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Prostat cancer

Jonathan D Tward, Matthew M Poppe, Ying J Hitchcock, Brock O'Neil, Daniel J Albertson, Dennis C Shrieve
BACKGROUND: Primary prostate sarcomas (PPS) are rare. Outcomes for this cancer have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects with a PPS diagnosed between 1973 and 2014 were identified in the SEER database. Subjects were stratified by disease stage and types of therapies received. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and cohorts were compared with a univariate and multivariable Cox regression...
November 19, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Zeynep Özlem Doğan Şiğva, Tuğçe Balci Okcanoğlu, Çığır Biray Avci, Sunde Yilmaz Süslüer, Çağla Kayabaşi, Burak Turna, Yavuz Dodurga, Oktay Nazli, Cumhur Gündüz
Paclitaxel, which isolated from Taxus brevifolia, is recently started to be used against prostate cancer treatment and it is a very effective compound against cancer. In this study, we aimed to test the synergistic effect of two plant active compounds (sulphoraphane (SFN) and silymarin (SILY)) and several endemic plant species from Turkey (such as Phlomis leucophracta, Rubia davisiana, Alkanna tinctoria), which are known to have anticarcinogenic effect on androgen-independent PC3 and DU145, and androgen-dependent VCaP prostate cancer cell lines, with paclitaxel on the expression of cell cycle signaling and apoptosis regulator genes...
November 16, 2018: Gene
Xingcheng Wu, Yu Xiao, Weigang Yan, Zhigang Ji, Guoyang Zheng
The morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) in China have increased obviously, which became the second leading cause of death in men with cancer. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a key signaling pathway involved in the prostate cancer progression. The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (STIL) can modulate the Hh signaling pathway, but its function in PCa has not been reported. Here, we showed that STIL was increased in high grade prostate cancer tissue. Knockdown of STIL in prostate cancer cells PC-3 and DU 145 significantly decreased the proliferation of cells and induced cellular apoptosis through casepase3/7 mediated pathway...
November 16, 2018: Gene
Maurizia Mello-Grand, Ilaria Gregnanin, Lidia Sacchetto, Paola Ostano, Andrea Zitella, Giulia Bottoni, Marco Oderda, Giancarlo Marra, Stefania Munegato, Barbara Pardini, Alessio Naccarati, Mauro Gasparini, Paolo Gontero, Giovanna Chiorino
The dosage of prostate specific antigen (PSA), an easily evaluable and non-invasive biomarker, has made early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) possible. However, it leads to high percentages of unnecessary biopsies and may miss aggressive tumors in men with PSA levels below 4 ng/ml. Therefore, we propose to combine circulating microRNAs with PSA, to improve the diagnostic route for PCa.Plasma microRNA profiling identified candidate diagnostic microRNAs in a discovery cohort of 60 tumors and 60 controls (men with benign prostatic hyperplasia or healthy donors)...
November 19, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Peninah Murage, Max O Bachmann, S Michael Crawford, Sean McPhail, Andy Jones
Background: Poor geographical access to health services and routes to a cancer diagnosis such as emergency presentations have previously been associated with worse cancer outcomes. However, the extent to which access to GPs determines the route that patients take to obtain a cancer diagnosis is unknown. Methods: We used a linked dataset of cancer registry and hospital records of patients with a cancer diagnosis between 2006 and 2010 across eight different cancer sites...
November 19, 2018: Family Practice
Derya Tilki, Ming-Hui Chen, Jing Wu, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Michelle Braccioforte, Brian J Moran, Anthony V D'Amico
Importance: It is unknown how treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP) and adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or both (termed MaxRP) compares with treatment with EBRT, brachytherapy, and ADT (termed MaxRT). Objective: To investigate whether treatment of Gleason score 9-10 prostate cancer with MaxRP vs MaxRT was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and all-cause mortality (ACM) risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study cohort comprised 639 men with clinical T1-4,N0M0 biopsy Gleason score 9-10 prostate cancer...
November 15, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Wenjun Jiang, Yuan Gao, Zhuo Wang, Chunai Gong, Chuling Hu, Xueying Ding, Lei Qiang, Shen Gao, Fuzheng Ren
In this work, we have developed a reducible, self-assembling disulfide cross-linked and peptide-based micelle system for co-delivery of miR-4638-5p and DTX to improve the efficacy of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) therapy. The result showed that DTX in micelles (DTX-VPs) inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis more effectively than free DTX both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the DTX and miR-4638-5p loaded micelles (Co-VPs) achieved the most pronounced anticancer effect of all groups. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that miR-4638-5p in micelle system could effectively downregulate the expression of Kidins220 and further improve the anticancer effect by enhancing tumor cell apoptosis and suppressing tumor cell proliferation...
November 19, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ren Jiang, Jian-Long Zhang, Wei Xu, Zhen-Ru Zhou, Juan Li, Lin-Lin Jiang, Xing-Xiao Zhang
To enhance the structural diversity of isoflavonoids and provide more derivatives for the biological screening, a semisynthetic mixture was generated by diversification of the crude extract of Radix puerariae through the chemical reaction with hydrazine hydrate. Thirteen derivatives (1-13) were isolated from the semisynthetic mixture, and all those structures were identified by spectroscopic methods in combination with X-ray crystallographic analysis, including eleven 3,4-diarylpyrazoles (1-11) and two 5-phenyl-6-benzyldihy-dropyridazinones (12 and 13)...
November 19, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Peter Barth, Jorge J Castillo, Adam J Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic advances have extended survival for patients with myeloma, who may develop secondary cancers. METHODS: Using the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (2004-2015), the authors examined the characteristics, overall and cause-specific survival, and cumulative incidence function of cancer-related death among patients with myeloma with secondary cancers of the breast, prostate, lung, colon/rectum, or bladder or melanoma...
November 19, 2018: Cancer
Richard C Wender, Otis W Brawley, Stacey A Fedewa, Ted Gansler, Robert A Smith
From the mid-20th century, accumulating evidence has supported the introduction of screening for cancers of the cervix, breast, colon and rectum, prostate (via shared decisions), and lung. The opportunity to detect and treat precursor lesions and invasive disease at a more favorable stage has contributed substantially to reduced incidence, morbidity, and mortality. However, as new discoveries portend advancements in technology and risk-based screening, we fail to fulfill the greatest potential of the existing technology, in terms of both full access among the target population and the delivery of state-of-the art care at each crucial step in the cascade of events that characterize successful cancer screening...
November 19, 2018: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
José Augusto Passos Góes, Danilo De Gois Souza, Lucas Almeida Andrade, Jéssica Cunha, Simone Kameo, Marco Aurélio O Góes, Andreia Freire De Menezes, Marco Antônio P Nunes, Karina Conceiçao Gomes Machado de Araújo, Allan D Santos
This is an ecological study with exploratory analysis of spatial and temporal data based on mortality data with respect to prostate cancer obtained from the Mortality Information System concerning residents of the state of Sergipe, Brazil between 2000 and 2015. The analysis of temporal trends was performed using the Joinpoint Regression Program through Poisson regression. Spatial analysis was performed using the empirical Bayesian model, Kernel analysis, Global Moran and Local indices. There were 1,986 deaths due to prostate cancer, most of which occurring after 60 years of age...
November 12, 2018: Geospatial Health
Meredith Doherty, Ellen Miller-Sonet, Daniel Gardner, Irwin Epstein
PURPOSE: To explore the psychosocial needs of cancer patients and survivors across the United States and their implications for value-based oncology. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of findings from a cross-sectional national online survey. SAMPLE: Respondents were sampled and stratified by cancer type and geographic region to approximate the cancer-affected population of the United States. Breast, prostate, and colorectal were the most common cancers reported...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
Jan Tkac, Tomas Bertok, Michal Hires, Eduard Jane, Lenka Lorencova, Peter Kasak
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a life-threatening disease affecting millions of men. The current best PCa biomarker (level of prostate-specific antigen in serum) lacks specificity for PCa diagnostics and this is why novel PCa biomarkers in addition to the conventional ones based on biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins need to be identified. Areas covered: This review details the potential of glycans-based biomarkers to become diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic PCa biomarkers with a brief description of the innovative approaches applied to glycan analysis to date...
November 18, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Seyed-Ebrahim Sajjadi, Mustafa Ghanadian, Mahmoud Aghaei, Arash Salehi
From the aerial parts of Cleome khorassanica Bunge & Bien, a new 3-oxo-4-oxa-A-homo-25,26,27-trinordammarano-24,20-lactone triterpene (1), a new natural product 20,25-dihydroxy-3-oxodammarane triterpene (2), together with known 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone (3), have been isolated and characterized. The chemical structure of the new compounds was determined by 1D and 2D NMR and HR tandem MS measurements. All three compounds were subjected to biological tests for evaluation of their cytotoxicity against prostate (DU-145 and LNCaP) cancer cells...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Enrique Gómez-Gómez, Julia Carrasco-Valiente, Juan Pablo Campos-Hernández, Ana Maria Blanca-Pedregosa, Juan Manuel Jiménez-Vacas, Jesus Ruiz-García, Jose Valero-Rosa, Raul Miguel Luque, María José Requena-Tapia
Recently, the influence that metabolic syndrome (MetS), hormonal alterations and inflammation might have on prostate cancer (PCa) risk has been a subject of controversial debate. Herein, we aimed to investigate the association between MetS-components, C-reactive protein (CRP) and testosterone levels, and the risk of clinically significant PCa (Sig-PCa) at the time of prostate biopsy. For that, men scheduled for transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate were studied. Clinical, laboratory parameters and criteria for MetS characterization just before the biopsy were collected...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Makito Miyake, Nobumichi Tanaka, Shunta Hori, Sayuri Ohnishi, Hiroo Takahashi, Tomomi Fujii, Takuya Owari, Kenta Ohnishi, Kota Iida, Yosuke Morizawa, Daisuke Gotoh, Yoshitaka Itami, Yasushi Nakai, Takeshi Inoue, Satoshi Anai, Kazumasa Torimoto, Katsuya Aoki, Kiyohide Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Normal tissue damage caused by radiotherapy remains the largest dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy for cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the supplementary oral 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to standard radiation therapy as a novel radioprotective approach that would not compromise the antitumor effect of radiation in normal rectal and bladder mucosa in a syngenic prostate cancer (PCa) model. METHODS: To evaluate the radiosensitizing effect of ALA in vitro, clonogenic survival assays were performed in DU145, PC3, and MyC-CaP cell lines...
November 18, 2018: Prostate
Veda N Giri, Sarah E Hegarty, Colette Hyatt, Erin O'Leary, John Garcia, Karen E Knudsen, William K Kelly, Leonard G Gomella
BACKGROUND: Genetic testing capability and guidelines are rapidly expanding to assess inherited prostate cancer (PCA). Clinical genetic data from multigene testing can provide insights into the germline pathogenic variant (PV) spectrum and correlates in men with PCA unselected for metastatic disease to optimize identification of men for genetic evaluation and management. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted of de-identified clinical genetic testing data from a large commercial genetic testing laboratory in the US...
November 18, 2018: Prostate
Shaheen Alanee, Bradley Holland, Joseph Clemons, Danuta Dynda
BACKGROUND: To examine the prevalence and determinants of death due to sepsis in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (Pca). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 910 986 patients diagnosed with Pca between 1992 and 2010 identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Prevalence of death due to sepsis after diagnosis was determined. Trends in incidence-based mortality rate (IBMR) due to sepsis were compared with those of patients diagnosed with other common cancers...
November 18, 2018: Prostate
Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham, Jennette A Sakoff, Quan Van Vuong, Michael C Bowyer, Christopher J Scarlett
This data article indicates the in vitro cytotoxicity of kaempferol and gallic acid across different cancer cell lines including A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), MIA PaCa-2 (pancreas), Du145 (prostate), HT29 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), SJ-G2, U87 and SMA (glioblastoma). The dataset showed that the inhibitory activity of kaempferol was comparatively stronger than gallic acid. Thereby, kaempferol is offered as a potent anticancer agent for further investigation and beneficial as a dietary supplement...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Andrew W Maksymiuk, Daniel S Sitar, Rashid Ahmed, Brian Cheng, Horacio Bach, Rushita Adhikari Bagchi, Nina Aroutiounova, Paramjit S Tappia, Bram Ramjiawan
Aim: SSAT-1 is an enzyme that plays a critical role in cell growth. Amantadine, a FDA-approved antiviral drug, is a substrate for SSAT-1. The utility of amantadine as an agent to demonstrate elevated SSAT-1 activity linked to cancer was conducted. Results: High levels of SSAT-1 expression were measured in tumor human cell lines, and in breast, prostate and lung tumor tissue. An increase in the urinary levels of acetylated amantadine in cancer patients was observed...
December 2018: Future Science OA
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