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Ventilator associated pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319633/risk-factors-for-healthcare-associated-infections-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#1
Takeshi Hatachi, Kazuya Tachibana, Yu Inata, Yuji Tominaga, Aiko Hirano, Miyako Kyogoku, Kazue Moon, Yoshiyuki Shimizu, Kanako Isaka, Muneyuki Takeuchi
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery are significant causes of morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify the risk factors for the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center observational study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive pediatric patients less than or equal to 18 years old admitted to the PICU after cardiac surgery, between January 2013 and December 2015...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249216/pathogen-distribution-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-pediatric-healthcare-associated-infections-reported-to-the-national-healthcare-safety-network-2011-2014
#2
Jason G Lake, Lindsey M Weiner, Aaron M Milstone, Lisa Saiman, Shelley S Magill, Isaac See
OBJECTIVE To describe pathogen distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) from pediatric locations during 2011-2014. METHODS Device-associated infection data were analyzed for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and surgical site infection (SSI). Pooled mean percentage resistance was calculated for a variety of pathogen-antimicrobial resistance pattern combinations and was stratified by location for device-associated infections (neonatal intensive care units [NICUs], pediatric intensive care units [PICUs], pediatric oncology and pediatric wards) and by surgery type for SSIs...
December 18, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199768/invasive-versus-non-invasive-ventilation-for-acute-respiratory-failure-in-neuromuscular-disease-and-chest-wall-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Fang Luo, Djillali Annane, David Orlikowski, Li He, Mi Yang, Muke Zhou, Guan J Liu
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure is a common life-threatening complication of acute onset neuromuscular diseases, and may exacerbate chronic hypoventilation in patients with neuromuscular disease or chest wall disorders. Standard management includes oxygen supplementation, physiotherapy, cough assistance, and, whenever needed, antibiotics and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) via nasal, buccal or full-face devices has become routine practice in many centres...
December 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193814/hospital-admissions-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-born-moderately-late-preterm
#4
Paula Haataja, Päivi Korhonen, Riitta Ojala, Mikko Hirvonen, Matti Korppi, Mika Gissler, Tiina Luukkaala, Outi Tammela
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and predictors of hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in moderately preterm (MP, 32+0 to 33+6 weeks) and late preterm (LP, 34+0 to 36+6 weeks) infants compared to term (T ≥37 weeks) and very preterm (VP, <32+0 weeks) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This national register-based study covered all infants born in Finland in 1991-2008. Data on 1 018 256 infants were analyzed in four gestational age-based groups: VP (n = 6329), MP (n = 6796), LP (n = 39 928), and T (n = 965 203) groups...
November 29, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141794/short-term-outcome-of-adem-results-from-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-south-india
#5
Mary Iype, P A Mohammed Kunju, Geetha Saradakutty, T S Anish, Mini Sreedharan, Shahanaz M Ahamed
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an immune mediated inflammatory disease is common in children. The profile and immediate outcome of children hospitalized with ADEM is scarce in the available literature. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the clinical profile of children with ADEM and to look for prognostic factors for outcome at discharge from hospital METHODS: We chose a retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with ADEM at our institution between January 2006 and December 2015, and they were evaluated, after excluding other diagnoses when they were summoned for a follow up visit...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140969/risk-factors-for-ventilator-associated-events-in-a-picu
#6
Raeley Guess, Jarin Vaewpanich, Jorge A Coss-Bu, Siriporn Phongjitsiri, Curtis Kennedy, Jeffrey Starke, Satid Thammasitboon
OBJECTIVE: The term ventilator-associated events includes ventilator-associated condition, infection-related ventilator-associated complication, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. We sought to identify potential new risk factors for ventilator-associated condition and infection-related ventilator-associated complication in the PICU population. DESIGN: Matched case control study. SETTING: Children's hospital at a tertiary care academic medical center...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134423/perioperative-respiratory-complications-current-evidence-and-strategy-discussed-in-2017-ja-symposium
#7
K Hirota, M Yamakage, S Hashimoto, T Asai, S Isono
Respiratory management during general anesthesia aims to safely secure the airway and maintain adequate ventilation to deliver oxygen to the vital organs, maintaining homeostasis even during surgery. Despite its clinical importance, anesthesiologists often encounter difficulties in properly managing respiration during the perioperative period, leading to severe respiratory complications. In this year's JA symposium, 5 editorial board members of Journal of Anesthesia (JA) who are experts in the field of respiratory management in anesthesia discussed the following topics: quitting smoking before surgery: exposure to passive smoke is damaging to children, ventilator-associated pneumonia, high inspiratory oxygen concentration and lung injury, aspiration pneumonia, and postoperative respiratory management strategy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031787/assessing-prediction-accuracy-for-outcomes-of-ventilator-associated-events-and-infections-in-critically-ill-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Yolanda Peña-López, Montserrat Pujol, Magda Campins, Leonel Lagunes, Joan Balcells, Jordi Rello
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prediction accuracy of 2008 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)/ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT), 2013-CDC definitions for ventilator-associated events (VAE) and a new VAE algorithm (Ped-VAE) in children. METHODS: Prospective 13-month cohort study at a multidisciplinary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Primary end-points were duration of ventilation episode, PICU/hospitalization length of stay from episode (LOS), and episode mortality...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027126/etiology-and-risk-factors-determining-poor-outcome-of-severe-pneumonia-in-under-five-children
#9
Suresh Kumar Jakhar, Mukul Pandey, Dheeraj Shah, V G Ramachandran, Rumpa Saha, Natasha Gupta, Piyush Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiology of severe pneumonia (pneumonia with chest indrawing) in under-five children, and to study the risk factors for poor outcomes viz., 'treatment failure', 'need for change in antibiotics', 'prolonged hospital stay', 'need for mechanical ventilation' and 'mortality.' METHODS: Children (age 2 mo to 5 y) with pneumonia and chest drawing were enrolled prospectively from October 2012 through September 2013. Clinical history was recorded, and examination, anthropometry and investigations (including chest X-ray, blood culture and nasopharyngeal swab culture) were performed...
October 13, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988664/epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-otitis-media-in-taiwanese-children
#10
Ying-Chun Cho, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Ching-Ying Huang, Yen-Hsin Kung, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: Concerns about non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in otitis media (OM) have grown after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). We aim to better understand the clinical role of NTHi in pediatric OM. METHODS: Middle ear fluid samples from children <18 years with OM were obtained from 2010 to 2015. For culture-positive episodes (Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes), patients' demographic and clinical information were reviewed and analyzed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982610/the-prospective-evaluation-of-risk-factors-and-clinical-influence-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-children-with-gram-negative-bacteria-infection
#11
Zumrut Sahbudak Bal, Nur Bekmezci, Mehmet Soylu, Semra Sen, Gulhadiye Avcu, Sohret Aydemir, Fadil Vardar
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative (CRGN) infections have been increasing in recent years and associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical risk characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of CRGN infections and to compare with carbapenem-sensitive gram-negative (CSGN) infections in children. METHODS: Newly diagnosed CRGN infections in hospitalized children younger than age 18 years were prospectively recorded and all patients infected with a CSGN pathogen in the same unit within 48 hours of diagnosis were included in a control group between April 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977260/prevalence-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-pediatric-risk-of-mortality-iii-versus-pediatric-logistic-organ-dysfunction-scores-for-mortality-prediction
#12
Azza Abd Elkader El Hamshary, Seham Awad El Sherbini, HebatAllah Fadel Elgebaly, Samah Abdelkrim Amin
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of primary multiple organ failure and the role of sepsis as a causative agent in critically ill pediatric patients; and calculate and evaluate the accuracy of the Pediatric Risk of Mortality III (PRISM III) and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scores to predict the outcomes of critically ill children. METHODS: Retrospective study, which evaluated data from patients admitted from January to December 2011 in the pediatric intensive care unit of the Children's Hospital of the University of Cairo...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941534/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-critically-ill-children-a-new-paradigm
#13
REVIEW
Peter M Mourani, Marci K Sontag
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of critical illness. Surveillance definitions have undergone revisions for more objective and consistent reporting. The 1 organism-1 disease paradigm for microbial involvement may not adequately apply to many cases of VAP, in which pathogens are introduced to a pre-existing and often complex microbial community that facilitates or hinders the potential pathogen, consequently determining whether progression to VAP occurs. As omics technology is applied to VAP, a paradigm is emerging incorporating simultaneous assessments of microbial populations and their activity, as well as the host response, to personalize prevention and treatment...
October 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905374/heat-and-moisture-exchangers-versus-heated-humidifiers-for-mechanically-ventilated-adults-and-children
#14
REVIEW
Donna Gillies, David A Todd, Jann P Foster, Bisanth T Batuwitage
BACKGROUND: Invasive ventilation is used to assist or replace breathing when a person is unable to breathe adequately on their own. Because the upper airway is bypassed during mechanical ventilation, the respiratory system is no longer able to warm and moisten inhaled gases, potentially causing additional breathing problems in people who already require assisted breathing. To prevent these problems, gases are artificially warmed and humidified. There are two main forms of humidification, heat and moisture exchangers (HME) or heated humidifiers (HH)...
September 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842971/the-impact-of-pediatric-obesity-on-hospitalized-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-united-states
#15
Yusuke Okubo, Kotaro Nochioka, Marcia A Testa
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is the most common public health problem and is a clinically complicating risk factor among hospitalized children. The impact of pediatric obesity on the severity and morbidity of lower respiratory tract infections remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of bronchitis and pneumonia among children aged 2-20 years using hospital discharge records. The data were obtained from the Kid's Inpatient Database in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012, and were weighted to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the United States...
August 26, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830913/risk-factors-for-respiratory-decompensation-among-healthy-infants-with-bronchiolitis
#16
Nina M Dadlez, Nora Esteban-Cruciani, Asama Khan, Lindsey C Douglas, Yi Shi, William N Southern
BACKGROUND: Although most children with bronchiolitis only require supportive care, some decompensate and require ventilatory support. We examined predictors of respiratory decompensation among hospitalized children to identify which patients may benefit from expectant monitoring. METHODS: We examined children ≤24 months old with bronchiolitis admitted to the general infant and toddler floor. Children with pneumonia or comorbidities were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from a clinical database and medical records...
September 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816919/enteral-nutrition-practices-in-critically-ill-children-requiring-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation
#17
Matthew K Leroue, Ryan J Good, Heather E Skillman, Angela S Czaja
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the practice of providing enteral nutrition in critically ill children requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU within a quaternary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: PICU patients older than 30 days requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for greater than or equal to 24 hours from August 2014 to June 2015. Invasive mechanical ventilation prior to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and inability to receive enteral nutrition at baseline were additional exclusionary criteria...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749854/risk-stratification-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-multicenter-observational-study
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Judith Ju-Ming Wong, Huu Phuc Phan, Suwannee Phumeetham, Jacqueline Soo May Ong, Yek Kee Chor, Suyun Qian, Rujipat Samransamruajkit, Nattachai Anantasit, Chin Seng Gan, Feng Xu, Rehena Sultana, Tsee Foong Loh, Jan Hau Lee
OBJECTIVES: The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference developed a pediatric specific definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS). In this definition, severity of lung disease is stratified into mild, moderate, and severe groups. We aim to describe the epidemiology of patients with PARDS across Asia and evaluate whether the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference risk stratification accurately predicts outcome in PARDS. DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective, descriptive cohort study...
November 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713509/mechanical-ventilation-practice-in-egyptian-pediatric-intensive-care-units
#19
Bassant Salah Meligy, Sally Kamal, Seham Awad El Sherbini
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation is one of the indispensable tools in pediatric intensive care units. Few studies addressed the epidemiology of pediatric patients on mechanical ventilation and the frequently used modes of ventilation. This is the first study to describe the practice of mechanical ventilation (MV) in Egyptian pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 in two pediatric intensive care units at Cairo University Pediatric Hospital...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676203/-frequency-and-type-of-pleuropulmonary-complications-and-their-predictors-during-the-first-thirty-days-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgery-in-children
#20
Jessica Jacqueline Hernández-López, Alejandro Solano-Gutiérrez, Flor Teresita Rosas-Aragón, Airam Gabriela Antúnez-Soto, Janet Flores-Lujano, Juan Carlos Nuñez-Enríquez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and type of pleuropulmonary complications and their predictors in the first thirty postoperative days of patients undergoing surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out between January 2013 and December 2014. It included all patients with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery using a sternal or thoracic approach, without cardiopulmonary bypass with a registered admission to a Neonatal or Paediatric Intensive Care...
July 1, 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
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