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benzodiazepins immune

Dávid Szöllősi, Nikolett Hegedűs, Dániel S Veres, Ildikó Futó, Ildikó Horváth, Noémi Kovács, Bernadett Martinecz, Ádám Dénes, Daniel Seifert, Ralf Bergmann, Ondřej Lebeda, Zoltán Varga, Zoltán Kaleta, Krisztián Szigeti, Domokos Máthé
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a set of widely used nuclear medicine imaging agents as possible methods to study the early effects of systemic inflammation on the living brain in a mouse model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine systemic inflammation model was selected as a model of SAE. PROCEDURES: C57BL/6 mice were used. A multimodal imaging protocol was carried out on each animal 4 h following the intravenous administration of LPS using the following tracers: [99m Tc][2,2-dimethyl-3-[(3E)-3-oxidoiminobutan-2-yl]azanidylpropyl]-[(3E)-3-hydroxyiminobutan-2-yl]azanide ([99m Tc]HMPAO) and ethyl-7-[125 I]iodo-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate ([125 I]iomazenil) to measure brain perfusion and neuronal damage, respectively; 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) to measure cerebral glucose uptake...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Nicolás Fernández Hurst, Samanta R Zanetti, Natalia S Báez, Mario J Bibolini, Cecilia Bouzat, German A Roth
Benzodiazepines are psychoactive drugs and some of them also affect immune cells. We here characterized the inflammatory and infiltrating immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) during the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals treated with Diazepam. Also, we evaluated the expression of Translocator Protein (18kDa) (TSPO), which is a biomarker of neuroinflammatory diseases. The results indicate that Diazepam exerts protective effects on EAE development, decreasing the incidence of the disease and reducing the number of inflammatory cells in CNS, with a concomitant decrease of TSPO levels in brain tissue and CNS inflammatory CD11b+ cells...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Xavier Benarous, Marie Raffin, Vladimir Ferrafiat, Angèle Consoli, David Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Catatonia is a rare and severe psychomotor condition in children and adolescents. In the current report, we aimed to review the recent literature. METHOD: Using a PRISMA approach, we searched MEDLINE between 1982 and 2017 using the keywords 'CATATONIA' and 'CHILD' or 'ADOLESCENT'. In total, we reviewed 130 reports (controlled study, N=4; clinical chart, N=23; case report, N=54; and editorial/review, N=42). RESULTS: Several aspects seem to be age specific: (1) although the clinical presentation resembles that in adults, some symptoms are important in children and adolescents (e...
July 25, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Keren Bachi, Venkatesh Mani, Devi Jeyachandran, Zahi A Fayad, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best...
July 2017: Atherosclerosis
E Lw Fung, B Bh Fung
Convulsive status epilepticus is the most extreme form of seizure. It is a medical and neurological emergency that requires prompt and appropriate treatment. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus is usually divided into stages/steps. The International League Against Epilepsy has released a new definition of status epilepticus that may help to unify the definition in future studies. Over the last few years new information has become available regarding its management. The Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial demonstrated non-inferiority of intramuscular midazolam in early status epilepticus compared with intravenous lorazepam...
February 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Zodwa Dlamini, Mzwandile Mbele, Michelle McCabe, Jasper Rees, Saraladevi Naicker, Zukile Mbita
Oesophageal cancer ranks as the sixth most common malignancy in the world, and recent evidence has shown that its incidence is increasing. ACBPs (Acyl-coA binding proteins) act as intracellular carrier-proteins for medium to long chain acyl-coA, mediating fatty acid transport to the mitochondrion for ß-oxidation. ACBPs are also believed to be putative ligands of PBR (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor), and once they bind to this receptor they facilitate mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, presumably favouring apoptosis...
June 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Eric H Grover, Yara Nazzal, Lawrence J Hirsch
Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a medical emergency with an associated high mortality and morbidity. It is defined as a convulsive seizure lasting more than 5 min or consecutive seizures without recovery of consciousness. Successful management of CSE depends on rapid administration of adequate doses of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). The exact choice of AED is less important than rapid treatment and early consideration of reversible etiologies. Current guidelines recommend the use of benzodiazepines (BNZ) as first-line treatment in CSE...
March 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Emilie Royaux, Sofie Bhatti, Hilde De Cock, Luc Van Ham, Adriaan Kitshoff, Sophie Vandenabeele
BACKGROUND: The macroscopic appearance of cutaneous adverse drug reactions can be similar to a plethora of skin diseases and in particular may resemble autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders. The reaction can occur after single or multiple administrations, with the latter varying in durations of up to years of treatment. These reactions are mostly self-limiting with cessation of the offending drug. OBJECTIVES: To report a cutaneous adverse drug reaction associated with chronic administration of imepitoin...
April 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Laura J Fil, Payal Sud, Steven Sattler
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune mediated inflammatory disease that attacks myelinated axons in the central nervous system. Dalfampridine (4-aminopyridine) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2010 for treatment of MS. Our patient was a 34-year-old male with a history of MS, who was brought to the emergency department after being found unresponsive. His current medications were valacyclovir, temazepam, dalfampridine (4-AP) and a tysabri intravenous (IV) infusion. Fifteen minutes after arrival the patient seized...
December 2015: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Elizabeth E Krans, Susan L Zickmund, Vinod K Rustgi, Seo Young Park, Shannon L Dunn, Eleanor B Schwarz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the delivery of prenatal care services to women with opioid use disorder (OUD) on opioid maintenance therapy at high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort evaluation of 791 pregnant women with OUD from 2009 to 2012. HCV screening was defined as documentation of (a) an anti-HCV antibody test or (b) a provider discussion regarding a known HCV diagnosis during pregnancy...
2016: Substance Abuse
Dany Arsenault, Katherine Coulombe, Aijun Zhu, Chunyu Gong, Kun-Eek Kil, Ji-Kyung Choi, Pekka Poutiainen, Anna-Liisa Brownell
Parental microglial induced neuroinflammation, triggered by bacterial- or viral infections, can induce neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and autism to offspring in animal models. Recent investigations suggest that microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, provides a link between neurotransmission, immune cell activation, brain inflammation and neuronal dysfunction seen with the offspring. Relatively little is known about how reduction of brain inflammation and restoration of glial function are associated with diminution of brain degeneration and behavioral deficits in offspring...
2015: PloS One
Karol Ramirez, Anzela Niraula, John F Sheridan
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial stress is associated with altered immunity, anxiety, and depression. Repeated social defeat (RSD), a model of social stress, triggers egress of inflammatory myeloid progenitor cells (MPCs; CD11b(+)/Ly6C(hi)) that traffic to the brain, promoting anxiety-like behavior. In parallel, RSD enhances neuroinflammatory signaling and long-lasting social avoidant behavior. Lorazepam and clonazepam are routinely prescribed anxiolytics that act by enhancing GABAergic activity in the brain...
January 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Annamaria Vezzani, Raymond Dingledine, Andrea O Rossetti
Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurological emergency often refractory to available treatment options. It is a very heterogeneous condition in terms of clinical presentation and causes, which besides genetic, vascular and other structural causes also include CNS or severe systemic infections, sudden withdrawal from benzodiazepines or anticonvulsants and rare autoimmune etiologies. Treatment of SE is essentially based on expert opinions and antiepileptic drug treatment per se seems to have no major impact on prognosis...
2015: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Julie Nys, Katrien Smolders, Marie-Eve Laramée, Isabel Hofman, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Lutgarde Arckens
UNLABELLED: In adult mice, monocular enucleation (ME) results in an immediate deactivation of the contralateral medial monocular visual cortex. An early restricted reactivation by open eye potentiation is followed by a late overt cross-modal reactivation by whiskers (Van Brussel et al., 2011). In adolescence (P45), extensive recovery of cortical activity after ME fails as a result of suppression or functional immaturity of the cross-modal mechanisms (Nys et al., 2014). Here, we show that dark exposure before ME in adulthood also prevents the late cross-modal reactivation component, thereby converting the outcome of long-term ME into a more P45-like response...
August 12, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gérald J Prud'homme, Yelena Glinka, Qinghua Wang
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. However, it is also produced in other sites; notably by pancreatic β cells and immune cells. The function of GABA in the immune system is at an early stage of study, but it exerts inhibitory effects that are relevant to autoimmune diseases. The study of GABAergic interactions in the immune system has centered on three main aspects: 1) the expression of GABA and the relevant GABAergic molecular machinery; 2) the in vitro response of immune cells; and 3) therapeutic applications in autoimmune diseases...
November 2015: Autoimmunity Reviews
S Le Clerc, L Taing, G Fond, A Meary, P-M Llorca, O Blanc, P Beaune, K Rajagopal, S Jamain, R Tamouza, J-F Zagury, M Leboyer
The choice of an efficient psychotropic treatment for patients with schizophrenia is a key issue to improve prognosis and quality of life and to decrease the related burden and costs. As for other complex disorders, response to drugs in schizophrenia is highly heterogeneous and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this diversity are still poorly understood. In a carefully followed-up cohort of schizophrenic patients prospectively treated with risperidone or olanzapine, we used a specially designed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to perform a large-scale genomic analysis and identify genetic variants associated with response to psychotropic drugs...
July 28, 2015: Translational Psychiatry
Przemyslaw Zdziarski
Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare autoimmune disease. Most patients have high-titer antibodies against glutamate decarboxylase (GADAb), which is without practical value in disease monitoring. Benzodiazepines are the first line drugs, but long-term use is not well characterized. This report demonstrates ineffective benzodiazepine therapy of SPS that prompts tachyphylaxis, loss of responsiveness, and finally benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Convulsion and anxiety correlate with high level of creatine phosphokinase (CK)...
June 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shinnyi Chou, Sean Jones, Ming Li
Previous work established that repeated olanzapine (OLZ) administration in normal adolescent rats induces a sensitization effect (i.e. increased behavioral responsiveness to drug re-exposure) in the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) model. However, it is unclear whether the same phenomenon can be detected in animal models of schizophrenia. The present study explored the generalizability of OLZ sensitization from healthy animals to a preclinical neuroinflammatory model of schizophrenia in the CAR. Maternal immune activation (MIA) was induced via polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) administration into pregnant dams...
August 27, 2015: Brain Research
H P Huemer
A variety of drugs which are not primarily considered to be immunosuppressive agents have been described to modulate the humoral and cellular immune response in humans or animals. Thereby they may have an influence on the effectiveness and possible side effects of vaccines. This mini review lists some of the different substance classes and also some of endogeneous, infectious, nutritional, and environmental influences with suspected capability to interfere with immunizations. Studies in most cases focused on substances with known immunosuppressive functions, but there is growing evidence for immunomodulatory effects also of commonly used drugs with wide distribution...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
Robert D Sanders, Vimal Grover, John Goulding, Alexandra Godlee, Stefan Gurney, Robert Snelgrove, Daqing Ma, Suveer Singh, Mervyn Maze, Tracy Hussell
Benzodiazepines increase vulnerability to infection through α1 subunit dependent Υ-amino-butyric-type-A (GABAA) signalling. Immune cell expression of GABAA receptors and the effect of diazepam on influenza infection was investigated. In patients with pneumonia, α1 GABAA subunits were expressed on alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes. In mice, influenza induced dynamic changes in immune cell GABAA subunit expression: α1 subunits decreased on alveolar macrophage, but increased on monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells...
May 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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