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Julio T Chong, William K Oh, Bobby C Liaw
Advances in therapies have led to the approval of six therapeutic agents since 2004, each demonstrating overall survival benefit in randomized studies, and these have significantly improved the outlook for men facing metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). More recently, efforts have been directed at trying to effect change at earlier phases of the disease. Apalutamide (ARN-509), a second-generation androgen receptor antagonist, recently received approval in the nonmetastatic (M0) CRPC space...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Michael I Koukourakis, Christos Kakouratos, Dimitra Kalamida, Achilleas Mitrakas, Stamatia Pouliliou, Erasmia Xanthopoulou, Evdokia Papadopoulou, Virginia Fasoulaki, Alexandra Giatromanolaki
Apalutamide (ARN-509) is an antiandrogen that binds selectively to androgen receptors (AR) and does not show antagonist-to-agonist switch like bicalutamide. We compared the activity of ARN versus bicalutamide on prostate cancer cell lines. The 22Rv1, PC3, and DU145 cell lines were used to study the effect of ARN and bicalutamide on the expression cytoplasmic/nuclear kinetics of AR, AR-V7 variant, phosphorylated AR, as well as the levels of the AR downstream proteins prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2, under exposure to testosterone and/or hypoxia...
April 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Matias Knuuttila, Arfa Mehmood, Riikka Huhtaniemi, Emrah Yatkin, Merja R Häkkinen, Riikka Oksala, Teemu D Laajala, Henrik Ryberg, David J Handelsman, Tero Aittokallio, Seppo Auriola, Claes Ohlsson, Asta Laiho, Laura L Elo, Petra Sipilä, Sari I Mäkelä, Matti Poutanen
The development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with the activation of intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and an increase in androgen receptor (AR) expression. We recently demonstrated that, similarly to the clinical CRPC, orthotopically grown castration-resistant VCaP (CR-VCaP) xenografts express high levels of AR and retain intratumoral androgen concentrations similar to tumors grown in intact mice. Herein, we show that antiandrogen treatment (enzalutamide or ARN-509) significantly reduced (10-fold, P < 0...
January 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Raoling Ge, Xi Xu, Pengfei Xu, Lei Li, Zhiyu Li, Jinlei Bian
Prostate cancer is the most common carcinoma among aged males in western countries and more aggressive and lethal castration resistant prostate cancer often occurs after androgen deprivation therapy. The high expression of androgens and androgen receptor is closely related to prostate cancer. Efficient androgen receptor antagonists, such as enzalutamide and ARN-509, could be employed as potent anti-prostate cancer agents. Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed that F876L mutation in androgen receptor converts the action of enzalutamide and ARN-509 from an antagonist to agonist, so that novel strategies are urgent to address this resistance mechanism...
2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Felipe de Jesus Cortez, Phuong Nguyen, Charles Truillet, Boxue Tian, Kristopher M Kuchenbecker, Michael J Evans, Paul Webb, Matthew P Jacobson, Robert J Fletterick, Pamela M England
Resistance to clinical antiandrogens has plagued the evolution of effective therapeutics for advanced prostate cancer. As with the first-line therapeutic bicalutamide (Casodex), resistance to newer antiandrogens (enzalutamide, ARN-509) develops quickly in patients, despite the fact that these drugs have ∼10-fold better affinity for the androgen receptor than bicalutamide. Improving affinity alone is often not sufficient to prevent resistance, and alternative strategies are needed to improve antiandrogen efficacy...
December 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
D E Rathkopf, M R Smith, C J Ryan, W R Berry, N D Shore, G Liu, C S Higano, J J Alumkal, R Hauke, R F Tutrone, M Saleh, E Chow Maneval, S Thomas, D S Ricci, M K Yu, C J de Boer, A Trinh, T Kheoh, R Bandekar, H I Scher, E S Antonarakis
Background: Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD), such as F877L and T878A, have been associated with resistance to next-generation AR-directed therapies. ARN-509-001 was a phase I/II study that evaluated apalutamide activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Here, we evaluated the type and frequency of 11 relevant AR-LBD mutations in apalutamide-treated CRPC patients. Patients and methods: Blood samples from men with nonmetastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) and metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) pre- or post-abiraterone acetate and prednisone (AAP) treatment (≥6 months' exposure) were evaluated at baseline and disease progression in trial ARN-509-001...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Dana E Rathkopf, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Neal D Shore, Ronald F Tutrone, Joshi J Alumkal, Charles J Ryan, Mansoor Saleh, Ralph J Hauke, Rajesh Bandekar, Edna Chow Maneval, Carla J de Boer, Margaret K Yu, Howard I Scher
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of apalutamide before or after treatment with abiraterone acetate and prednisone (AAP) in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Experimental Design: Two cohorts were studied: AAP-naïve and post-AAP patients who had received ≥6 months of AAP. Patients had progressive mCRPC per rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or imaging, without prior chemotherapy exposure. All received apalutamide 240 mg/day. Primary endpoint was ≥50% decline in 12-week PSA according to Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 criteria...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Thomas A Hope, Charles Truillet, Eric C Ehman, Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Rahul Aggarwal, Charles J Ryan, Peter R Carroll, Eric J Small, Michael J Evans
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of androgen receptor (AR) inhibition on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) uptake imaged using 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET in a mouse xenograft model and in a patient with castration-sensitive prostate cancer. METHODS: We imaged 3 groups of 4 mice bearing LNCaP-AR xenografts before and 7 d after treatment with ARN-509, orchiectomy, or control vehicle. Additionally, we imaged one patient with castration-sensitive prostate cancer before and 4 wk after treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)...
January 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Anca Azoitei, Axel S Merseburger, Beate Godau, M Raschid Hoda, Evi Schmid, Marcus V Cronauer
A mechanism allowing castration resistant prostate cancer cells to escape the effects of conventional anti-hormonal treatments is the synthesis of constitutively active, C-terminally truncated androgen receptor (AR)-variants. Lacking the entire or vast parts of the ligand binding domain, the intended target of traditional endocrine therapies, these AR-variants (termed ARΔLBD) are insensitive to all traditional treatments including second generation compounds like abiraterone, enzalutamide or ARN-509. Although ARΔLBD are predominantly products of alternative splicing, they can also be products of nonsense mutations or proteolytic cleavage...
February 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Matthew R Smith, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Charles J Ryan, William R Berry, Neal D Shore, Glenn Liu, Joshi J Alumkal, Celestia S Higano, Edna Chow Maneval, Rajesh Bandekar, Carla J de Boer, Margaret K Yu, Dana E Rathkopf
BACKGROUND: Apalutamide is a potent androgen receptor (AR) antagonist that targets the AR ligand-binding domain and prevents AR nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcription of AR gene targets. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity and safety of apalutamide in patients with high-risk nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a multicenter phase 2 study of nmCRPC patients with a high risk for progression (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≥8 ng/ml or PSA doubling time [PSA DT] ≤10 mo)...
December 2016: European Urology
Athanasios Dellis, Athanasios G Papatsoris
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in elderly males. Regardless of the initial hormonal treatment in metastatic disease, a significant proportion of patients develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind castration resistance has led to the approval of oral medications such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. Relevant research is accelerated with numerous agents being tested for the management of CRPC...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Ji Ho Suh, Arundhati Chattopadhyay, Douglas H Sieglaff, Cheryl Storer Samaniego, Marc B Cox, Paul Webb
The androgen receptor (AR) surface-directed antagonist MJC13 inhibits AR function and proliferation of prostate cancer (PC) cells. These effects are related to arrest of an AR/chaperone complex in the cytoplasm. Here, we compared MJC13 and classic AR antagonists such as flutamide and bicalutamide. Microarray analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR reveals that MJC13 and flutamide inhibit dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent genes in LNCaP PC cells. Both compounds are equally effective on a genome wide basis and as effective as second generation AR antagonists (MDV3100, ARN-509) at selected genes...
2015: PloS One
Richard M Bambury, Dana E Rathkopf
The approval of abiraterone and enzalutamide for the treatment of advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer heralded a paradigm shift in the management of this disease. Nevertheless, new and improved treatments are needed since the disease remains incurable for the majority of these patients. In this article, we review the biology of castration-resistant disease as well as emerging therapeutic compounds directed at the androgen receptor, including galeterone, VT-464, ARN-509, and ODM-201. Mechanisms of action, early clinical data, and ongoing clinical studies for these compounds are all reviewed...
August 2016: Urologic Oncology
Anu-Maarit Moilanen, Reetta Riikonen, Riikka Oksala, Laura Ravanti, Eija Aho, Gerd Wohlfahrt, Pirjo S Nykänen, Olli P Törmäkangas, Jorma J Palvimo, Pekka J Kallio
Activation of androgen receptor (AR) is crucial for prostate cancer growth. Remarkably, also castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is dependent on functional AR, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the addiction. Known causes of CRPC include gene amplification and overexpression as well as point mutations of AR. We report here the pharmacological profile of ODM-201, a novel AR inhibitor that showed significant antitumor activity and a favorable safety profile in phase 1/2 studies in men with CRPC...
July 3, 2015: Scientific Reports
Florian Jentzmik, Anca Azoitei, Friedemann Zengerling, Ilija Damjanoski, Marcus V Cronauer
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men of the western world. As growth and differentiation of prostate cancer largely depend on androgens, inhibition of the androgen/androgen receptor signaling axis is the main treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic tumors. Although first-line androgen deprivation therapies like chemical/surgical castration and/or administration of anti-androgens are able to control the disease for several years, prostate cancer almost invariably recurs as castration-resistant prostate cancer...
March 2016: World Journal of Urology
Constance Thibault, Christophe Massard
Therapeutic arsenal in prostate cancer widens for several years. New hormonal therapies such as acetate abiraterone or enzalutamide were the first molecules to revolutionize the treatment of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. Several other treatments are on trial targeting different pathways: androgene pathway (TAK-007, ARN-509, ODM-201, TOK-001), immune system (sipuleucel, ipilimumab, PROSTVAC-V/F, tasquinimod), but also tumor cell (PARP inhibitor, cabozantinib). The treatment sequencing will therefore soon be problematic, raising the necessity to identify predictive markers of response to the new therapies...
June 2015: Bulletin du Cancer
Daan Joost De Maeseneer, Charles Van Praet, Nicolaas Lumen, Sylvie Rottey
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a hormone-sensitive disease. Androgen deprivation therapy lowers serum testosterone levels (castration) or blocks the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain. Especially in metastatic disease, hormonal therapy has been able to delay disease progression, reduce symptoms, and improve overall survival. Despite subsequent disease progression and development of castration resistance, PCa remains AR driven. Secondary hormonal treatments such as abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide have demonstrated increased overall survival...
July 2015: Urologic Oncology
Martin Boegemann, Andres-Jan Schrader, Laura-Maria Krabbe, Edwin Herrmann
INTRODUCTION: Recently, an increasing number of systemic therapies with life extending capacity have become available in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) i.e. Abiraterone acetate, Enzalutamide, Sipuleucel-T, Docetaxel, Cabazitaxel and Radium-223. More compounds are currently being evaluated in promising pivotal trials (e.g. Tasquinimod, ARN-509, ODM-201, and more). Limitations of the currently available biomarkers make treatment decisions challenging. Considering the ever increasing complexity of treatment algorithms in mCRPC the current demand of research is to find and characterize biomarkers with prognostic, predictive and surrogate quality, allowing for information on clinically meaningful outcomes and on which therapy to offer patients in different and complex scenarios...
2015: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Hiroji Uemura
Androgen ablation therapy is performed for prostate cancer patients especially with advanced stage. Nevertheless, outgrowth of hormone independent cancer cells occurs within several years and leads to a lethal condition, so-called castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Even in CRPC cells under low levels of serum androgens, androgen receptor (AR) signaling still functions and is engaged in the establishment of CRPC. Recently, novel AR antagonists have been developed such as enzalutamide or ARN-509. This review focuses on these AR antagonists that have some features including high affinity to AR compared with bicalutamide, preventing nuclear translocation and DNA binding...
December 2014: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
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