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Tyrosine AND cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631188/role-of-clu-picalm-and-tnk1-genotypes-in-aging-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Davide Seripa, Francesco Panza, Giulia Paroni, Grazia D'Onofrio, Paola Bisceglia, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Alessandra Bizzarro, Virginia Boccardi, Chiara Piccininni, Antonio Daniele, Giancarlo Logroscino, Patrizia Mecocci, Carlo Masullo, Antonio Greco
Healthy and impaired cognitive aging may be associated to different prevalences of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In a multicenter case-control association study, we studied the SNPs rs11136000 (clusterin, CLU), rs541458 (phosphatidylinositol binding clatrin assembly protein, PICALM), and rs1554948 (transcription factor A, and tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 1, TNK1) according to the three age groups 50-65 years (group 1), 66-80 years (group 2), and 80+ years (group 3) in 569 older subjects without cognitive impairment (NoCI) and 520 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607064/impact-of-nutrition-on-social-decision-making
#2
Sabrina Strang, Christina Hoeber, Olaf Uhl, Berthold Koletzko, Thomas F Münte, Hendrik Lehnert, Raymond J Dolan, Sebastian M Schmid, Soyoung Q Park
Food intake is essential for maintaining homeostasis, which is necessary for survival in all species. However, food intake also impacts multiple biochemical processes that influence our behavior. Here, we investigate the causal relationship between macronutrient composition, its bodily biochemical impact, and a modulation of human social decision making. Across two studies, we show that breakfasts with different macronutrient compositions modulated human social behavior. Breakfasts with a high-carbohydrate/protein ratio increased social punishment behavior in response to norm violations compared with that in response to a low carbohydrate/protein meal...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591103/treatment-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-older-adults-now-and-the-future
#3
Musa Yilmaz, Hagop Kantarjian, Elias Jabbour
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an uncommon disease with poor outcomes in older patients. Although intensive chemotherapy can induce complete responses in older patients, the mortality rate is unacceptably high. The 5-year survival rate for patients achieving a remission ranges from 17% to 23%. ALL is usually more aggressive in older patients, and these patients' reduced functional capacity renders them less able to tolerate treatment. The need for less-intensive, more-efficient treatment modalities in this population of frail and high-risk patients is evident...
April 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556830/adolescence-is-the-starting-point-of-sex-dichotomous-comt-genetic-effects
#4
S Sannino, M C Padula, F Managò, M Schaer, M Schneider, M Armando, E Scariati, F Sloan-Bena, M Mereu, M Pontillo, S Vicari, G Contarini, C Chiabrera, M Pagani, A Gozzi, S Eliez, F Papaleo
The catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) genetic variations produce pleiotropic behavioral/neuroanatomical effects. Some of these effects may vary among sexes. However, the developmental trajectories of COMT-by-sex interactions are unclear. Here we found that extreme COMT reduction, in both humans (22q11.2 deletion syndrome COMT Met) and mice (COMT-/-), was associated to cortical thinning only after puberty and only in females. Molecular biomarkers, such as tyrosine hydroxylase, Akt and neuronal/cellular counting, confirmed that COMT-by-sex divergent effects started to appear at the cortical level during puberty...
May 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555636/pyk2-modulates-hippocampal-excitatory-synapses-and-contributes-to-cognitive-deficits-in-a-huntington-s-disease-model
#5
Albert Giralt, Veronica Brito, Quentin Chevy, Clémence Simonnet, Yo Otsu, Carmen Cifuentes-Díaz, Benoit de Pins, Renata Coura, Jordi Alberch, Sílvia Ginés, Jean-Christophe Poncer, Jean-Antoine Girault
The structure and function of spines and excitatory synapses are under the dynamic control of multiple signalling networks. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is involved, its regulation and importance are not well understood. Here we study the role of Pyk2, a non-receptor calcium-dependent protein-tyrosine kinase highly expressed in the hippocampus. Hippocampal-related learning and CA1 long-term potentiation are severely impaired in Pyk2-deficient mice and are associated with alterations in NMDA receptors, PSD-95 and dendritic spines...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552082/cerebral-dopamine-deficiency-plasma-monoamine-alterations-and-neurocognitive-deficits-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria
#6
E Boot, C E M Hollak, S C J Huijbregts, R Jahja, D van Vliet, A J Nederveen, D H Nieman, A M Bosch, L J Bour, A J Bakermans, N G G M Abeling, A S Bassett, T A M J van Amelsvoort, F J van Spronsen, J Booij
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic metabolic disorder that is characterized by the inability to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine, leads to severe intellectual disability and other cerebral complications if left untreated. Dietary treatment, initiated soon after birth, prevents most brain-related complications. A leading hypothesis postulates that a shortage of brain monoamines may be associated with neurocognitive deficits that are observable even in early-treated PKU. However, there is a paucity of evidence as yet for this hypothesis...
May 29, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#7
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504493/neuropsychological-assessment-among-children-and-adolescents-with-phenylketonuria-and-hyperphenylalaninemia-and-its-relationship-with-plasma-phenylalanine-levels
#8
María B González García, Pablo Conde-Guzon, Carlos Alcalde Martín, María J Conde-Guzon, Roberto Velasco Zúñiga
Although with early treatment phenylketonuria patients may have average intelligence levels, it is important to optimize the nutritional management to maintain adequate phenylalanine levels, so that patients can develop their intellectal potential free of abnormalities in their daily activities due to deficits of cognitive executive functions. This study presents a series of 26 patients, diagnosed and treated early, who underwent a psychometric evaluation together with phenylalanine determinations along their lives, and at the time of doing the tests...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487222/neuroprotective-effects-of-ceftriaxone-treatment-on-cognitive-and-neuronal-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-accelerated-senescence
#9
Maria A Tikhonova, Shih-Chun Ho, Anna A Akopyan, Nataliya G Kolosova, Jun-Cheng Weng, Wan-Yun Meng, Chih-Li Lin, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Ying-Jui Ho
Rats of OXYS strain are characterized by genetically defined accelerated senescence. Ceftriaxone (CEF) exerts neuroprotective effects by decreasing the excitotoxicity and activation of antioxidant system. Here, we studied the effects of CEF (50 or 100mg/kg/day, i.p., 36 days) on cognitive and neuronal deficits in 5-month-old OXYS rats. Chronic CEF administration in a dose of 100mg/kg partially inhibited impairments of movement and restored the deficit in the novel object recognition in OXYS rats. Neuromorphologically, control OXYS rats exhibited a lowered neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 area and there was a tendency to decrease in the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to Wistar controls...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466270/synaptic-nmda-receptor-activation-induces-ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-step61
#10
Jian Xu, Pradeep Kurup, Angus C Nairn, Paul J Lombroso
NMDA receptor signaling is critical for the development of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory, and dysregulation of NMDAR signaling is implicated in a number of neurological disorders including schizophrenia (SZ). Previous work has demonstrated that the STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase 61 kDa (STEP61) is elevated in human SZ postmortem cortical samples and after administration of psychotomimetics to cultures or mice. Here, we report that activation of synaptic NMDAR by bicuculline or D-serine results in the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of STEP61, and increased surface localization of GluN1/GluN2B receptors...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451387/risperidone-reverses-the-spatial-object-recognition-impairment-and-hippocampal-bdnf-trkb-signalling-system-alterations-induced-by-acute-mk-801-treatment
#11
Guangdong Chen, Xiaodong Lin, Gongying Li, Diego Jiang, Zhiruo Lib, Ronghuan Jiang, Chuanjun Zhuo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a commonly-used atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, on alterations in spatial learning and in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling system caused by acute dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) treatment. In experiment 1, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to acute treatment of either low-dose MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) or normal saline (vehicle) were tested for spatial object recognition and hippocampal expression levels of BDNF, TrkB and the phophorylation of TrkB (p-TrkB)...
March 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432010/exposure-to-an-enriched-environment-facilitates-motor-recovery-and-prevents-short-term-memory-impairment-and-reduction-of-striatal-bdnf-in-a-progressive-pharmacological-model-of-parkinsonism-in-mice
#12
Clarissa L C Campêlo, José R Santos, Anatildes F Silva, Aline L Dierschnabel, André Pontes, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva
Previous studies showed that the repeated administration with a low dose of reserpine (RES) induces a gradual appearance of motor signs and cognitive deficits compatible with parkinsonism in rodents. Environmental stimulation has neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative damage, including acutely induced parkinsonism. We investigated the effects of exposure to an enriched environment (EE) on motor, cognitive and neuronal (levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, TH and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) deficits induced by a progressive model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384480/l-tyrosine-administration-modulates-the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-in-healthy-humans
#13
Bryant J Jongkees, Roberta Sellaro, Christian Beste, Michael A Nitsche, Simone Kühn, Lorenza S Colzato
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an increasingly popular method of modulating cognitive functions in humans. However, some doubt its efficacy as findings are inconsistent or remain unreplicated. It is speculated dopamine (DA) might play an important role in this inconsistency, by determining the direction and strength of the cognitive-behavioral effects of tDCS. However, so far evidence for this hypothesis has been correlational in nature, precluding definitive conclusions...
March 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377889/long-term-cognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-tyrosinemia-type-1-treated-with-nitisinone-and-protein-restricted-diet
#14
María Ignacia García, Alicia de la Parra, Carolina Arias, Miguel Arredondo, Juan Francisco Cabello
INTRODUCTION: Tyrosinemia Type 1 (HT1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydroxylase in the tyrosine pathway. Implementation of nitisinone (NTBC) treatment has dramatically improved survival rate of individuals with HT1, yet recent reports on cognitive impairment in treated patients exist. AIMS: Describe long-term neurocognitive outcome individuals with HT1 treated with nitisinone and protein restricted diet...
June 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352227/a-novel-genetic-screen-identifies-modifiers-of-age-dependent-amyloid-%C3%AE-toxicity-in-the-drosophila-brain
#15
Lautaro F Belfiori-Carrasco, María S Marcora, Nadia I Bocai, M Fernanda Ceriani, Laura Morelli, Eduardo M Castaño
The accumulation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients begins many years before clinical onset. Such process has been proposed to be pathogenic through the toxicity of Aβ soluble oligomers leading to synaptic dysfunction, phospho-tau aggregation and neuronal loss. Yet, a massive accumulation of Aβ can be found in approximately 30% of aged individuals with preserved cognitive function. Therefore, within the frame of the "amyloid hypothesis", compensatory mechanisms and/or additional neurotoxic or protective factors need to be considered and investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332006/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-decreases-the-release-of-dopamine-in-the-medial-frontal-cortex-and-induces-atomoxetine-responsive-neurobehavioral-deficits-in-mice
#16
Tursun Alkam, Takayoshi Mamiya, Nami Kimura, Aya Yoshida, Daisuke Kihara, Yuki Tsunoda, Yuki Aoyama, Masayuki Hiramatsu, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Toshitaka Nabeshima
Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is partly associated with the early developmental exposure to nicotine in tobacco smoke. Emerging reports link tobacco smoke exposure or prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) with AD/HD-like behaviors in rodent models. We have previously reported that PNE induces cognitive behavioral deficits in offspring and decreases the contents of dopamine (DA) and its turnover in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of offspring It is well known that the dysfunction of DAergic system in the brain is one of the core factors in the pathophysiology of AD/HD...
March 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330828/early-postnatal-iron-deficiency-impacts-plasticity-in-the-dorsal-and-ventral-hippocampus-in-piglets
#17
Ellis Nelissen, Jochen De Vry, Alexandra Antonides, Dean Paes, Melissa Schepers, Franz Josef van der Staay, Jos Prickaerts, Tim Vanmierlo
In this study, we investigated whether alterations in plasticity markers such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) are underlying iron deficiency (ID)-induced cognitive impairments in iron depleted piglets. Newborn piglets were either fed an iron-depleted diet (21mg Fe/kg) or an iron-sufficient diet (88mg Fe/kg) for four weeks. Subsequently, eight weeks after iron repletion (190-240mg Fe/kg) we found a significant decrease in mature BDNF (14kDa) and proBDNF (18kDa and 24kDa) protein levels in the ventral hippocampus, whereas we found increases in the dorsal hippocampus...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199883/acetyl-l-carnitine-protects-dopaminergic-nigrostriatal-pathway-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-rat
#18
Siamak Afshin-Majd, Keyhan Bashiri, Zahra Kiasalari, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Reza Sedaghat, Mehrdad Roghani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide in which nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) are lost, with clinical motor and non-motor symptoms including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, stooping posture and cognitive deficits. This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) against unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced model of PD and to explore some involved mechanisms...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185877/female-rats-display-fewer-optimistic-responses-in-a-judgment-bias-test-in-the-absence-of-a-physiological-stress-response
#19
T H Barker, L Bobrovskaya, G S Howarth, A L Whittaker
Metabolic cages are a type of housing used in biomedical research. Metabolic cage housing has been demonstrated to elicit behavioural and physiological changes in rodents housed within them. The nature of this effect has been characterized as anxiogenic. However, few studies have evaluated positive affect in response to metabolic cage housing and the interaction between this, sex and traditional physiological measures of stress. Cognitive biasing, as measured through a judgment bias paradigm has proven a reliable measure of animal affective state, particularly through its ability to measure positive affect...
February 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132054/prenatal-cocaine-exposure-alters-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-brain
#20
Deirdre M McCarthy, Kaly A Mueller, Elisa N Cannon, Megan N Huizenga, Shayna B Darnell, Pradeep G Bhide, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili
Prenatal cocaine exposure remains a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on cognitive function. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment are not fully understood, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling via its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) is emerging as a potential candidate. We used a mouse model to examine the impact of ongoing cocaine exposure on BDNF expression in the dorsal forebrain on embryonic day 15 (E15) as well as the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on BDNF-TrkB signaling in the frontal cortex in early postnatal (postnatal day 16; P16) and adult (P60) male and female mice...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
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