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Tyrosine AND cognition

Natarajan Suganthy, Kasi Pandima Devi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Quercetin, a ubiquitous flavonoid that is widely distributed in plants is classified as a cognitive enhancer in traditional and oriental medicine. The protective effects of quercetin for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and cerebrovascular diseases have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The free radical scavenging activity of quercetin has been well-documented, wherein quercetin has been observed to exhibit protective effects against oxidative stress mediated neuronal damage by modulating the expression of NRF-2 dependent antioxidant responsive elements, and attenuation of neuroinflammation by suppressing NF-κB signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1)...
October 15, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Matic Poberznik, Miha Purg, Matej Repič, Janez Mavri, Robert Vianello
Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) A and B are flavoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of biogenic amines such as dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, which is why they have been extensively implicated in the etiology and course of various neurodegenerative disorders, and, accordingly, used as primary pharmacological targets to treat these debilitating cognitive diseases. The precise chemical mechanism through which MAOs regulate the amine concentration, which is vital for the development of novel inhibitors, is still not unambiguously determined in the literature...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Luigi Bellocchio, Andrea Ruiz-Calvo, Anna Chiarlone, Magali Cabanas, Eva Resel, Jean-René Cazalets, Cristina Blázquez, Yoon H Cho, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Manuel Guzmán
: The dorsal striatum is a major input structure of the basal ganglia and plays a key role in the control of vital processes such as motor behavior, cognition, and motivation. The functionality of striatal neurons is tightly controlled by various metabotropic receptors. Whereas the Gs/Gi-protein-dependent tuning of striatal neurons is fairly well known, the precise impact and underlying mechanism of Gq-protein-dependent signals remain poorly understood. Here, using different experimental approaches, especially designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) chemogenetic technology, we found that sustained activation of Gq-protein signaling impairs the functionality of striatal neurons and we unveil the precise molecular mechanism underlying this process: a phospholipase C/Ca(2+)/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2/cJun N-terminal kinase pathway...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yusuke Naito, Alfred Kihoon Lee, Hideto Takahashi
Tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) receptors have been extensively studied for their roles in kinase-dependent signaling cascades in nervous system development. Synapse organization is coordinated by trans-synaptic interactions of various cell adhesion proteins, a representative example of which is the neurexin-neuroligin complex. Recently, a novel role for TrkC as a synapse organizing protein has been established. Post-synaptic TrkC binds to pre-synaptic type-IIa receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPσ)...
September 30, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Teng Jiang, Ying-Dong Zhang, Qing Gao, Jun-Shan Zhou, Xi-Chen Zhu, Huan Lu, Jian-Quan Shi, Lan Tan, Qi Chen, Jin-Tai Yu
As the most common type of neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) within the brain. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) 1 is an immune receptor expressed by mononuclear phagocytes including monocytes and microglia, coupling with TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to regulate immune reactions. Emerging evidence indicates that rs6910730(G), an intronic variant of TREM1, is associated with an increased Aβ neuropathology in the brains of elderly subjects, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Pedro A Pereira, Tiago Millner, Manuel Vilela, Sérgio Sousa, Armando Cardoso, M Dulce Madeira
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been identified as a critical center for working and long-term memory. In this study, we have examined the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in mPFC interneurons and the density of the mPFC cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in cognitively-impaired aged Wistar rats. We also tested the possibility that the potential age-related changes might rely on insufficient neurotrophic support. The total number of NPY- and VIP-immunoreactive neurons and the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive varicosities were estimated using stereological methods...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Vyshak Alva Venur, José Pablo Leone
The discovery of various driver pathways and targeted small molecule agents/antibodies have revolutionized the management of metastatic breast cancer. Currently, the major targets of clinical utility in breast cancer include the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK-4/6) pathway. Brain metastasis, however, remains a thorn in the flesh, leading to morbidity, neuro-cognitive decline, and interruptions in the management of systemic disease...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marie Barbier, Christophe Houdayer, Gabrielle Franchi, Fabrice Poncet, Pierre-Yves Risold
The claustrum is a small, elongated nucleus close to the external capsule and deep in the insular cortex. In rodents, this nucleus is characterized by a dense cluster of parvalbumin labeling. The claustrum is connected with the cerebral cortex. It does not project to the brainstem, but brainstem structures can influence this nucleus. To identify some specific projections from the lateral hypothalamus and midbrain, we analyzed the distribution of projections labeled with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and hypocretin (Hcrt) in the region of the claustrum...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Lisbell D Estrada, David Chamorro, María José Yañez, Marcelo Gonzalez, Nancy Leal, Rommy von Bernhardi, Andrés E Dulcey, Juan Marugan, Marc Ferrer, Claudio Soto, Silvana Zanlungo, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Alejandra R Alvarez
One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of amyloid plaques, which are deposits of misfolded and aggregated amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ). The role of the c-Abl tyrosine kinase in Aβ-mediated neurodegeneration has been previously reported. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of inhibiting c-Abl using imatinib. We developed a novel method, based on a technique used to detect prions (PMCA), to measure minute amounts of misfolded-Aβ in the blood of AD transgenic mice...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yun Lu, Chang-Jun Li, Cheng Chen, Pan Luo, Mei Zhou, Cai Li, Xu-Lin Xu, Qing Lu, Zhi He, Lian-Jun Guo
Anxiety is an affective disorder that is commonly observed after irreversible brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia and can delay the physical and cognitive recovery, which affects the quality of life of both the patient and family members. However, anxiety after ischemia has received less attention, and mechanisms underlying anxiety-like behaviours induced by chronic cerebral ischemia are under-investigated. In the present study, the chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model was established by the permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) in rats, and anxiety-related behaviours were evaluated...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
Shahdat Hossain, Sujan Bhowmick, Sabrin Jahan, Liza Rozario, Marzan Sarkar, Saiful Islam, Mafroz Ahmed Basunia, Azizur Rahman, Bazlul Karim Choudhury, Hussain Shahjalal
The presence of lead (Pb) in fetal brain may affect brain development-related proteins. We studied whether gestational/lactational Pb-exposure affects oxidative stress, proinflammatory response, apoptosis and levels of brain development/cognition-related proteins, including presynaptic synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25), postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), tyrosine receptor-kinase protein B (TrkB) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the offspring...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Vinod Kumar
Disruption of the cyclic feature of the day-night environment can cause negative effects on daily activity and advanced brain functions such as learning, memory and decision-making behaviour. These functions in songbirds, including corvids, involve the hippocampus, pallium and midbrain, as revealed by ZENK (a neuronal activation marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressions. TH is rate-limiting marker enzyme of the biosynthesis of dopamine, widely implicated in learning and memory. Here, we measured ZENK and TH immunoreactivity in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain regions in response to cognitive performance (learning-memory retrieval) tests in Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to constant light environment (LL) with controls on 12h light:12h darkness...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Daping Xu, Haiyun Chen, Shinghung Mak, Shengquan Hu, Karl W K Tsim, Yuanjia Hu, Yewei Sun, Gaoxiao Zhang, Yuqiang Wang, Zaijun Zhang, Yifan Han
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by irreversible impairment of memory and cognitive function. The exact causes of Alzheimer's disease still remain unclear and current single target drugs could only offer limited therapeutic effect to the patients. We have previously reported that T-006, a promising anti-Alzheimer's compound derived from Chinese medicinal component tetramethylpyrazine, might protect neurons through inhibiting the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS)...
October 2016: Neurochemistry International
Richard K Wyse, Patrik Brundin, Todd B Sherer
We discuss a report in the current issue on clinical and biochemical findings from a safety trial using the cAbl tyrosine kinase inhibitor Nilotinib (150 mg or 300 mg given daily for 24 weeks) in a small group of patients with either advanced Parkinson's disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Despite some side effects (one serious), the authors claim that Nilotinib, which is normally used at much higher doses for treating leukemia, is safe and tolerated. Furthermore, they report a possible benefit on motor and cognitive outcomes...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Fernando Pagan, Michaeline Hebron, Ellen H Valadez, Yasar Torres-Yaghi, Xu Huang, Reversa R Mills, Barbara M Wilmarth, Hellen Howard, Connell Dunn, Alexis Carlson, Abigail Lawler, Sean L Rogers, Ramsey A Falconer, Jaeil Ahn, Zhaoxia Li, Charbel Moussa
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effects of low doses of the tyrosine kinase Abelson (Abl) inhibitor Nilotinib, on safety and pharmacokinetics in Parkinson's disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. OBJECTIVES: The primary outcomes of this study were safety and tolerability; pharmacokinetics and target engagement were secondary, while clinical outcomes were exploratory. METHODS: Twelve subjects were randomized into 150 mg (n = 5) or 300 mg (n = 7) groups and received Nilotinib orally every day for 24 weeks...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Giuseppe Perruolo, Davide Viggiano, Francesca Fiory, Angela Cassese, Cecilia Nigro, Antonietta Liotti, Claudia Miele, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano
Neurological abnormalities, such as Parkinson-like disorders (PlD), are often co-morbidities of Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients, although the epidemiological link between these two disorders remains controversial. The PED/PEA-15 protein represents a possible candidate linking T2D and PD, because it is increased in subjects with T2D and is highly expressed in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the neurological and neurochemical phenotype of transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (tgPED). These mice develop impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, accompanied by neurological features resembling PlD: feet clasping, slow and delayed locomotor movements in different behavioral tests in absence of clear cognitive deficits, ataxia or anxiety...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tae-Woon Kim, Hyun-Hee Choi, Yong-Rak Chung
Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods for managing obesity, and exercise exerts positive effects on various brain functions. Excessive weight gain is known to be related to the impairment of cognitive function. High-fat diet-induced obesity impairs hippocampal neuroplasticity, which impedes cognitive function, such as learning ability and memory function. In this study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on impairment of cognitive function in relation with hippocampal neuroplasticity using high-fat diet-induced obese mice...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Roberta Sellaro, Ann-Kathrin Stock, Larissa Arning, Christian Beste
l-Tyrosine (TYR), the precursor of dopamine (DA), has been shown to enhance facets of cognitive control in situations with high cognitive demands. However some previous outcomes were mixed: some studies reported significant improvements, while other did not. Given that TYR increases DA level in the brain, we investigated, in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, whether the C957T genotypes of a functional synonymous polymorphism in the human dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene (rs6277) contribute to individual differences in the reactivity to TYR administration and whether this factor predicts the magnitude of TYR-induced performance differences on inhibiting behavioral responses in a stop-signal task and working memory (WM) updating in a N-back task...
September 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Sung Min Ahn, Yu Ri Kim, Ha Neui Kim, Yong-Il Shin, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
We modeled prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion in mice using bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) and electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation was applied at two acupoints, Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14). In behavioral tests of memory, BCAS produced impairments in spatial and short-term memory in mice that were attenuated by therapeutic EA stimulation. Therapeutic use of EA in BCAS also enhanced oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), in association with white matter improvements in the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carmen Stabile, Ilaria Taglia, Carla Battisti, Silvia Bianchi, Antonio Federico
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by giant neuroaxonal swellings (spheroids) within the cerebral white matter (WM). Symptoms are variable and can include cognitive, mental and motor dysfunctions. Patients carry mutations in the protein kinase domain of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) which is a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for microglia development. To date, more than 50 pathogenic variants have been reported in patients with HDLS, including missense, frameshift and non-sense mutations, but also deletions and splice-site mutations, all located in the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain, encoded by exons 12-22...
September 2016: Neurological Sciences
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