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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733432/should-bilateral-internal-thoracic-artery-grafting-be-used-in-patients-after-recent-myocardial-infarction
#1
Dan Loberman, Dmitry Pevni, Rephael Mohr, Yosef Paz, Nahum Nesher, Mohamad Khaled Midlij, Yanai Ben-Gal
BACKGROUND: Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) is associated with improved survival. However, surgeons do not commonly use BITA in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) because survival is good with single internal thoracic artery grafting (SITA). We aimed to compare the outcomes of BITA with those of SITA and other approaches in patients with multivessel disease after recent MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 938 patients with recent MI (<3 months) who underwent BITA between 1996 and 2011 were compared with 682 who underwent SITA...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714979/translation-is-actively-regulated-during-the-differentiation-of-cd8-effector-t-cells
#2
Koichi Araki, Masahiro Morita, Annelise G Bederman, Bogumila T Konieczny, Haydn T Kissick, Nahum Sonenberg, Rafi Ahmed
Translation is a critical process in protein synthesis, but translational regulation in antigen-specific T cells in vivo has not been well defined. Here we have characterized the translatome of virus-specific CD8(+) effector T cells (Teff cells) during acute infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Antigen-specific T cells exerted dynamic translational control of gene expression that correlated with cell proliferation and stimulation via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). The translation of mRNAs that encode translation machinery, including ribosomal proteins, was upregulated during the T cell clonal-expansion phase, followed by inhibition of the translation of those transcripts when the CD8(+) Teff cells stopped dividing just before the contraction phase...
July 17, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706974/sirolimus-increases-t-cell-abundance-in-the-sun-exposed-skin-of-kidney-transplant-recipients
#3
Michael Thomas Burke, Lauren C Sambira Nahum, Nicole M Isbel, Robert P Carroll, Hans Peter Soyer, Ross Francis, Jennifer Anne Bridge, Carmel Hawley, Kimberly Oliver, Christine E Staatz, James William Wells
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor sirolimus may display a reduced risk of skin cancer development compared to KTRs receiving calcineurin inhibitors. Despite studies investigating the effects of these 2 drug classes on T cells in patient blood, the effect these drugs may have in patient skin is not yet known. METHODS: Fifteen patients with chronic kidney disease (not recipients of immunosuppressive drugs), and 30 KTRs (15 receiving a calcineurin inhibitor, and 15 receiving sirolimus) provided matched samples of blood, sun exposed (SE) and non-SE skin...
July 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699639/loss-of-mtorc1-signalling-impairs-%C3%AE-cell-homeostasis-and-insulin-processing
#4
Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Rebecca Barbaresso, Margarita Jimenez-Palomares, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Joao Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, Masayuki Hatanaka, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Nahum Sonenberg, Ming Liu, Markus A Rüegg, Michael N Hall, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
Deregulation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling increases the risk for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Here we show that β-cell-specific loss of mTORC1 causes diabetes and β-cell failure due to defects in proliferation, autophagy, apoptosis and insulin secretion by using mice with conditional (βraKO) and inducible (MIP-βraKO(f/f)) raptor deletion. Through genetic reconstitution of mTORC1 downstream targets, we identify mTORC1/S6K pathway as the mechanism by which mTORC1 regulates β-cell apoptosis, size and autophagy, whereas mTORC1/4E-BP2-eIF4E pathway regulates β-cell proliferation...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697164/the-use-safety-and-efficacy-of-olanzapine-in-a-level-i-pediatric-trauma-center-emergency-department-over-a-10-year-period
#5
Jon B Cole, Lauren R Klein, Ashley M Strobel, Stephane R Blanchard, Rebecca Nahum, Marc L Martel
OBJECTIVES: Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic increasingly used in emergency medicine for many indications. Literature on its use in children is sparse. Our objectives were to describe the use, safety, and efficacy of olanzapine in pediatric emergency patients. METHODS: A structured chart review was performed of patients 18 years old or younger receiving olanzapine from 2007 to 2016 in the emergency department of a pediatric level I trauma center. RESULTS: A total of 285 children received olanzapine...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690491/a-complicated-thread-abdominal-actinomycosis-in-a-young-woman-with-crohn-disease
#6
Ari Nahum, Gregory Filice, Ashish Malhotra
Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract. Typical manifestations include fever, weight loss, fatigue, and abdominal pain, and abdominal abscesses and fistulae are frequent complications. Abdominal actinomycosis is a subacute or indolent disease associated with Actinomyces spp. Symptoms can be very similar to those of Crohn disease, and fistulae are also common. Since ulcerations in the intestinal tract are thought to be caused by Actinomyces escaping from the gut lumen and establishing intra-abdominal infection, it seems likely that abdominal actinomycosis may occur in patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685749/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-and-rna-binding-protein-znf598-orchestrates-ribosome-quality-control-of-premature-polyadenylated-mrnas
#7
Aitor Garzia, Seyed Mehdi Jafarnejad, Cindy Meyer, Clément Chapat, Tasos Gogakos, Pavel Morozov, Mehdi Amiri, Maayan Shapiro, Henrik Molina, Thomas Tuschl, Nahum Sonenberg
Cryptic polyadenylation within coding sequences (CDS) triggers ribosome-associated quality control (RQC), followed by degradation of the aberrant mRNA and polypeptide, ribosome disassembly and recycling. Although ribosomal subunit dissociation and nascent peptide degradation are well-understood, the molecular sensors of aberrant mRNAs and their mechanism of action remain unknown. We studied the Zinc Finger Protein 598 (ZNF598) using PAR-CLIP and revealed that it cross-links to tRNAs, mRNAs and rRNAs, thereby placing the protein on translating ribosomes...
July 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674170/the-mnk-eif4e-signaling-axis-contributes-to-injury-induced-nociceptive-plasticity-and-the-development-of-chronic-pain
#8
Jamie K Moy, Arkady Khoutorsky, Marina N Asiedu, Bryan J Black, Jasper L Kuhn, Paulino Barragán-Iglesias, Salim Megat, Michael D Burton, Carolina C Burgos-Vega, Ohannes K Melemedjian, Scott Boitano, Josef Vagner, Christos G Gkogkas, Joseph J Pancrazio, Jeffrey S Mogil, Gregory Dussor, Nahum Sonenberg, Theodore J Price
Injury-induced sensitization of nociceptors contributes to pain states and the development of chronic pain. Inhibiting activity-dependent mRNA translation through mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways blocks the development of nociceptor sensitization. These pathways convergently signal to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex to regulate sensitization of nociceptors but the details of this process are ill-defined. Here we investigated the hypothesis that phosphorylation of the 5' cap-binding protein, eIF4E, by its specific kinase MAPK interacting kinase (MNK) 1/2 is a key factor in nociceptor sensitization and the development of chronic pain...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672072/the-blue-bubble-technique-an-ab-interno-approach-for-descemet-separation-in-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-dalk-using-trypan-blue-stained-viscoelastic-device
#9
Eitan Livny, Irit Bahar, Naama Hammel, Yoav Nahum
BACKGROUND: In this study we examined a novel variant of "Big-Bubble" Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK) using trypan-blue-stained viscoelastic device for the creation of a pre-Descemetic bubble. METHODS: Ten corneoscleral rims were mounted on an artificial anterior chamber (AC). The anterior chamber was filled with air through a limbal paracentesis. A Melles' triangulated spatula was inserted through the paracentesis, with its tip penetrating the AC, was then slightly retracted and pushed into the deep stroma above the roof of the paracentesis...
July 3, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631963/tumor-penetrating-peptide-integrated-thermally-sensitive-liposomal-doxorubicin-enhances-efficacy-of-radiofrequency-ablation-in-liver-tumors
#10
Fei Yan, Song Wang, Wei Yang, S Nahum Goldberg, Hao Wu, Wan-Lu Duan, Zhi-Ting Deng, Hai-Bo Han, Hai-Rong Zheng
Purpose To investigate the role of a tumor-penetrating peptide (internalizing CRGDRGPDC [iRGD])-integrated thermally sensitive liposomal (TSL) doxorubicin (DOX) in combination with radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumors in an animal model. Materials and Methods Approval from the institutional animal care and use committee was obtained. Characterization of iRGD-TSL-DOX was performed in vitro. Next, H22 liver adenocarcinomas were implanted in 138 mice in vivo. The DOX accumulation and cell apoptosis of iRGD-TSL-DOX and TSL-DOX with or without RF were evaluated (n = 5) at different time points after treatment with quantitative analysis or pathologic staining...
June 19, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617960/low-prevalence-of-igg-antibodies-against-antigens-of-hev-genotypes-1-and-3-in-women-with-a-high-risk-pregnancy
#11
Héctor Baptista-González, Rocío Trueba-Gómez, Fanny Rosenfeld-Mann, Elsa Roque-Álvarez, Nahúm Méndez-Sánchez
The aim of the study was to assess whether high-risk pregnant women have a higher prevalence of HEV during the perinatal period. This was a cross-sectional study of 428 patients: Group 1, 127 women with a high-risk pregnancy; Group 2, 97 asymptomatic people with reactivity to HCV or HBV; Group 3, 94 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of HEV infection; and Group 4, 110 healthy blood donors from an urban area of Mexico City. ELISA was used to measure antibody to HEV genotypes 1 and 3. The prevalence rates of anti-HEV IgG antibodies were 0...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611269/the-role-of-tips-in-patients-with-refractory-ascites-and-portal-vein-thrombosis
#12
Paulina Chinchilla-López, Nashla Hamdan-Pérez, Jorge Guerrero-Ixtlahuac, Beatriz Barranco-Fragoso, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Nowadays the contraindication for Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) had been modify. The experience and technology have reduce the complications for this procedure. We report a case of refractory ascites and portal vein thrombosis to emphasize the role of TIPS in the treatment for this condition.
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611259/prevalence-risk-factors-and-survival-of-patients-with-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#13
Paulina Chinchilla-López, Nancy Aguilar-Olivos, Jaime García-Gómez, Karen Hernández-Alejandro, Fredy Chablé-Montero, Daniel Motola-Kuba, Tushar Patel, Nahum Mendez-Sánchez
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence, related risk factors, and survival of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a Mexican population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Medica Sur Hospital in Mexico City with approval of the local research ethics committee. We found cases by reviewing all clinical records of in-patients between October 2005 and January 2016 who had been diagnosed with malignant liver tumors. Clinical characteristics and comorbidities were obtained to evaluate the probable risk factors and the Charlson index...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601962/patient-specific-image-denoising-for-ultra-low-dose-ct-guided-lung-biopsies
#14
Michael Green, Edith M Marom, Eli Konen, Nahum Kiryati, Arnaldo Mayer
PURPOSE: Low-dose CT screening of the lungs is becoming a reality, triggering many more CT-guided lung biopsies. During these biopsies, the patient is submitted to repeated guiding scans with substantial cumulated radiation dose. Extension of the dose reduction to the biopsy procedure is therefore necessary. We propose an image denoising algorithm that specifically addresses the setup of CT-guided lung biopsies. It minimizes radiation exposure while keeping the image quality appropriate for navigation to the target lesion...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588969/it-is-time-to-revise-the-international-good-clinical-practices-guidelines-recommendations-from-non-commercial-north-south-collaborative-trials
#15
Raffaella Ravinetto, Halidou Tinto, Ermias Diro, Joseph Okebe, Yodi Mahendradhata, Suman Rijal, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Pascal Lutumba, Alain Nahum, Katelijne De Nys, Minne Casteels, Marleen Boelaert
The Good Clinical Practices (GCP) codes of the WHO and the International Conference of Harmonization set international standards for clinical research. But critics argue that they were written without consideration for the challenges faced in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on our field experience in LMICs, we developed a non-exhaustive set of recommendations for the improvement of GCP. These cover 3 domains: ethical, legal and operational, and 8 specific issues: the double ethical review of 'externally sponsored' trials; the informed consent procedure in minors and in illiterate people; post-trial access to newly-developed products for the trial communities; the role of communities as key research actors; the definition of sponsor; and the guidance for contractual agreements, laboratory quality management systems, and quality assurance of investigational medicinal products...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582681/translational-control-and-the-cancer-cell-response-to-stress
#16
REVIEW
Nathaniel Robichaud, Nahum Sonenberg
The evidence for the importance of aberrant translation in cancer cells is overwhelming. Reflecting the wealth of data, there are excellent reviews delineating how ribosomes and initiation factors are linked to cancer [1-3], and the therapeutic strategies being devised to target them [4]. Changes in translational efficiency can engender a malignant phenotype without the need for chromatin reorganization, transcription, splicing and mRNA export [5,6]. Thus, cancer-related modulations of the translational machinery are ideally suited to allow cancer cells to respond to the various stresses encountered along the path of tumorigenesis and organism-wide dissemination [7(•),8,9,10(•)]...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582601/hematologic-ris-for-healthy-water-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-in-southern-mexico
#17
Oswaldo M Torres-Chable, Nadia F Ojeda-Robertos, Alfonso J Chay-Canul, Jorge A Peralta-Torres, Carlos Luna-Palomera, Nahum Brindis-Vazquez, Bradley J Blitvich, Carlos Machain-Williams, Julian E Garcia-Rejon, Carlos M Baak-Baak, Karin S Dorman, Miguel A Alegria-Lopez
BACKGROUND: Baseline hematologic data are used by veterinarians and wildlife biologists to perform health assessments on target animal species. Hematologic measurements are influenced by various factors including geography. Baseline hematologic RIs have been established for domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from various countries in the Eastern Hemisphere, but these data are not readily available for the Western Hemisphere. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine hematologic values for domestic water buffaloes from several commercial farms in southern Mexico...
June 5, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544394/muscle-metabolic-alterations-induced-by-genetic-ablation-of-4e-bp1-and-4e-bp2-in-response-to-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Olivier Le Bacquer, Kristell Combe, Christophe Montaurier, Jérôme Salles, Christophe Giraudet, Véronique Patrac, Carla Domingues-Faria, Christelle Guillet, Katie Louche, Yves Boirie, Nahum Sonenberg, Cédric Moro, Stéphane Walrand
SCOPE: In recent years, several studies reported the role of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) on the development of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 4E-BP protein deletion on lipid accumulation and metabolism in skeletal muscle in response to a high fat diet-induced obesity in 4E-BP1/2 DKO mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obesity engendered increased ectopic accumulation of lipotoxic species in skeletal muscle of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 double-knockout mice (4E-BP1/2 DKO), namely diacylglycerols and ceramides...
May 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521684/the-role-of-diet-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Roberto J Herrera-Mercadillo, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Misael Uribe, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Metabolic syndrome is a frequent metabolic disorder characterized by obesity and insulin resistance seems to be the main pathophysiological alteration. The goal of treating metabolic syndrome is to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and the development of type 2 diabetes. The lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet alone or combined with other strategies. In this review, we address the following topics: 1) the importance of the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity, and 2) the role of lifestyle modification focusing on dietary fat intake in the management of MS...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506839/evolutionary-relationships-among-protein-lysine-deacetylases-of-parasites-causing-neglected-diseases
#20
Larissa L S Scholte, Marina M Mourão, Fabiano Sviatopolk-Mirsky Pais, Jelena Melesina, Dina Robaa, Angela C Volpini, Wolfgang Sippl, Raymond J Pierce, Guilherme Oliveira, Laila A Nahum
The availability of the genomic data of diverse parasites provides an opportunity to identify new drug candidates against neglected tropical diseases affecting people worldwide. Histone modifying enzymes (HMEs) are potential candidates since they play key roles in the regulation of chromatin modifications, thus globally regulating gene expression. Furthermore, aberrant epigenetic states are often associated with human diseases, leading to great interest in HMEs as therapeutic targets. Our work focused on two families of protein lysine deacetylases (HDACs and sirtuins)...
May 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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