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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332006/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-decreases-the-release-of-dopamine-in-the-medial-frontal-cortex-and-induces-atomoxetine-responsive-neurobehavioral-deficits-in-mice
#1
Tursun Alkam, Takayoshi Mamiya, Nami Kimura, Aya Yoshida, Daisuke Kihara, Yuki Tsunoda, Yuki Aoyama, Masayuki Hiramatsu, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Toshitaka Nabeshima
Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is partly associated with the early developmental exposure to nicotine in tobacco smoke. Emerging reports link tobacco smoke exposure or prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) with AD/HD-like behaviors in rodent models. We have previously reported that PNE induces cognitive behavioral deficits in offspring and decreases the contents of dopamine (DA) and its turnover in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of offspring It is well known that the dysfunction of DAergic system in the brain is one of the core factors in the pathophysiology of AD/HD...
March 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330828/early-postnatal-iron-deficiency-impacts-plasticity-in-the-dorsal-and-ventral-hippocampus-in-piglets
#2
Ellis Nelissen, Jochen De Vry, Alexandra Antonides, Dean Paes, Melissa Schepers, Franz Josef van der Staay, Jos Prickaerts, Tim Vanmierlo
In this study, we investigated whether alterations in plasticity markers such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) are underlying iron deficiency (ID)-induced cognitive impairments in iron depleted piglets. Newborn piglets were either fed an iron-depleted diet (21mg Fe/kg) or an iron-sufficient diet (88mg Fe/kg) for four weeks. Subsequently, eight weeks after iron repletion (190-240mg Fe/kg) we found a significant decrease in mature BDNF (14kDa) and proBDNF (18kDa and 24kDa) protein levels in the ventral hippocampus, whereas we found increases in the dorsal hippocampus...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199883/acetyl-l-carnitine-protects-dopaminergic-nigrostriatal-pathway-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-rat
#3
Siamak Afshin-Majd, Keyhan Bashiri, Zahra Kiasalari, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Reza Sedaghat, Mehrdad Roghani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide in which nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) are lost, with clinical motor and non-motor symptoms including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, stooping posture and cognitive deficits. This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) against unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced model of PD and to explore some involved mechanisms...
February 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185877/female-rats-display-fewer-optimistic-responses-in-a-judgment-bias-test-in-the-absence-of-a-physiological-stress-response
#4
T H Barker, L Bobrovskaya, G S Howarth, A L Whittaker
Metabolic cages are a type of housing used in biomedical research. Metabolic cage housing has been demonstrated to elicit behavioural and physiological changes in rodents housed within them. The nature of this effect has been characterized as anxiogenic. However, few studies have evaluated positive affect in response to metabolic cage housing and the interaction between this, sex and traditional physiological measures of stress. Cognitive biasing, as measured through a judgment bias paradigm has proven a reliable measure of animal affective state, particularly through its ability to measure positive affect...
February 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132054/prenatal-cocaine-exposure-alters-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-brain
#5
Deirdre M McCarthy, Kaly A Mueller, Elisa N Cannon, Megan N Huizenga, Shayna B Darnell, Pradeep G Bhide, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili
Prenatal cocaine exposure remains a major public health concern because of its adverse effects on cognitive function. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment are not fully understood, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling via its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) is emerging as a potential candidate. We used a mouse model to examine the impact of ongoing cocaine exposure on BDNF expression in the dorsal forebrain on embryonic day 15 (E15) as well as the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on BDNF-TrkB signaling in the frontal cortex in early postnatal (postnatal day 16; P16) and adult (P60) male and female mice...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117912/locus-coeruleus-at-asymptomatic-early-and-middle-braak-stages-of-neurofibrillary-tangle-pathology
#6
Pol Andrés-Benito, Victor Fernández-Dueñas, Margarita Carmona, Luis Alberto Escobar, Benjamín Torrejón-Escribano, Ester Aso, Francisco Ciruela, Isidro Ferrer
AIMS: The present study analyzes molecular characteristics of the locus coeruleus (LC) and projections to the amygdala and hippocampus at asymptomatic early and middle Braak stages of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, whole transcriptome arrays and RT-qPCR in LC, and western blotting in hippocampus and amygdala in a cohort of asymptomatic individuals at stages I-IV of NFT pathology were used. RESULTS: NFTs in the LC increased in parallel with co-localized expression of tau-kinases; increased neuroketal adducts and decreased superoxide dismutase 1 in neurons with hyper-phosphorylated tau, and decreased VDAC in neurons containing truncated tau were found...
January 24, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115709/gleevec-shifts-app-processing-from-a-%C3%AE-cleavage-to-a-nonamyloidogenic-cleavage
#7
William J Netzer, Karima Bettayeb, Subhash C Sinha, Marc Flajolet, Paul Greengard, Victor Bustos
Neurotoxic amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) are major drivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are formed by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE) and γ-secretase. Our previous study showed that the anticancer drug Gleevec lowers Aβ levels through indirect inhibition of γ-secretase activity. Here we report that Gleevec also achieves its Aβ-lowering effects through an additional cellular mechanism. It renders APP less susceptible to proteolysis by BACE without inhibiting BACE enzymatic activity or the processing of other BACE substrates...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109312/locus-coeruleus-cellular-and-molecular-pathology-during-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Sarah C Kelly, Bin He, Sylvia E Perez, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Scott E Counts
A major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) projection neurons that mediate attention, memory, and arousal. However, the extent to which the LC projection system degenerates during the initial stages of AD is still under investigation. To address this question, we performed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology of noradrenergic LC neurons in tissue harvested postmortem from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, a putative prodromal AD stage), or mild/moderate AD...
January 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096758/effects-of-acute-ingestion-of-a-pre-workout-dietary-supplement-with-and-without-p-synephrine-on-resting-energy-expenditure-cognitive-function-and-exercise-performance
#9
Y Peter Jung, Conrad P Earnest, Majid Koozehchian, Elfego Galvan, Ryan Dalton, Dillon Walker, Christopher Rasmussen, Peter S Murano, Mike Greenwood, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without p-synephrine (S) on perceptions of readiness to perform, cognitive function, exercise performance, and markers of safety. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, and counterbalanced manner; 25 healthy and recreationally active male and female participants ingested a flavored maltodextrin placebo (PLA), a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg) with 2 g of maltodextrin and flavoring; or, the PWS with Citrus aurantium (PWS + S) extract standardized for 30% p-synephrine (20 mg)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096757/effects-of-ingesting-a-pre-workout-dietary-supplement-with-and-without-synephrine-for-8%C3%A2-weeks-on-training-adaptations-in-resistance-trained-males
#10
Y Peter Jung, Conrad P Earnest, Majid Koozehchian, Minye Cho, Nick Barringer, Dillon Walker, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Peter S Murano, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without synephrine (S) during training affects training responses in resistance-trained males. METHODS: Resistance-trained males (N = 80) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet in a double-blind manner with either a flavored placebo (PLA); a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg); or, the PWS supplement with Citrus aurantium extract containing 20 mg of synephrine (PWS + S) once per day for 8-weeks during training...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078323/genetic-architecture-of-age-related-cognitive-decline-in-african-americans
#11
Towfique Raj, Lori B Chibnik, Cristin McCabe, Andus Wong, Joseph M Replogle, Lei Yu, Sujuan Gao, Frederick W Unverzagt, Barbara Stranger, Jill Murrell, Lisa Barnes, Hugh C Hendrie, Tatiana Foroud, Anna Krichevsky, David A Bennett, Kathleen S Hall, Denis A Evans, Philip L De Jager
OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility to age-related cognitive decline in African Americans (AAs). METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and an admixture-mapping scan in 3,964 older AAs from 5 longitudinal cohorts; for each participant, we calculated a slope of an individual's global cognitive change from neuropsychological evaluations. We also performed a pathway-based analysis of the age-related cognitive decline GWAS...
February 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074573/structural-functional-and-clinical-characterization-of-a-novel-ptpn11-mutation-cluster-underlying-noonan-syndrome
#12
Luca Pannone, Gianfranco Bocchinfuso, Elisabetta Flex, Cesare Rossi, Giuseppina Baldassarre, Christina Lissewski, Francesca Pantaleoni, Federica Consoli, Francesca Lepri, Monia Magliozzi, Massimiliano Anselmi, Silvia Delle Vigne, Giovanni Sorge, Kadri Karaer, Goran Cuturilo, Alessandro Sartorio, Sigrid Tinschert, Maria Accadia, Maria C Digilio, Giuseppe Zampino, Alessandro De Luca, Hélène Cavé, Martin Zenker, Bruce D Gelb, Bruno Dallapiccola, Lorenzo Stella, Giovanni B Ferrero, Simone Martinelli, Marco Tartaglia
Germline mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2), cause Noonan syndrome (NS), a relatively common, clinically variable, multisystem disorder. Here, we report on the identification of five different PTPN11 missense changes affecting residues Leu(261) , Leu(262) , and Arg(265) in 16 unrelated individuals with clinical diagnosis of NS or with features suggestive for this disorder, specifying a novel disease-causing mutation cluster. Expression of the mutant proteins in HEK293T cells documented their activating role on MAPK signaling...
April 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039315/neuromotor-and-cognitive-outcomes-of-early-treatment-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-deficiency-type-b
#13
Vincenzo Leuzzi, Mario Mastrangelo, Maria Teresa Giannini, Riccardo Carbonetti, Georg F Hoffmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025041/effect-of-lps-treatment-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-and-parkinson-like-behaviors
#14
Olivier Girard-Joyal, Nafissa Ismail
Puberty is a critical period of development during which the brain undergoes reorganizing and remodeling. Exposure to stress during this period is thought to interfere with normal brain development and increase susceptibility to mental illnesses. In female mice, pubertal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, has been shown to alter sexual, anxiety-like, and depression-like behaviors and cognition in an enduring manner. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The present study examined age and sex difference in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine-dependent and Parkinson-like behaviors following LPS treatment...
December 24, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984078/anti-inflammatory-and-protective-effects-of-mt-031-a-novel-multitarget-mao-a-and-ache-buche-inhibitor-in-scopolamine-mouse-model-and-inflammatory-cells
#15
Wei Liu, Alon Rabinovich, Yuval Nash, Dan Frenkel, Yuqiang Wang, Moussa B H Youdim, Orly Weinreb
Previous study demonstrated that the novel multitarget compound, MT-031 preserved in one molecule entity the beneficial properties of its parent drugs, rasagiline and rivastigmine, and exerted high dual potencies of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in acute-treated mice and neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of MT-031 in scopolamine mouse model and inflammatory cell cultures...
October 28, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966074/brain-defective-insulin-signaling-is-associated-to-late-cognitive-impairment-in-post-septic-mice
#16
Fernanda S Neves, Patrícia T Marques, Fernanda Barros-Aragão, José Bruno Nunes, Aline M Venancio, Danielle Cozachenco, Rudimar L Frozza, Giselle F Passos, Robson Costa, Jade de Oliveira, Daiane F Engel, Andreza F De Bem, Claudia F Benjamim, Fernanda G De Felice, Sergio T Ferreira, Julia R Clarke, Claudia P Figueiredo
Sepsis survivors frequently develop late cognitive impairment. Because little is known on the mechanisms of post-septic memory deficits, there are no current effective approaches to prevent or treat such symptoms. Here, we subjected mice to severe sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and evaluated the sepsis-surviving animals in the open field, novel object recognition (NOR), and step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA) task at different times after surgery. Post-septic mice (30 days post-surgery) failed in the NOR and IA tests but exhibited normal performance when re-evaluated 45 days after surgery...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965573/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-by-inhibiting-expression-of-tau-pathology-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#17
Yang Tan, Shuke Nie, Wende Zhu, Fang Liu, Hailong Guo, Jiewen Chu, Xue B Cao, Xingjun Jiang, Yunjian Zhang, Yuzhen Li
7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a tyrosine kinase B agonist that mimics the neuroprotective properties of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which can not efficiently deliver into the brain, has been reported to be useful in ameliorating cognitive impairment in many diseases. Researches have indicated that apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mouse was associated with cognitive alteration via various mechanisms. Our present study investigated the possible mechanisms of cognitive impairment of ApoE-KO mouse fed with western type diet and the protective effects of 7,8-DHF in improving spatial learning and memory in ApoE-KO mouse...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957651/carnosic-acid-protects-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-induced-dopaminergic-neuron-injury-in-rats
#18
Ting Xu, Junjun Zhou, Jie Zhu, Shuai Zhang, Ning Zhang, Yan Zhao, Chunchun Ding, Xue Shi, Jihong Yao
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported to induce cognitive impairments of hippocampus and may influence central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated whether carnosic acid (CA) ameliorates dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of NAFLD. In order to induce NAFLD, rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. We found that continued CA administration reduced lipid accumulation marked by decreases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in the serum...
April 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951531/reversal-learning-deficits-associated-with-increased-frontal-cortical-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-tyrosine-kinase-b-signaling-in-a-prenatal-cocaine-exposure-mouse-model
#19
Deirdre M McCarthy, Genevieve A Bell, Elisa N Cannon, Kaly A Mueller, Megan N Huizenga, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, Debra A Fadool, Pradeep G Bhide
Prenatal cocaine exposure remains a major public health concern because of its adverse impact on cognitive function in children and adults. We report that prenatal cocaine exposure produces significant deficits in reversal learning, a key component of cognitive flexibility, in a mouse model. We used an olfactory reversal learning paradigm and found that the prenatally cocaine-exposed mice showed a marked failure to learn the reversed paradigm. Because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of cognitive functions, and because prenatal cocaine exposure increases the expression of BDNF and the phosphorylated form of its receptor, tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), we examined whether BDNF-TrkB signaling is involved in mediating the reversal learning deficit in prenatally cocaine-exposed mice...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912164/manganese-ii-chloride-alters-behavioral-and-neurochemical-parameters-in-larvae-and-adult-zebrafish
#20
Stefani Altenhofen, Melissa Talita Wiprich, Laura Roesler Nery, Carlos Eduardo Leite, Monica Ryff Moreira Roca Vianna, Carla Denise Bonan
Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal for organisms, but high levels can cause serious neurological damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MnCl2 exposure on cognition and exploratory behavior in adult and larval zebrafish and correlate these findings with brain accumulation of Mn, overall brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, dopamine (DA) levels, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and cell death markers in the nervous system. Adults exposed to MnCl2 for 4days (0.5, 1.0 and 1...
January 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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