keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Polycomb repressor

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765032/pcgf5-is-required-for-neural-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Mingze Yao, Xueke Zhou, Jiajian Zhou, Shixin Gong, Gongcheng Hu, Jiao Li, Kaimeng Huang, Ping Lai, Guang Shi, Andrew P Hutchins, Hao Sun, Huating Wang, Hongjie Yao
Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is an important regulator of gene expression and development. PRC1 contains the E3 ligases RING1A/B, which monoubiquitinate lysine 119 at histone H2A (H2AK119ub1), and has been sub-classified into six major complexes based on the presence of a PCGF subunit. Here, we report that PCGF5, one of six PCGF paralogs, is an important requirement in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) towards a neural cell fate. Although PCGF5 is not required for mESC self-renewal, its loss blocks mESC neural differentiation by activating the SMAD2/TGF-β signaling pathway...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729398/genetic-interaction-between-gli3-and-ezh2-during-limb-pattern-formation
#2
Steven J Deimling, Kimberly Lau, Chi-Chung Hui, Sevan Hopyan
Anteroposterior polarity of the early limb bud is essential for proper skeletal pattern formation. In order to establish anterior identity, hedgehog signalling needs to be repressed by GLI3 repressor activity, although the mechanism of repression is not well defined. Here we describe genetic interaction between Gli3 and Enhancer of Zeste 2 (Ezh2) that encodes the histone methyltransferase subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. Loss of anterior limb identity was evident in both Gli3 and conditional Ezh2 single mutant embryos...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727681/prc1-fine-tunes-gene-repression-and-activation-to-safeguard-skin-development-and-stem-cell-specification
#3
Idan Cohen, Dejian Zhao, Carmit Bar, Victor J Valdes, Katherine L Dauber-Decker, Minh Binh Nguyen, Manabu Nakayama, Michael Rendl, Wendy A Bickmore, Haruhiko Koseki, Deyou Zheng, Elena Ezhkova
Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) 1 and 2 are essential chromatin regulators of cell identity. PRC1, a dominant executer of Polycomb-mediated control, functions as multiple sub-complexes that possess catalytic-dependent H2AK119 mono-ubiquitination (H2AK119ub) and catalytic-independent activities. Here, we show that, despite its well-established repressor functions, PRC1 binds to both silent and active genes. Through in vivo loss-of-function studies, we show that global PRC1 function is essential for skin development and stem cell (SC) specification, whereas PRC1 catalytic activity is dispensable...
May 3, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661849/feedback-regulation-by-antagonistic-epigenetic-factors-potentially-maintains-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#4
Devendran A Sadasivam, Der-Hwa Huang
Polycomb group (PcG) repressors confer epigenetically heritable silencing on key regulatory genes through histone H3 trimethylation on lysine 27 (H3K27me3). How the silencing state withstands antagonistic activities from co-expressed trithorax group (trxG) activators is unclear. Using overexpression of Trx H3K4 methylase to perturb the silenced state, we find a dynamic process triggered in a stepwise fashion to neutralize the inductive impacts from excess Trx. Shortly after Trx overexpression, there are global increases in H3K4 trimethylation and RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, marking active transcription...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660015/structural-basis-of-dna-target-recognition-by-the-b3-domain-of-arabidopsis-epigenome-reader-val1
#5
Giedrius Sasnauskas, Kotryna Kauneckaite, Virginijus Siksnys
Arabidopsis thaliana requires a prolonged period of cold exposure during winter to initiate flowering in a process termed vernalization. Exposure to cold induces epigenetic silencing of the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. A key role in this epigenetic switch is played by transcriptional repressors VAL1 and VAL2, which specifically recognize Sph/RY DNA sequences within FLC via B3 DNA binding domains, and mediate recruitment of PcG silencing machinery. To understand the structural mechanism of site-specific DNA recognition by VAL1, we have solved the crystal structure of VAL1 B3 domain (VAL1-B3) bound to a 12 bp oligoduplex containing the canonical Sph/RY DNA sequence 5'-CATGCA-3'/5'-TGCATG-3'...
April 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628311/a-family-of-vertebrate-specific-polycombs-encoded-by-the-lcor-lcorl-genes-balance-prc2-subtype-activities
#6
Eric Conway, Emilia Jerman, Evan Healy, Shinsuke Ito, Daniel Holoch, Giorgio Oliviero, Orla Deevy, Eleanor Glancy, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Marlena Mucha, Ariane Watson, Alan M Rice, Paul Chammas, Christine Huang, Indigo Pratt-Kelly, Yoko Koseki, Manabu Nakayama, Tomoyuki Ishikura, Gundula Streubel, Kieran Wynne, Karsten Hokamp, Aoife McLysaght, Claudio Ciferri, Luciano Di Croce, Gerard Cagney, Raphaël Margueron, Haruhiko Koseki, Adrian P Bracken
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) consists of core subunits SUZ12, EED, RBBP4/7, and EZH1/2 and is responsible for mono-, di-, and tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3. Whereas two distinct forms exist, PRC2.1 (containing one polycomb-like protein) and PRC2.2 (containing AEBP2 and JARID2), little is known about their differential functions. Here, we report the discovery of a family of vertebrate-specific PRC2.1 proteins, "PRC2 associated LCOR isoform 1" (PALI1) and PALI2, encoded by the LCOR and LCORL gene loci, respectively...
April 1, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620187/metformin-inhibits-ovarian-cancer-via-decreasing-h3k27-trimethylation
#7
Guiju Tang, Jianfeng Guo, Yapei Zhu, Zaiju Huang, Ting Liu, Jing Cai, Lili Yu, Zehua Wang
Metformin has been used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus for decades. Recently, used of metformin in the therapy of diverse human cancer types has received widespread attention, while the underlying mechanisms have been not fully elucidated. In the current study, 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine assay to detect cell proliferation, flow cytometry to detect apoptosis, scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assay to detect cell migration capacity. The current study reported that metformin inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and promoted apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, particularly under normoglycemic conditions in vitro...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606589/the-h3k36me2-methyltransferase-nsd1-demarcates-prc2-mediated-h3k27me2-and-h3k27me3-domains-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Gundula Streubel, Ariane Watson, Sri Ganesh Jammula, Andrea Scelfo, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Giorgio Oliviero, Rachel McCole, Eric Conway, Eleanor Glancy, Gian Luca Negri, Eugene Dillon, Kieran Wynne, Diego Pasini, Nevan J Krogan, Adrian P Bracken, Gerard Cagney
The Polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) is composed of the core subunits Ezh1/2, Suz12, and Eed, and it mediates all di- and tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 in higher eukaryotes. However, little is known about how the catalytic activity of PRC2 is regulated to demarcate H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 domains across the genome. To address this, we mapped the endogenous interactomes of Ezh2 and Suz12 in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and we combined this with a functional screen for H3K27 methylation marks. We found that Nsd1-mediated H3K36me2 co-locates with H3K27me2, and its loss leads to genome-wide expansion of H3K27me3...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559852/-bmi1-deficient-mice-exhibit-male-infertility
#9
Xiuliang Dai, Qian Zhang, Zhenzhen Yu, Weiwei Sun, Rong Wang, Dengshun Miao
Previous studies have demonstrated that the polycomb repressor Bmi1 is universally expressed in all types of testicular cells and might regulate the spermatogonia proliferation, however, it is unclear whether Bmi1 plays a critical role in maintaining normal male fertility in vivo. To answer this question, we first confirmed that Bmi1 is universally expressed in all types of testicular cells and found that the gene relative expression levels of Bmi1 in testis were the highest relative to other organs. Then we investigated the role of Bmi1 in maintaining normal male fertility using Bmi1 knockout male mouse model...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539429/combinatorial-control-of-recruitment-of-a-variant-prc1-6-complex-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Yikai Huang, Wukui Zhao, Congcong Wang, Yaru Zhu, Mengjie Liu, Huan Tong, Yin Xia, Qing Jiang, Jinzhong Qin
Though genetic data suggest that Polycomb group proteins (PcGs) are central chromatin modifiers and repressors that have been implicated in control of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency, the precise mechanism of PcG complex recruitment remains elusive, especially in mammals. We now report that the first and second MBT repeats of L3mbtl2 are important structural and functional features that are necessary and sufficient for L3mbtl2-mediated recruitment of PRC1.6 complex to target promoters. Interestingly, this region of L3mbtl2 harbors the evolutionarily conserved Pho-binding pocket also present in Drosophila Sfmbt, and mutation of the critical residues within this pocket completely abolishes its interaction with target promoters...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507419/ezh2-regulates-neuroblastoma-cell-differentiation-via-ntrk1-promoter-epigenetic-modifications
#11
Zhenghao Li, Hisanori Takenobu, Amallia Nuggetsiana Setyawati, Nobuhiro Akita, Masayuki Haruta, Shunpei Satoh, Yoshitaka Shinno, Koji Chikaraishi, Kyosuke Mukae, Jesmin Akter, Ryuichi P Sugino, Atsuko Nakazawa, Akira Nakagawara, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Miki Ohira, Takehiko Kamijo
The polycomb repressor complex 2 molecule EZH2 is now known to play a role in essential cellular processes, namely, cell fate decisions, cell cycle regulation, senescence, cell differentiation, and cancer development/progression. EZH2 inhibitors have recently been developed; however, their effectiveness and underlying molecular mechanisms in many malignancies have not yet been elucidated in detail. Although the functional role of EZH2 in tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma (NB) has been investigated, mutations of EZH2 have not been reported...
May 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502955/the-ss18-ssx-oncoprotein-hijacks-kdm2b-prc1-1-to-drive-synovial-sarcoma
#12
Ana Banito, Xiang Li, Aimée N Laporte, Jae-Seok Roe, Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Chun-Hao Huang, Amanda R Dancsok, Katerina Hatzi, Chi-Chao Chen, Darjus F Tschaharganeh, Rohit Chandwani, Nilgun Tasdemir, Kevin B Jones, Mario R Capecchi, Christopher R Vakoc, Nikolaus Schultz, Marc Ladanyi, Torsten O Nielsen, Scott W Lowe
Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive cancer invariably associated with a chromosomal translocation involving genes encoding the SWI-SNF complex component SS18 and an SSX (SSX1 or SSX2) transcriptional repressor. Using functional genomics, we identify KDM2B, a histone demethylase and component of a non-canonical polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1.1), as selectively required for sustaining synovial sarcoma cell transformation. SS18-SSX1 physically interacts with PRC1.1 and co-associates with SWI/SNF and KDM2B complexes on unmethylated CpG islands...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499325/yap-promotes-breast-cancer-metastasis-by-repressing-growth-differentiation-factor-15
#13
Ting Wang, Beibei Mao, Chi Cheng, Zhuangzhi Zou, Junling Gao, Yanglu Yang, Tong Lei, Xiaolong Qi, Zengqiang Yuan, Wentong Xu, Zhongbing Lu
The transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been implicated as an oncogene and is found to promote breast cancer metastasis. However, the pro-metastatic mechanism of YAP remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that YAP functions as a transcriptional repressor of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), a divergent member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, in several breast cancer cell lines. Functionally, knockdown of YAP decreased, whereas knockdown of GDF15 increased, the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells...
May 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459770/polycomb-protein-family-member-cbx7-regulates-intrinsic-axon-growth-and-regeneration
#14
Run-Shan Duan, Gang-Bin Tang, Hong-Zhen Du, Yi-Wen Hu, Pei-Pei Liu, Ya-Jie Xu, Yu-Qiang Zeng, Shuang-Feng Zhang, Rui-Ying Wang, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) lose their intrinsic ability and fail to regenerate, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, which include PRC1 and PRC2 complexes function as gene repressors and are involved in many biological processes. Here we report that PRC1 components (polycomb chromobox (CBX) 2, 7, and 8) are novel regulators of axon growth and regeneration. Especially, knockdown of CBX7 in either embryonic cortical neurons or adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons enhances their axon growth ability...
February 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453317/histone-h3-3k27m-mobilizes-multiple-cancer-testis-ct-antigens-in-pediatric-glioma
#15
Houliang Deng, Jianming Zeng, Ting Zhang, Longcai Gong, Hongjie Zhang, Edwin Cheung, Chris Jones, Gang Li
Lysine to methionine mutations at position 27 (K27M) in the histone H3 (H3.3 and H3.1) are highly prevalent in pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) that arise in the midline of the central nervous system. H3K27M perturbs the activity of polycomb repressor complex 2 and correlates with DNA hypomethylation; however, the pathways whereby H3K27M drives the development of pediatric HGG remain poorly understood. To understand the mechanism of pediatric HGG development driven by H3.3K27M and discover potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers, we established pediatric glioma cell model systems harboring H3...
April 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438482/the-lipodystrophic-hotspot-lamin-a-p-r482w-mutation-deregulates-the-mesodermal-inducer-t-brachyury-and-early-vascular-differentiation-gene-networks
#16
Nolwenn Briand, Anne-Claire Guénantin, Dorota Jeziorowska, Akshay Shah, Matthieu Mantecon, Emilie Capel, Marie Garcia, Anja Oldenburg, Jonas Paulsen, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Corinne Vigouroux, Philippe Collas
The p.R482W hotspot mutation in A-type nuclear lamins causes familial partial lipodystrophy of Dunnigan-type (FPLD2), a lipodystrophic syndrome complicated by early onset atherosclerosis. Molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial cell dysfunction conferred by the lamin A mutation remain elusive. However, lamin A regulates epigenetic developmental pathways and mutations could perturb these functions. Here, we demonstrate that lamin A R482W elicits endothelial differentiation defects in a developmental model of FPLD2...
April 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432547/fsh-pc-sce-complex-mediates-active-transcription-of-cubitus-interruptus-ci
#17
Xiangdong Lv, Hao Chen, Shuo Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Chenyu Pan, Yuanxin Xia, Jialin Fan, Wenqing Wu, Yi Lu, Lei Zhang, Hailong Wu, Yun Zhao
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in both embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Such biological functions are mediated by the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci). Yet the transcriptional regulation of the effector Ci itself is poorly investigated. Through an RNAi-based genetic screen, we identified that female sterile (1) homeotic (Fsh), a transcription co-activator, directly activates Ci transcription. Biochemistry assays demonstrated physical interactions among Fsh,Sex combs extra (Sce) and Polycomb (Pc)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425509/polycomb-group-protein-yy1-is-an-essential-regulator-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-quiescence
#18
Zhanping Lu, Courtney C Hong, Guangyao Kong, Anna L F V Assumpção, Irene M Ong, Emery H Bresnick, Jing Zhang, Xuan Pan
Yin yang 1 (YY1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor and mammalian polycomb group protein (PcG) with important functions to regulate embryonic development, lineage differentiation, and cell proliferation. YY1 mediates stable PcG-dependent transcriptional repression via recruitment of PcG proteins that catalyze histone modifications. Many questions remain unanswered regarding how cell- and tissue-specificity is achieved by PcG proteins. Here, we demonstrate that a conditional knockout of Yy1 in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) decreases long-term repopulating activity and ectopic YY1 expression expands HSCs...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394261/regulating-bmi1-expression-via-mirnas-promote-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-met-and-sensitizes-breast-cancer-cell-to-chemotherapeutic-drug
#19
Nibedita Patel, Koteswara Rao Garikapati, Venkata Krishna Kanth Makani, Ayikkara Drishya Nair, Namratha Vangara, Utpal Bhadra, Manika Pal Bhadra
Polycomb group (PcG) proteinB lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1) is a transcriptional repressor that plays an important role in human carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAsthat implicate a negative regulation on gene expression. Deregulation of the expression of miRNAs has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Here, we have shown that knock-down ofBMI1increases theexpression of tumor-suppressivemiRNAs. Elevated levels of expression of miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-15a, miR-429, miR-203were observed upon knock-down of BMI1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379063/polycomb-group-protein-suz12-is-regulated-by-a-novel-mirna-like-small-rna
#20
Patrice Penfornis, Joseph D Fernandes, Radhika R Pochampally
Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) provide support for cancer progression, partly through their secretome that includes extracellular vesicles (EVs). Based on deep-sequencing of small RNA from EVs of MSCs, we now report the characterization of novel small RNA, named n-miR-G665, which exhibits typical properties of miRNAs. n-miR-G665 sequence is conserved and expressed in most cell types. Knockdown studies using anti-agomirs and shRNA studies demonstrated that n-miR-G665 plays an important role in cell proliferation...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
keyword
keyword
110243
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"