablo Tapia, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Fermín Robledo, Pablo Mardones, José E Galgani, Víctor A Cortés
The discovery of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has fuelled the research of diverse aspects of this previously neglected tissue. BAT is solely present in mammals and its clearest physiological role is non-shivering thermogenesis, owing to the capacity of brown adipocytes to dissipate metabolic energy as heat. Recently, a number of other possible functions have been proposed, including direct regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis and the secretion of a number of factors with diverse regulatory actions...
December 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Anal Desai, Michele Alves-Bezerra, Yingxia Li, Cafer Ozdemir, Curtis J Bare, Yue Li, Susan J Hagen, David E Cohen
Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1) is an acyl-CoA thioesterase that is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue, where it functions to suppress energy expenditure. Lower Them1 expression levels in the liver are upregulated in response to high-fat feeding. Them1 -/- mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance, but the contribution of Them1 in liver is unclear. To examine its liver-specific functions, we created conditional transgenic mice, which, when bred to Them1 -/- mice and activated, expressed Them1 exclusively in the liver...
February 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
D Pérez-Sotelo, A Roca-Rivada, I Baamonde, J Baltar, A I Castro, E Domínguez, M Collado, F F Casanueva, M Pardo
Irisin is a browning-stimulating molecule secreted from the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 precursor (FNDC5) by muscle tissue upon exercise stimulation. Despite its beneficial role, there is an unmet and clamorous need to discern many essential aspects of this protein and its mechanism of action not only as a myokine but also as an adipokine. Here we contribute to address this topic by revealing the nature and role of FNDC5/irisin in adipose tissue. First, we show that FNDC5/irisin expression and secretion are induced by adipocyte differentiation and confirm its over-secretion by human obese visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fernando Lizcano, Diana Vargas, Ángela Gómez, Astrid Torrado
Type two innate immune system is anti-inflammatory and may play an important role as the means whereby "browning" is induced in subcutaneous adipocytes. It was shown that IL-4 may influence the fate of adipose cell precursors by promoting differentiation towards more thermogenic adipocytes in mice. Here, we investigated the influence of IL-4 and IL-4 receptor, a type two immune cytokine pathway, on the metabolic activity and thermogenic potential of human adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) obtained from subcutaneous samples of healthy women undergoing abdominoplasty...
2017: Stem Cells International
Kanta Chechi, Pierre Voisine, Patrick Mathieu, Mathieu Laplante, Sébastian Bonnet, Frédéric Picard, Philippe Joubert, Denis Richard
Brown fat presence and metabolic activity has been associated with lower body mass index, higher insulin sensitivity and better cardiometabolic profile in humans. We, and others, have previously reported the presence of Ucp1, a marker of brown adipocytes, in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Characterization of the metabolic activity and associated physiological relevance of Ucp1 within eAT, however, is still awaited. Here, we validate the presence of Ucp1 within human eAT and its 'beige' nature. Using in-vitro analytical approaches, we further characterize its thermogenic potential and demonstrate that human eAT is capable of undergoing enhanced uncoupling respiration upon stimulation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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