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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353323/does-methylphenidate-improve-academic-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Anne Fleur Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Marjolein Luman, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Jaap Oosterlaan
Academic improvement is amongst the most common treatment targets when prescribing stimulants to children with ADHD. Previous reviews on stimulant-related academic improvements are inconclusive and focus on task engagement. Recent literature suggests outcome-domain-specific medication effects that are larger for productivity than for accuracy. The aims of this study are quantifying methylphenidate effects on academic productivity and accuracy for math, reading, spelling; exploring the mediating or moderating effects of symptom improvements, demographic-, design- and disorder-related variables...
January 20, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353283/association-between-dental-caries-and-bmi-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Dongru Chen, Qinghui Zhi, Yan Zhou, Ye Tao, Liping Wu, Huancai Lin
Research on the association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) in children has shown contradictory results; thus we aimed to examine the association between dental caries and the full range of BMI classes among children. We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published prior to March 2017. Articles comparing dental caries among the full range of BMI classes for children below 18 years of both genders were included. Fourteen studies were eligible for this study...
January 20, 2018: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352598/who-consultation-on-etec-and-shigella-burden-of-disease-geneva-6-7th-april-2017-meeting-report
#3
Divya Hosangadi, Peter G Smith, David C Kaslow, Birgitte K Giersing
According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, diarrhea ranked ninth among causes of death for all ages, and fourth among children under 5 years old, accounting for an estimated 499,000 deaths in this young age group. It was also the second most common cause of years lived with disability (2.39 billion YLDs). The goal of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) is to reduce deaths from diarrhea in children under 5 years of age to less than 1 per 1000 live births, by 2025...
January 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352590/allergic-proctocolitis-is-a-risk-factor-for-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-children
#4
Giovanni Di Nardo, Cesare Cremon, Simone Frediani, Sandra Lucarelli, Maria Pia Villa, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Giuseppe La Torre, Luigi Martemucci, Giovanni Barbara
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that allergic proctocolitis, a cause of self-limiting rectal bleeding in infants, can predispose to the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) later in childhood. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a cohort of 80 consecutive patients diagnosed with allergic proctocolitis. Their sibling or matched children presenting to the same hospital for minor trauma served as controls. Parents of the patients with allergic proctocolitis and controls participated in a telephone interview every 12 months until the child was at least 4 years old...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352012/public-transport-policy-social-engagement-and-mental-health-in-older-age-a-quasi-experimental-evaluation-of-free-bus-passes-in-england
#5
Erica Reinhard, Emilie Courtin, Frank J van Lenthe, Mauricio Avendano
BACKGROUND: Social engagement and social isolation are key determinants of mental health in older age, yet there is limited evidence on how public policies may contribute to reducing isolation, promoting social engagement and improving mental health among older people. This study examines the impact of the introduction of an age-friendly transportation policy, free bus passes, on the mental health of older people in England. METHODS: We use an instrumental variable (IV) approach that exploits eligibility criteria for free bus passes to estimate the impact of increased public transportation use on depressive symptoms, loneliness, social isolation and social engagement...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351496/implementation-of-a-prehospital-protocol-change-for-asthmatic-children
#6
Anriada Nassif, Daniel G Ostermayer, Kim B Hoang, Mary K Claiborne, Elizabeth A Camp, Manish I Shah
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress due to asthma is a common reason for pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) transports. Timely initiation of asthma treatment, including glucocorticoids, improves hospital outcomes. The impact of EMS-administered glucocorticoids on hospital-based outcomes for pediatric asthma patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an evidence-based pediatric EMS asthma protocol update, inclusive of oral glucocorticoid administration, on time to hospital discharge...
January 19, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351271/risk-factors-for-low-birth-weight-according-to-the-multiple-logistic-regression-model-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-jos%C3%A3-mar%C3%A3-a-morelos-municipality-quintana-roo-mexico
#7
José Franco Monsreal, Miriam Del Ruby Tun Cobos, José Ricardo Hernández Gómez, Lidia Esther Del Socorro Serralta Peraza
INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight has been an enigma for science over time. There have been many researches on its causes and its effects. Low birth weight is an indicator that predicts the probability of a child surviving. In fact, there is an exponential relationship between weight deficit, gestational age, and perinatal mortality. Multiple logistic regression is one of the most expressive and versatile statistical instruments available for the analysis of data in both clinical and epidemiology settings, as well as in public health...
January 17, 2018: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350795/phacoemulsification-and-primary-implantation-with-bag-in-the-lens-intraocular-lens-in-children-with-unilateral-and-bilateral-cataract
#8
Alf Nyström, Nawaf Almarzouki, Gunilla Magnusson, Madeleine Zetterberg
PURPOSE: To report outcome in a paediatric cohort with cataract extraction and implantation of bag-in-the-lens intraocular lens (BIL-IOL). METHODS: Children younger than 16 years of age subjected to phacoemulsification with primary implantation of BIL-IOL during 2009 through 2013 were analysed retrospectively. Exclusion criteria were uveitis or ≤6 months of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 109 eyes of 84 children were included; 40 unilateral and 44 bilateral cataracts...
January 19, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350777/the-pathology-of-lumbosacral-lipomas-macroscopic-and-microscopic-disparity-have-implications-for-embryogenesis-and-mode-of-clinical-deterioration
#9
Victoria Jones, Victoria Wykes, Nicki Cohen, Dominic Thompson, Thomas S Jacques
AIMS: Lumbosacral lipomas (LSL) are congenital disorders of the terminal spinal cord region that have the potential to cause significant spinal cord dysfunction in children. They are of unknown embryogenesis with variable clinical presentation and natural history. It is unclear whether the spinal cord dysfunction reflects a primary developmental dysplasia or whether it occurs secondarily to mechanical traction (spinal cord tethering) with growth. Whilst different anatomical subtypes are recognised and classified according to radiological criteria, these subtypes correlate poorly with clinical prognosis...
January 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350450/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analysis-of-nutritional-status-of-school-children-from-bumbire-island-united-republic-of-tanzania
#10
Ornella Comandini, Gabriele Carmignani, Alessandro Cipriano, Giovanni Carmignani, Deodatus Tiba, Elisabetta Marini
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of schoolchildren from Bumbire Island (Tanzania) from cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives. METHODS: During 2014 and 2015, we collected anthropometric measurements in a sample of 437 schoolchildren (226 males, 211 females; 5-16 years). A sub-sample of 126 children were measured in both surveys. Socio-demographic data have been taken and dietary habits investigated. The accuracy of age data was checked. Malnutrition prevalence was calculated according to the WHO references and the z-score criteria...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349993/-accurate-osteotomy-assisted-by-individualized-navigation-templates-for-the-treatment-of-children-cubitus-varus
#11
Peng-Fei Zheng, Jie Chen, Xu Peng Xux, Bo Jiang, Qing-Qiang Yao, Li-Ming Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and accuracy of a new navigation template for osteotomy in cubitus varus based on computer assistant design and 3D printing technology. METHODS: The preoperative CT images of 15 children with cubitus varus from June 2015 to June 2016 were collected. According to the above data, the individual osteotomy navigate template match the distal humerus was designed by the software and printed by the 3D printer. Accurate osteotomy was performed with the assistant of the navigate template in the operation...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349967/-treatment-of-children-with-femoral-subtrochanteric-fractures-by-the-external-fixation-combined-with-single-hip-plaster
#12
Hu-Cheng Tan, Wei-Min Su, Cai-Sheng Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore curative effects of external fixation combined with single hip plaster in treating children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture. METHODS: Form March 2009 to July 2016, 15 children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture were treated with external fixation combined with single hip plaster, including 9 males and 6 females with a mean age of 8.5 years old ranging from 5 to 14 years old. According to fracture classification of Seinsheimer, 3 cases were type IIA, 4 cases were type IIB, 3 cases were type IIC, 2 cases were type IIIA, 1 case was type IIIB, 1 case was type IV, 1 case was type V...
March 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349203/neighbourhood-socioeconomic-status-indices-and-early-childhood-development
#13
Simon Webb, Magdalena Janus, Eric Duku, Rob Raos, Marni Brownell, Barry Forer, Martin Guhn, Nazeem Muhajarine
The developmental health of young children is highly influenced by the socioeconomic conditions in which they are raised. How to accurately measure these conditions is a point of debate in the current literature on child development, health, and social determinants. We have evaluated four existing indices of socioeconomic status (SES) to determine the most relevant for the analysis of early childhood development (ECD) in Canada. Following a literature review of published SES indices which used 2006 Canadian Census data, four indices were chosen based on their relevance to ECD and the number of citations in subsequent articles...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349100/vitamin-d-deficiency-associated-with-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-children-with-obesity
#14
Marisa Censani, Hoda T Hammad, Paul J Christos, Tiffany Schumaker
Adult studies have reported associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease; however, there are scarce pediatric data regarding relationships between vitamin D status and specific lipid markers affecting cardiovascular risk. In this cross-sectional study of children evaluated at university-based pediatric endocrinology clinics, 178 patients meeting criteria for overweight or obesity had 25OHD levels assessed over a 2-year period; 60 of 178 had non-HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and fasting lipid parameters performed...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347943/the-factors-that-influence-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-in-15-year-old-children
#15
Ling Sun, Hai Ming Wong, Colman P J McGrath
BACKGROUND: Several hypotheses on factors that influence oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) have been proposed but a consensus has not been reached. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyse the sociodemographic and clinical factors that may influence the OHRQoL of 15-year-old children. METHODS: A representative sample was selected from Hong Kong. Periodontal status and caries were examined according to WHO criteria. Four orthodontic indices were used to assess malocclusion...
January 18, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346793/epicardial-fat-thickness-in-non-obese-neurologically-impaired-children-association-with-unfavorable-cardiometabolic-risk-profile
#16
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Pietro Mariano Casali, Gianluca Iacobellis, Riccardo Albertini, Mara De Amici, Annalisa de Silvestri, Calogero Comparato, Gloria Pelizzo
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is reported in disabled children and epicardial fat (EF) is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No data on the EF thickness (EFT) evaluation in disabled children have been published. OBJECTIVE: We investigated EFT in neurologically impaired (NI) children; its relationship with their metabolic profile was also considered. METHODS: Clinical data, body composition estimation, biochemical profile, and ultrasound-measured EFT were performed in 32 disabled patients (12...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346512/validation-of-the-pids-idsa-severity-criteria-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
Todd A Florin, Cole Brokamp, Rachel Mantyla, Bradley DePaoli, Richard Ruddy, Samir S Shah, Lilliam Ambroggio
Background: The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS)/Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) recommends intensive care unit (ICU) admission or continuous monitoring for children meeting severity criteria. Our objective was to validate these criteria. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of children age 3 months-18 years diagnosed with CAP in a pediatric Emergency Department (ED) from 9/2014-8/2015...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346440/geographical-distribution-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-and-the-effects-of-community-type-in-south-asia-and-south-east-asia-a-systematic-review
#18
Zachary A Silver, Saravanakumar P Kaliappan, Prasanna Samuel, Srinivasan Venugopal, Gagandeep Kang, Rajiv Sarkar, Sitara S R Ajjampur
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD) worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345123/the-effects-of-lifestyle-changes-on-serum-lipid-levels-in-children-in-a-real-life-setting
#19
Angeline D Opina, Constance Cephus, Yunfei Wang, Samuel Younan, Douglas Moodie
OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown improvement in lipid levels after institution of lifestyle changes in children enrolled in closely monitored programs. There programs are difficult to mimic in real world clinics. We aim to determine if diet and exercise result in improvement in lipid levels in patients seen in a designated lipid clinic in a real life setting. DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients followed for dyslipidemia at the Texas Children's Hospital Lipid Clinic from May 1, 2012 to May 1, 2015...
January 18, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345113/intervention-for-childhood-obesity-based-on-parents-only-or-parents-and-child-compared-with-follow-up-alone
#20
M Yackobovitch-Gavan, D Wolf Linhard, N Nagelberg, I Poraz, S Shalitin, M Phillip, J Meyerovitch
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess the effects of family-based interventions targeted to parents only or to parents-and-child for the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. METHOD: An open-label randomized study was conducted in 247 children (166 girls, 5-11 years) with body mass index (BMI) in the 85-98th percentile. Participants were allocated to three groups: parents-only (n = 89), parents-and-child (n = 84) and follow-up alone (n = 74). The intervention consisted of 12 once-weekly meetings with a dietician and psychologist...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
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