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“magnetic resonance”

Nancy Wang, Matthias Osswald
The majority of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor, are considered to be benign, and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging features allow a preliminary diagnosis. Meningiomas can be classified in the World Health Organization system as grade I, II, or III, depending on various histological features. In many cases, observation is the preferred management option, although this means the absence of a histological diagnosis. If necessary, standard therapy consists of surgery with or without adjuvant radiation, depending on the tumor grade and the degree of resection...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Pollyana Trigueiro, Silvia Pedetti, Baptiste Rigaud, Sebastien Balme, Jean-Marc Janot, Ieda M G Dos Santos, Régis Gougeon, Maria G Fonseca, Thomas Georgelin, Maguy Jaber
Wine chemistry inspires and challenges with its complexity and intriguing composition. In this context, the composites based on the use of a model protein, a polyphenol of interest and montmorillonite in a model hydroalcoholic solution have been studied. A set of experimental characterization techniques highlighted the interactions between the organic and the inorganic parts in the composite. The amount of the organic part was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) informed about the stacking/exfoliation of the layers in the composites...
March 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ashley A Yttredahl, Erin McRobert, Benjamin Sheler, Brian J Mickey, Tiffany M Love, Scott A Langenecker, Jon-Kar Zubieta, David T Hsu
INTRODUCTION: Responding adaptively to one's social environment is a key factor predicting the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). Socially rejecting events can exacerbate, whereas socially accepting events can ameliorate depressive symptoms. The neural responses to rejection and acceptance in MDD are relatively unexplored. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to romantic rejection and acceptance in women diagnosed with current MDD (n = 19) and a matched group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 19)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shelley HuaLei Zhang, Stephan E Maier, Lawrence P Panych
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), under low-spatial resolution settings, often suffers signal contamination from neighboring voxels due to ringing artifacts. Spatial localization can be improved by constraining the point-spread-function (PSF). Here the effectiveness of the two-dimensional PSF-Choice technique in providing improved spatial localization for MRSI is demonstrated. THEORY AND METHODS: The PSF-Choice technique constrains the PSF to a desired shape by manipulating the weighting of RF excitation pulse throughout phase-encode steps...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Radosław Mrówczyński, Artur Jędrzak, Kosma Szutkowski, Bartosz F Grześkowiak, Emerson Coy, Roksana Markiewicz, Teofil Jesionowski, Stefan Jurga
Polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (SH-βCD) were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR and MRI), and doxorubicin (DOXO)-loading experiments. The liver cancer cellular internalization of DOXO-loaded nanoparticles was investigated by confocal imaging microscopy. Synthesized nanomaterials bearing a chemotherapeutic drug and a layer of polydopamine capable of absorbing near-infrared light show high performance in the combined chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) of liver cancer due to the synergistic effect of both modalities as demonstrated in vitro...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Petteri Oura, Markus Paananen, Juha Auvinen, Jaakko Niinimäki, Maarit Niinimäki, Jaro Karppinen, Juho-Antti Junno
STUDY DESIGN: A population-based birth cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between gravidity, parity and vertebral geometry among middle-aged women. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Vertebral size is a recognized determinant of vertebral fracture risk. Yet only a few lifestyle factors that influence vertebral size are known. Pregnancy is a labile period which may affect the maternal vertebral size or shape. The lumbar lordosis angle is permanently deepened by pregnancy, but it remains unclear whether vertebral shape or size contribute to this deepened angle...
March 15, 2018: Spine
Leonid V Skripnikov, Stefan Schmidt, Johannes Ullmann, Christopher Geppert, Florian Kraus, Benjamin Kresse, Wilfried Nörtershäuser, Alexei F Privalov, Benjamin Scheibe, Vladimir M Shabaev, Michael Vogel, Andrey V Volotka
A recent measurement of the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of Li-like ^{208}Bi^{80+} has established a "hyperfine puzzle"-the experimental result exhibits a 7σ deviation from the theoretical prediction [J. Ullmann et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 15484 (2017)NCAOBW2041-172310.1038/ncomms15484; J. P. Karr, Nat. Phys. 13, 533 (2017)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys4159]. We provide evidence that the discrepancy is caused by an inaccurate value of the tabulated nuclear magnetic moment (μ_{I}) of ^{209}Bi...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
R Sheelakumari, C Kesavadas, V S Lekha, Sunitha Justus, P Sankara Sarma, Ramshekhar Menon
Context: Annually 10-12% of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are likely to progress to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The morphometric profile in stable non-converters has not been adequately characterized. Aims: To determine the structural differences between amnestic MCI and early AD using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with neuropsychological test performances. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case-control study...
March 2018: Neurology India
Shyamal Kumar Das, Souvik Dubey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Peter Joseph Massa, Richard L Smith, Tarek Hazem Moharram, John Corrigan, Ian Lee, Lonni Schultz, Jianhui Hu, Suresh Patel, Brent Griffith
Preoperative identification of the eloquent brain is important for neurosurgical planning. One common method of finding the motor cortex is by localizing "the Omega sign." No studies have tested the reliability of imaging to identify the Omega sign. We identified 40 recent and consecutive patients who had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging for identification of the hand motor area prior to tumor resection. We recruited 11 neurosurgical residents of various levels of training and one board-certified neurosurgeon to identify the hand motor cortex Omega...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Reem N Sheikh, Kristina Karlic
Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma is a rare benign fibrous tumor predominantly seen in children and adolescents younger than 20 years. This tumor is often treated with complete surgical excision, although the recurrence rate is approximately 50%. The distal upper and distal lower extremities are most commonly involved, with only three cases published to date involving pedal digits. We discuss a case of calcifying aponeurotic fibroma in a 25-year-old woman localized to the medial aspect of the distal hallux. Clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings are described...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Xiaolong Liu, Yiran Xia, Lulu Liu, Dongmei Zhang, Zhaosheng Hou
The purpose of this study is to offer a novel kind of polyurethane with improved surface blood compatibility for long-term implant biomaterials. In this work, the aliphatic poly(ester-urethane) (PEU) with uniform-size hard segments was prepared and the PEU surface was grafted with hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The PEU was obtained by chain-extension of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) with isocyanate-terminated urethane triblock. Free amino groups were introduced onto the surface of PEU film via aminolysis with hexamethylenediamine, and then the NH2 -grafted PEU surfaces (PEU-NH2 ) were reacted with isocyanate-terminated monomethoxyl PEG (MPEG-NCO) to obtain the PEG-grafted PEU surfaces (PEU-PEG)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
A-Ra Hong, Youngsun Kim, Tae Sup Lee, Sehoon Kim, Kwangyeol Lee, Gayoung Kim, Ho Seong Jang
In this study, intense single-band red-emitting upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs) excited with 800 nm near infrared (NIR) light are reported. When a NaYF4 :Nd,Yb active-shell is formed on the 12.7 nm-sized NaGdF4 :Yb,Ho,Ce UCNP core, the core/shell (C/S) UCNPs show tunable emission from green to red depending on the Ce3+ concentration under excitation with 800 nm NIR light. Thirty mol% Ce3+ -doped C/S UCNPs exhibit single-band red emission peaking at 644 nm via a5 F5 →5 I8 transition of Ho3+ . A high Nd3+ concentration in the shell results in strong absorption at around 800 nm NIR light even though the shell thickness is not large, and small-sized C/S UCNPs (16...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sunao Mizumura, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Akihiro Murata, Kosei Yoshimura, Nobutomo Ishii, Tadashi Kokubo, Miyako Morooka, Akiko Kajiyama, Atsuro Terahara
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the Southampton method for dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT is widely used to quantitatively evaluate striatal radioactivity. The specific binding ratio (SBR) is the ratio of specific to non-specific binding observed after placing pentagonal striatal voxels of interest (VOIs) as references. Although the method can reduce the partial volume effect, the SBR may fluctuate due to the presence of low-count areas of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), caused by brain atrophy, in the striatal VOIs...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Kazuhisa Matsui, Takashi Tachibana, Katsuya Nobuhara, Yasushi Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: The glenohumeral joint is subjected to opposing forces when the direction of shoulder motion is changed, accelerating and decelerating to make the movements. The influence of motion velocity or acceleration on translation of the humeral head has not been evaluated although direction and distance of humeral head translation has been analyzed in real time in normal shoulders. We hypothesized that, in a normal shoulder, the humeral head does not deviate significantly or suddenly during active shoulder rotation regardless of motion velocity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Tadashi Sugahara, Yuichiro Takamatsu, Avinash Bhadani, Masaaki Akamatsu, Kenichi Sakai, Masahiko Abe, Hideki Sakai
In this study, we synthesize a novel oleic acid-based gemini surfactant with carboxylate headgroups, and study the effect of stereochemistry (anti- vs. syn-) on self-aggregation properties in water. We investigate these properties using phase diagrams, static surface tension, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. We find that a phase transition from a hexagonal liquid crystal (H1) phase to a lamellar liquid crystal (Lα) phase occurs at a lower surfactant concentration in the syn form, when compared with the anti form...
March 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Huseyin Durukan, Savas Gundogan, Murside Çevikoğlu Kıllı, Talat Umut Kutlu Dilek
Ultrasound (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect and evaluate the face and neck tumors during the in-utero period. We reported and discussed an oral mass which was diagnosed incidentally at mid-trimester exam and managed successfully.
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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