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seizures newborn

Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Francesco Pisani, Antonio Percesepe, Carlotta Spagnoli
Seizures are more frequent in newborns than in any other period of life. In most cases they are due to acute dysfunction of the central nervous system; however some can be true epileptic disorders with an early onset. Although rare, diagnosis of neonatal-onset epilepsies is rising as genetic testing increases. The spectrum of clinical severity associated with specific genes can vary widely with difficulties in providing genotype-phenotype correlations. Therefore, clinicians should strive in order to clearly delineate the clinical features associated with pathogenic genetic variants with the aim to guide the increasing use of genetic testing and improve clinical management...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Janice C Wong, Kailey Walsh, Douglas Hayden, Florian S Eichler
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare inherited neurodegenerative disorder in bile acid synthesis. The natural history of neurological abnormalities in CTX is not well understood. The object of this study was to determine neurological progression in CTX. METHODS: A literature search on PubMed for "cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis" yielded 91 publications that reported cases of CTX patients. Two independent reviewers abstracted information about the presence and age of onset of neurological abnormalities in published CTX cases...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Nariae Baik, Megan O'Reilly, Caroline Fray, Sylvia van Os, Po-Yin Cheung, Georg M Schmölzer
Approximately, 10-20% of newborns require breathing assistance at birth, which remains the cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation. Fortunately, the need for chest compression (CC) or medications in the delivery room (DR) is rare. About 0.1% of term infants and up to 15% of preterm infants receive these interventions, this will result in approximately one million newborn deaths annually worldwide. In addition, CC or medications (epinephrine) are more frequent in the preterm population (~15%) due to birth asphyxia...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lena Hellström-Westas
The amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) is a filtered and compressed EEG trend that can be used for long-term monitoring of brain function in patients of all ages. aEEG is increasingly used in neonatal intensive care units since several studies have shown its utility in high-risk newborn infants. Main indications for aEEG monitoring include early evaluation of brain function after perinatal asphyxia and seizure detection. The aEEG is usually recorded from one or two channels derived from parietal, central, or frontal leads...
February 13, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Francesco Pisani, Carlotta Spagnoli
Acute symptomatic neonatal seizures in preterm newborns are a relevant clinical challenge due to the presence of many knowledge gaps. Etiology-wise, acute symptomatic seizures have an age-specific epidemiology, with intraventricular hemorrhage and its complications representing the first cause in extremely and very preterm neonates, whereas other etiologies have similar occurrence rates as in full-term infants. Specific treatment strategies for the premature neonates are not yet available. Studies suggest a similarly low response rate with even more unfavorable prognosis than in full-term infants...
December 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Mark Mercurio
Early in my career as a neonatologist, I was called into the hospital for a newborn who would not stop crying. Screaming, really. When I entered the unit, I was greeted by a loud, shrill, distinctive cry. After hearing the history and examining the baby, I just stood there for a while, watching and listening. It took some time, but eventually, I noticed a subtle regularity, a rhythmicity. I took off my watch, placed it on the bed next to the child, and found that the crying briefly grew louder about every six or seven seconds...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Janet S Soul
Acute symptomatic seizures caused by either diffuse or focal perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insults and intracranial hemorrhage in term newborns make up the large majority of all neonatal seizures. Acute seizures are one of the most common neurological disorders in term newborns who require admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Despite elucidation of seizure pathogenesis in this population using animal models, treatment is limited by a lack of good evidence-based guidelines because of a paucity of rigorously conducted clinical trials or prospective studies in human newborns...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kyung Yeon Lee, Young Cheol Weon, Seong Hoon Choi, Ki Won Oh, Hyewon Park
PURPOSE: Rotavirus infection has recently been reported to be associated with seizures accompanied by leukoencephalopathy in newborns. We aimed to determine long-term outcomes and prognostic factors in newborns with neonatal seizures caused by rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images of 32 patients who fulfilled the following criteria: (1) neonatal seizures, (2) distinctive symmetric cerebral white matter lesions on diffusion-weighted MR images (DWI), (3) rotavirus infection, (4) absence of a specific etiology of seizures, except for the aforementioned DWI lesions, and (5) Korean Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II) assessment after 12 months of age...
February 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Angeline Thomas, Els F M Dobbels, Priscilla E Springer, Christelle Ackermann, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton
The first case of Glutaric aciduria Type 1(GA1) in an African child was reported in 2001. GA1 has a prevalence of 1:5000 in black South Africans. Although early diagnosis is essential for a favourable outcome, newborn screening is not routine in South Africa where an estimated 320,000 children have HIV infection. Neurodevelopmental delay and encephalopathy are complications of both HIV and GA1. In such a setting it is important to recognise that HIV and GA1 can occur simultaneously. We present an HIV-infected South African male child of Xhosa descent with macrocephaly who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 8 weeks of age in a clinical trial which included a neurodevelopmental sub-study...
February 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Cornelia Schiller, Katja Winter, Clarissa von Haefen, Christoph Bührer
In preterm infants, phenobarbital is the first-line antiepileptic drug for neonatal seizures while caffeine is used for the treatment of apnea. Data from experimental animals suggest that phenobarbital and other anticonvulsants are toxic for the developing brain, while neuroprotective effects have been reported for caffeine both in newborn rodents and preterm human infants. To characterize the interaction of phenobarbital and caffeine in the hippocampus of the developing rodent brain, we examined the effects of both drugs given separately or together on postnatal neurogenesis after administration to neonatal rats throughout postnatal day (P) 4 to P6...
February 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
S Seward
Encephalitis is a clinical syndrome which can include altered mental status, motor and sensory deficits, altered behavior including personality changes, speech and movement disorders and seizures. While the overall incidence of encephalitis is not known, it is common enough that most pediatric and adolescent medicine physicians will have seen at least one case. Peak times of risk include the newborn period and middle-to-late adolescence. 1 It is important for clinicians to have a working knowledge of the broad range of encephalitis etiologies: viral, post-viral, toxic, auto-immune and paraneoplastic...
January 31, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Avinash Abhyankar, Michelle Lamendola-Essel, Kelly Brennan, Jessica L Giordano, Cecilia Esteves, Vanessa Felice, Ronald Wapner, Vaidehi Jobanputra
We add two novel variants to the existing mutation spectrum of ASNS gene. Loss of ASNS function should be suspected in newborns presenting with congenital microcephaly, intellectual disability, progressive cerebral atrophy, and intractable seizures. Acquisition and sequencing of stored newborn blood spot can be a valuable option when no biological samples are available from a deceased child.
January 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Woo Jeng Kim, Young Sin Han, Hyun Sun Ko, In Yang Park, Jong Chul Shin, Jeong Ha Wie
Objective: This study investigated the effect of an antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) in preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study. We compared women who received ACS with unexposed controls and evaluated neonatal complications among those having a singleton SGA neonate born between 29 and 34 complete gestational weeks. The neonates born after 32 weeks of gestation were divided into subgroups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed...
January 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Francesco Pisani, Carlotta Spagnoli, Carlotta Facini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Giacomo Biasucci, Nicola Morelli, Federica Natacci, Massimo Mastrangelo
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) occurs in about 2 to 10 per 1000 live full-term births. Although neonatal epileptic seizures are observed in up to 60% of cases, PA may mimic or subtend other conditions. Hypoxia related brain injury is particularly relevant, as it may have permanent effects on neuropsychomotor development. Antepartum obstetric conditions, may, in turn, lead to hypoxic-ischemic damage to the fetus and the newborn, often underlying PA. Herein, a case of PA that hid and triggered signs and symptoms of Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I), is reported...
January 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Ruqaiah AlTassan, Dalal Bubshait, Faiqa Imtiaz, Zuhair Rahbeeni
A retrospective review was compiled of 54 patients with argininosuccinic aciduria who were either identified through the Saudi National Newborn Screening Program or diagnosed clinically from January 2000 to December 2015. The duration of follow-up is from 2 to 19 years. The majority of patients (65%) originated from the central province of Saudi Arabia. The mean patient age at review was 10 years (2-19 years), 92% received an early diagnosis (<28 days of age) and most were symptomatic at the time of the diagnosis (n = 34)...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Pratibha Issar, Sirasapalli Chinna, Sanjeev Kumar Issar
Objective: To study and compare cerebral parenchymal changes and sinuses involvement in CT with MRI and MRV in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis patients. Method: This study was carried out in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, JLN Hospital and Research Center, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh from October 2012 to Nov 2014 and includes fifty patients of all age groups presenting with clinical symptoms of CVT, admitted in Neurology, Neurosurgery, Medicine, Pediatric, obstetric and Gynecology wards...
November 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Steven F Dobrowolski, Lina Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Jerry Vockley
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is identified by newborn screening (NBS). The natural history of MCADD includes metabolic decompensation with hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, seizures, coma, and death. NBS enables expectant management thus severe symptoms are rare in managed patients. We report premature birth of an MCADD affected infant and resultant management challenges. Nutritional support advanced from parenteral nutrition at 24 hours to enteral feeds. A NBS sample was collected day 2, positive results for MCADD was reported day six, and diagnostic tests were performed day seven...
November 21, 2017: Pediatric Reports
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