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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931260/stereotactic-accuracy-and-surgical-utility-of-the-o-arm-in-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#1
Jonathan Dennis Carlson, Kate Elizabeth McLeod, Pamela Sue McLeod, Jamelynn Brooke Mark
BACKGROUND: The stereotactic accuracy of intraoperative imaging is critical to clinical outcome, particularly in "asleep" deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery that typically forgoes neurophysiological techniques. Different intraoperative imaging modalities and associated accuracies have been reported, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and O-arm. OBJECTIVE: To analyze intraoperative O-arm imaging accuracy and to evaluate the utility of microelectrode mapping...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931253/relationship-of-the-optic-nerve-to-the-medial-rectus-muscle-during-endonasal-dissection-of-the-medial-intraconal-orbital-apex
#2
Dmitriy Petrov, John Craig, Jayesh Thawani, Kalil Abdullah, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, John Y K Lee
BACKGROUND: Few studies have established surgical landmarks for endoscopic endonasal dissection of the intraconal orbital apex (OA). OBJECTIVE: We describe the optic nerve (ON) anatomy and its relationships, as seen during a fully endoscopic, endonasal approach to the medial intraconal OA. METHODS: The study question was approached through a cadaver dissection and a radiographic study. Four formalin-fixed, latex-injected cadaver heads were dissected using transnasal endoscopic techniques...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931014/phonological-memory-in-sign-language-relies-on-the-visuomotor-neural-system-outside-the-left-hemisphere-language-network
#3
Yuji Kanazawa, Kimihiro Nakamura, Toru Ishii, Toshihiko Aso, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Koichi Omori
Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930967/cervical-spine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-blunt-cervical-trauma-patients
#4
Ajay Malhotra, Xiao Wu, Sowmya Mahalingam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930805/the-value-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-combination-with-conventional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-improving-tumor-detection-for-early-cervical-carcinoma-treated-with-fertility-sparing-surgery
#5
Xiulei Li, Ling Wang, Yong Li, Peiji Song
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery because of early cervical carcinoma. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with stage Ia or Ib1 cervical carcinoma were enrolled into this study. Magnetic resonance examinations were performed for these patients using conventional MRI (including T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) and DWI...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#6
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930516/new-targeted-therapies-and-diagnostic-methods-for-iron-overload-diseases
#7
Annita Kolnagou, Christina N Kontoghiorghe, George John Kontoghiorghes
Millions of people worldwide suffer from iron overload toxicity diseases such as transfusional iron overload in thalassaemia and hereditary haemochromatosis. The accumulation and presence of toxic focal iron deposits causing tissue damage can also be identified in Friedreich's ataxia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, renal and other diseases. Different diagnostic criteria of toxicity and therapeutic interventions apply to each disease of excess or misplaced iron. Magnetic resonance imaging relaxation times T2 and T2* for monitoring iron deposits in organs and iron biomarkers such as serum ferritin and transferrin iron saturation have contributed in the elucidation of iron toxicity mechanisms and pathways, and also the evaluation of the efficacy and mode of action of chelating drugs in the treatment of diseases related to iron overload, toxicity and metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930492/time-trends-in-concussion-symptom-presentation-and-assessment-methods-in-high-school-athletes
#8
Dustin W Currie, Matthew J Kraeutler, John B Schrock, Eric C McCarty, R Dawn Comstock
BACKGROUND: Concussion rates have increased significantly over the past decade. This may reflect an increase in the knowledge and diagnosis of the symptoms of a concussion rather than a true increase in the incidence. Assessing trends in the way that concussions are presenting to and being identified by clinicians over the same period may provide additional insight into the apparent rise in concussions. PURPOSE: To evaluate patterns of change in concussion symptom presentation, diagnostic/evaluation methods, and symptom resolution time reported for United States high school athletes from the 2007-2008 through 2014-2015 academic years...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930284/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-signal-in-food-motivation-and-cognitive-control-pathways-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#9
Franziska Plessow, Dean A Marengi, Sylvia K Perry, Julia M Felicione, Rachel Franklin, Tara M Holmes, Laura M Holsen, Nikolaos Makris, Thilo Deckersbach, Elizabeth A Lawson
Recent research indicates that the hypothalamic neuropeptide hormone oxytocin is a key central nervous system factor in the regulation of food intake and weight. However, the mechanisms underlying the anorexigenic effects of oxytocin in humans are unknown and critical to study in order to consider oxytocin as a neurohormonal weight loss treatment. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in ten overweight or obese, otherwise healthy men...
September 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930197/red-blood-cell-eicosapentaenoic-acid-inversely-relates-to-mri-assessed-carotid-plaque-lipid-core-burden-in-elders-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#10
Núria Bargalló, Rosa Gilabert, Edwin-Saúl Romero-Mamani, Montserrat Cofán, Philip C Calder, Montserrat Fitó, Dolores Corella, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930099/optical-properties-of-graphene-nanocones-under-electric-and-magnetic-fields
#11
Pable Ulloa, Monica Pacheco, Andrea Latge
Here we present a theoretical study of the optical properties of graphene nanocones tuned by external electric and magnetic fields. We investigate the effects of the size and topology of the carbon nanostructures on the density of states and on the electro- and magneto-absorption of linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation in different nanocone geometries. We find that the electric field induces changes in the electric charge distribution mainly at the cone edges. In the infrared range the absorption coefficient shows a peculiar dependence on the electric field (magnitude and direction) and on the photon polarization for all investigated structures...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930092/a-monte-carlo-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-1-5t-magnetic-fields-on-the-overall-robustness-of-pencil-beam-scanning-proton-radiotherapy-plans-for-prostate-cancer
#12
Christopher Kurz, Guillaume Landry, Andreas Franz Resch, Georgios Dedes, Florian Kamp, Ute Ganswindt, Claus Belka, Bas W Raaymakers, Katia Parodi
Combining magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) and proton therapy (PT) using pencil-beam scanning (PBS) may improve image-guided radiotherapy. We aimed at assessing the impact of a magnetic field on PBS-PT plan quality and robustness. Specifically, the robustness against anatomical changes and positioning errors in an MRI-guided scenario with a 30 cm radius 1.5 T magnetic field was studied for prostate PT. Five prostate cancer patients with three consecutive CT images (CT1-3) were considered. Single-field uniform dose PBS-PT plans were generated on the segmented CT1 with Monte-Carlo-based treatment planning software for inverse optimization...
September 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929923/rethinking-brain-cancer-therapy-tumor-enzyme-activatable-theranostic-nanoparticles
#13
Heike E Daldrup-Link
This invited commentary discusses a recent article by Mohanty et al in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics about significant therapeutic efficacies of novel theranostic nanoparticles (TNPs) for the treatment of human brain cancers in mouse models. The TNPs were cleaved by enzymes in the tumor tissue, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-14), which lead to release of a highly potent therapeutic drug, azademethylcolchicine. Data showed that the TNPs caused selective toxic effects in MMP-14-expressing glioblastoma and not normal brain...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929915/is-synovitis-detected-on-non-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-associated-with-serum-biomarkers-and-clinical-signs-of-effusion-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#14
L A Deveza, V B Kraus, J E Collins, A Guermazi, F W Roemer, M C Nevitt, D J Hunter
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between synovitis detected on non-contrast-enhanced (non-CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical markers of inflammation, and clinical assessment of effusion in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: We examined data from the OA Biomarkers Consortium within the Osteoarthritis Initiative (n = 600). Non-CE MRIs were semi-quantitatively scored (grades 0-3) for severity of Hoffa synovitis and effusion synovitis...
September 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929836/the-relationship-between-blood-flow-impairment-and-oxygen-depletion-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-imaged-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Alexander Seiler, Nicholas P Blockley, Ralf Deichmann, Ulrike Nöth, Oliver C Singer, Michael A Chappell, Johannes C Klein, Marlies Wagner
Oxygenation-sensitive spin relaxation time T2' and relaxation rate R2' (1/T2') are presumed to be markers of the cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in acute ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigate the relationship of T2'/R2' with dynamic susceptibility contrast-based relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in acute ischemic stroke to assess their plausibility as surrogate markers of the ischemic penumbra. Twenty-one consecutive patients with internal carotid artery and/or middle cerebral artery occlusion were studied at 3...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929542/visuomotor-effects-of-body-part-movements-presented-in-the-first-person-perspective-on-imitative-behavior
#16
Rui Watanabe, Takahiro Higuchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Masato Taira
Imitative stimuli presented from a first-person perspective (FPP) produce stronger visuomotor effects than those presented from a third-person perspective (TPP) due to the relatively greater response of the mirror neuron system (MNS) to FPP stimuli. Some previous studies utilizing TPP stimuli have reported no differences in MNS activity between moving and static bodies' stimuli. However, few studies have compared visuomotor effects of such stimuli when presented in the FPP. To clarify this issue, we measured cortical activation in 17 participants during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imitation task involving three conditions: moving (a lifting finger was presented), static (an "X" appeared on a static finger), and control (an "X" appeared on a button)...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929446/new-imaging-tools-in-cardiovascular-medicine-computational-fluid-dynamics-and-4d-flow-mri
#17
Keiichi Itatani, Shohei Miyazaki, Tokoki Furusawa, Satoshi Numata, Sachiko Yamazaki, Kazuki Morimoto, Rina Makino, Hiroko Morichi, Teruyasu Nishino, Hitoshi Yaku
Blood flow imaging is a novel technology in cardiovascular medicine and surgery. Today, two types of blood flow imaging tools are available: measurement-based flow visualization including 4D flow MRI (or 3D cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging), or echocardiography flow visualization software, and computer flow simulation modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). MRI and echocardiography flow visualization provide measured blood flow but have limitations in temporal and spatial resolution, whereas CFD flow calculates the flow according to assumptions instead of flow measurement, and it has sufficiently fine resolution up to the computer memory limit, and it enables even virtual surgery when combined with computer graphics...
September 19, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929419/high-resolution-mr-imaging-for-dental-impressions-a-feasibility-study
#18
Julian Boldt, Kurt Rottner, Marc Schmitter, Andreas Hopfgartner, Peter Jakob, Ernst-Jürgen Richter, Olga Tymofiyeva
OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging technology in dental medicine. While low-resolution MRI has especially provided means to examine the temporomandibular joint due to its anatomic inaccessibility, it was the goal of this study to assess whether high-resolution MRI is capable of delivering a dataset sufficiently precise enough to serve as digital impression of human teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An informed and consenting patient in need of dental restoration with fixed partial dentures was chosen as subject...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929417/a-metaheuristically-tuned-interval-type-2-fuzzy-system-to-reduce-segmentation-uncertainty-in-brain-mri-images
#19
Abolfazl Taghribi, Saeed Sharifian
Precise segmentation of magnetic resonance image (MRI) seems challenging because of the complex structure of the brain, non-uniform field in images, and noise. As a result, decision-making is associated with uncertainty. Fuzzy based approaches have been developed to overcome this problem, though most of them use fuzzy type 1 method, and sometimes contain a pre-processing step. This paper "modified type 2 fuzzy system" (MT2FS) declares a state-of-the-art method to segment MRI images using interval fuzzy type-2...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929362/brain-reactivity-to-visual-food-stimuli-after-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-children
#20
Travis D Masterson, C Brock Kirwan, Lance E Davidson, Michael J Larson, Kathleen L Keller, S Nicole Fearnbach, Alyssa Evans, James D LeCheminant
Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill...
September 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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