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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326055/a-retrospective-biochemical-molecular-and-neurocognitive-review-of-saudi-patients-with-argininosuccinic-aciduria
#1
Ruqaiah AlTassan, Dalal Bubshait, Faiqa Imtiaz, Zuhair Rahbeeni
A retrospective review was compiled of 54 patients with argininosuccinic aciduria who were either identified through the Saudi National Newborn Screening Program or diagnosed clinically from January 2000 to December 2015. The duration of follow-up is from 2 to 19 years. The majority of patients (65%) originated from the central province of Saudi Arabia. The mean patient age at review was 10 years (2-19 years), 92% received an early diagnosis (<28 days of age) and most were symptomatic at the time of the diagnosis (n = 34)...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322704/evaluation-of-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-by-ct-mri-and-mr-venography
#2
Pratibha Issar, Sirasapalli Chinna, Sanjeev Kumar Issar
Objective: To study and compare cerebral parenchymal changes and sinuses involvement in CT with MRI and MRV in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis patients. Method: This study was carried out in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, JLN Hospital and Research Center, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh from October 2012 to Nov 2014 and includes fifty patients of all age groups presenting with clinical symptoms of CVT, admitted in Neurology, Neurosurgery, Medicine, Pediatric, obstetric and Gynecology wards...
November 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285339/medium-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-a-premature-infant
#3
Steven F Dobrowolski, Lina Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Jerry Vockley
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is identified by newborn screening (NBS). The natural history of MCADD includes metabolic decompensation with hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, seizures, coma, and death. NBS enables expectant management thus severe symptoms are rare in managed patients. We report premature birth of an MCADD affected infant and resultant management challenges. Nutritional support advanced from parenteral nutrition at 24 hours to enteral feeds. A NBS sample was collected day 2, positive results for MCADD was reported day six, and diagnostic tests were performed day seven...
November 21, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250826/enhanced-neurogenesis-and-possible-synaptic-reorganization-in-the-piriform-cortex-of-adult-rat-following-kainic-acid-induced-status-epilepticus
#4
Masashi Sakurai, Hiroko Suzuki, Nagi Tomita, Yuji Sunden, Akinori Shimada, Hajime Miyata, Takehito Morita
Epileptic seizure has been reported to enhance adult neurogenesis and induce aberrant synaptic reorganization in the human dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation. However, adult neurogenesis in the extrahippocampal regions has not been well studied. To investigate seizure-enhanced neurogenesis in the extrahippocampal regions, we performed histological and immunohistochemical as well as western blot analyses on the cerebrum of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 51, male, 7 weeks old, body weight 250-300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (SE) (n = 36) or normal saline solution (n = 15) followed by 5'-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) injection to label newborn cells...
December 18, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173786/drug-treatment-of-seizures-and-epilepsy-in-newborns-and-children
#5
REVIEW
Louis T Dang, Faye S Silverstein
The mainstay of treatment of childhood epilepsy is to administer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This article provides an overview of the clinical approach to drug treatment of childhood epilepsy, focusing on general principles of therapy and properties of recently introduced medications. Initiation and cessation of therapy, adverse medication effects, drug interactions, indications for the various AEDs, and off-label use of AEDs are reviewed. The distinct challenges in treatment of epileptic spasms and neonatal seizures are addressed...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127207/perinatal-outcomes-after-treatment-with-adhd-medication-during-pregnancy
#6
Ulrika Nörby, Birger Winbladh, Karin Källén
OBJECTIVES: To analyze perinatal outcomes after maternal use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication during pregnancy. METHODS: The study included singletons born between 2006 and 2014 in Sweden. Data on prescription drug use, pregnancies, deliveries, and the newborn infants' health were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, the Prescribed Drug Register, and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. We compared infants exposed to ADHD medication during pregnancy with infants whose mothers never used these drugs and infants whose mothers used ADHD medication before or after pregnancy...
November 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114367/the-comparison-of-anti-seizure-and-tocolytic-effects-of-phenytoin-and-magnesium-sulphate-in-the-treatment-of-eclampsia-and-preeclampsia-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#7
Maryam Khooshideh, Majid Ghaffarpour, Sama Bitarafan
Background: To date, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is the treatment of choice for prevention of seizure in eclampsia and preeclampsia. However, there are some limitations in the administration of MgSO4 due to its tocolytic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsant and tocolytic effects of MgSO4 and another drug, phenytoin, in patients with eclampsia and preeclampsia. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women hospitalised with eclampsia or preeclampsia, during 2014-2016...
July 6, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030525/neurodevelopment-at-age-10-years-of-children-born-28-weeks-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Steven J Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, Tim Heeren, Karl C K Kuban, T Michael O'Shea, Alan Leviton
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the relationships between fetal growth restriction (FGR) (both severe and less severe) and assessments of cognitive, academic, and adaptive behavior brain function at age 10 years. METHODS: At age 10 years, the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns Cohort Study assessed the cognitive function, academic achievement, social-communicative function, psychiatric symptoms, and overall quality of life of 889 children born before 28 weeks' gestation...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022989/prophylactic-intravenous-calcium-therapy-for-exchange-blood-transfusion-in-the-newborn
#9
REVIEW
Tinuade A Ogunlesi, Foluso Ea Lesi, Olabisi Oduwole
BACKGROUND: Exchange blood transfusion (EBT) is a form of whole blood transfusion in which the total blood volume is replaced within a few hours. In perinatal and neonatal medicine, EBT is most often used in the management of severe anaemia or severe hyperbilirubinaemia in the first week of life. Hypocalcaemia, one of the common morbidities associated with EBT, is thought to arise from the chelating effects of the citrate commonly used as an anticoagulant in the donor's blood. This disorder manifests with muscular and nervous irritability and cardiac arrhythmias...
October 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021923/toward-a-personalized-real-time-diagnosis-in-neonatal-seizure-detection
#10
Andriy Temko, Achintya Kr Sarkar, Geraldine B Boylan, Sean Mathieson, William P Marnane, Gordon Lightbody
The problem of creating a personalized seizure detection algorithm for newborns is tackled in this paper. A probabilistic framework for semi-supervised adaptation of a generic patient-independent neonatal seizure detector is proposed. A system that is based on a combination of patient-adaptive (generative) and patient-independent (discriminative) classifiers is designed and evaluated on a large database of unedited continuous multichannel neonatal EEG recordings of over 800 h in duration. It is shown that an improvement in the detection of neonatal seizures over the course of long EEG recordings is achievable with on-the-fly incorporation of patient-specific EEG characteristics...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021168/functional-ultrasound-imaging-of-brain-activity-in-human-newborns
#11
Charlie Demene, Jérome Baranger, Miguel Bernal, Catherine Delanoe, Stéphane Auvin, Valérie Biran, Marianne Alison, Jérome Mairesse, Elisabeth Harribaud, Mathieu Pernot, Mickael Tanter, Olivier Baud
Functional neuroimaging modalities are crucial for understanding brain function, but their clinical use is challenging. Recently, the use of ultrasonic plane waves transmitted at ultrafast frame rates was shown to allow for the spatiotemporal identification of brain activation through neurovascular coupling in rodents. Using a customized flexible and noninvasive headmount, we demonstrate in human neonates that real-time functional ultrasound imaging (fUSI) is feasible by combining simultaneous continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) recording and ultrafast Doppler (UfD) imaging of the brain microvasculature...
October 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018327/maternal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-worsens-neurological-outcomes-in-adolescent-offspring-with-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#12
Yik L Chan, Sonia Saad, Rita Machaalani, Brian G Oliver, Bryce Vissel, Carol Pollock, Nicole M Jones, Hui Chen
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy occurs in approximately 6 per 1000 term newborns leading to devastating neurological consequences, such as cerebral palsy and seizures. Maternal smoking is one of the prominent risk factors contributing to HI injury. Mitochondrial integrity plays a critical role in neural injury and repair during HI. We previously showed that maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) can reduce brain mitochondrial fission and autophagosome markers in male offspring. This was accompanied by increased brain cell apoptosis (active caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL staining)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958087/neonatal-sleep-wake-analyses-predict-18-month-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#13
Renée A Shellhaas, Joseph W Burns, Fauziya Hassan, Martha D Carlson, John D E Barks, Ronald D Chervin
Objectives: The neurological examination of critically ill neonates is largely limited to reflexive behavior. The exam often ignores sleep-wake physiology that may reflect brain integrity and influence long-term outcomes. We assessed whether polysomnography and concurrent cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might improve prediction of 18-month neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: Term newborns with suspected seizures underwent standardized neurologic examinations to generate Thompson scores and had 12-hour bedside polysomnography with concurrent cerebral NIRS...
November 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946157/duplex-sonographic-diagnosis-of-perinatal-hemorrhagic-stroke
#14
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Children are particularly at risk for stroke in the neonatal period. Neonatal hemorrhagic stroke is rarer than ischemic stroke. The incidence is 40.7/100 000 live births. Hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a disruption in venous drainage usually due to local thrombosis. As a result of the nonspecific clinical symptoms in this age group, diagnosis is usually made too late. The only relatively specific symptom is a cerebral seizure during the first week of life. Therefore, stroke should be ruled out by diagnostic imaging in the case of any seizure in the first days of life...
October 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946144/cerebellar-infarction-unusual-manifestation-with-facial-palsy-focal-seizures-and-secondary-generalization
#15
Tobias Mühlbacher, Georg Bohner, Christoph Bührer, Christof Dame
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar infarction is exceedingly rare in neonates, usually occurring after traumatic birth. Lifelong sequelae can result from cerebellar damage with disorders of motor function, ataxia, and also cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES/METHODS: We report the clinical presentation of a preterm triplet infant delivered by elective cesarean who showed peripheral facial palsy immediately after birth. RESULTS: Tonic seizures with high-voltage discharges over the contralateral cerebral hemisphere and secondary generalization were successfully treated with phenobarbital...
September 26, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937832/aberrant-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus-after-neonatal-seizures
#16
Xiaoqian Zhang, Huiling Qu, Ying Wang, Shanshan Zhao, Ting Xiao, Chuansheng Zhao, Weiyu Teng
Neonatal seizures are the most frequent type of neurological disorder and those newborn babies that experience seizures carry an increased risk of epileptogenesis and other long-term morbidities. The newly generated dentate granule cells (DGCs) integrate functionally into the mature hippocampal network by continuously forming connections with their targets but this process of adult neurogenesis can be influenced by seizures. When compared to adult seizures, neonatal seizures may exert different effects on neurogenesis due to the high resistance of the newborn's neurons to cell death combined with the inherent high sensitivity to seizures in the immature brain...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931341/the-neurotoxic-effects-of-prenatal-gabapentin-and-oxcarbazepine-exposure-on-newborn-rats
#17
Zuleyha Erisgin, Bulent Ayas, Jens R Nyengaard, N Ercument Beyhun, Yuksel Terzi
AIM: Teratogenicity is a problematic issue for pregnant women because of X-ray radiation, drugs, and genetic and unknown variables. First-generation antiepileptic drugs (AED) like valproic acid are well-known teratogens for developing fetuses. However, their usage is necessary in order to prevent maternal seizures. The underlying mechanism of birth defects associated with AED exposure remains unclear and information about the neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure to AED is still limited...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930990/application-of-an-amplitude-integrated-eeg-monitor-cerebral-function-monitor-to-neonates
#18
Nora Bruns, Susanne Blumenthal, Irmgard Meyer, Susanne Klose-Verschuur, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Hanna Müller
Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is an easily accessible technique to monitor the electrocortical activity in preterm and term infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This method was first used to monitor newborns after asphyxia, providing information about future neurological outcomes. The aEEG is also helpful to select newborns who benefit from cooling. The aEEG monitoring of preterm infants is becoming more widespread, as various studies have shown that neurodevelopmental outcome is related to early aEEG tracings...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926830/a-distinctive-ictal-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-pattern-in-newborns-with-neonatal-epilepsy-associated-with-kcnq2-mutations
#19
Ana Vilan, José Mendes Ribeiro, Pasquale Striano, Sarah Weckhuysen, Lauren C Weeke, Eva Brilstra, Linda S de Vries, Maria Roberta Cilio
BACKGROUND: Recurrent and prolonged seizures are harmful for the developing brain, emphasizing the importance of early seizure recognition and effective therapy. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) has become a valuable tool to diagnose epileptic seizures, and, in parallel, genetic etiologies are increasingly being recognized, changing the paradigm of the workup and management of neonatal seizures. OBJECTIVE: To report the ictal aEEG pattern in neonates with KCNQ2-related epilepsy...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922194/benign-neonatal-sleep-myoclonus-evokes-somatosensory-responses
#20
Emma Losito, Monika Eisermann, Patricia Vignolo, Shushanik Hovhannisyan, Jean François Magny, Anna Kaminska
PURPOSE: Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus is a common nonepileptic condition occurring in neurologically normal full-term newborns. During jerks, EEG has always been described as normal. The aim of this study was to describe EEG changes associated with the myoclonic jerks. METHODS: Polygraphic video-EEG recordings of four full-term neonates presenting benign neonatal sleep myoclonus were studied. Myoclonic jerks were analyzed regarding their topography, frequency, propagation pattern, and reflex component...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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