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Nahum Mendez-Sanchez, Vania Cesar Cruz-Ramon, Oscar Lenin Ramirez-Perez, Jessica P Hwang, Beatriz Barranco-Fragoso, Jaqueline Cordova-Gallardo
NASH is becoming increasingly common worldwide because of the growing global prevalence of obesity and consequently NAFLD. Unfortunately, the mechanism of progression of NAFLD to NASH and then cirrhosis is not completely understood. Several factors, including insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and bile acid (BA) toxicity, have been reported to be associated with NASH progression. The release of fatty acids from dysfunctional and insulin-resistant adipocytes results in lipotoxicity, which is caused by the ectopic accumulation of triglyceride-derived toxic metabolites and the subsequent activation of inflammatory pathways, cellular dysfunction, and lipoapoptosis...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John W B Hershey, Nahum Sonenberg, Michael B Mathews
Protein synthesis involves a complex machinery comprising numerous proteins and RNAs joined by noncovalent interactions. Its function is to link long chains of amino acids into proteins with precise sequences as encoded by the genome. Regulation of protein synthesis, called translational control, occurs both at a global level and at specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs). To understand how translation is regulated, knowledge of the molecular structures and kinetic interactions of its components is needed. This review focuses on the targets of translational control and the mechanisms employed...
June 29, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Nathaniel Robichaud, Nahum Sonenberg, Davide Ruggero, Robert J Schneider
The translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins is a key event in the regulation of gene expression. This is especially true in the cancer setting, as many oncogenes and transforming events are regulated at this level. Cancer-promoting factors that are translationally regulated include cyclins, antiapoptotic factors, proangiogenic factors, regulators of cell metabolism, prometastatic factors, immune modulators, and proteins involved in DNA repair. This review discusses the diverse means by which cancer cells deregulate and reprogram translation, and the resulting oncogenic impacts, providing insights into the complexity of translational control in cancer and its targeting for cancer therapy...
June 29, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Jing Li, Bing Han, Hongyu Li, Han Deng, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Xiaozhong Guo, Xingshun Qi
Background/Aim: Bleeding risk among patients with acute or chronic liver disease after invasive procedures is a common concern in clinical practice. This retrospective study aimed to explore whether the presence of coagulopathy increased the risk of major bleeding after invasive procedures in cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: A total of 874 cirrhotic patients underwent invasive procedures. Coagulopathy was defined as international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.5 and/or platelets (PLTs) ≤50 × 109 /L...
June 29, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Argel Aguilar-Valles, Nabila Haji, Danilo De Gregorio, Edna Matta-Camacho, Mohammad J Eslamizade, Jelena Popic, Vijendra Sharma, Ruifeng Cao, Christoph Rummel, Arnaud Tanti, Shane Wiebe, Nicolas Nuñez, Stefano Comai, Robert Nadon, Giamal Luheshi, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki, Jean-Claude Lacaille, Gabriella Gobbi, Nahum Sonenberg
Translation of mRNA into protein has a fundamental role in neurodevelopment, plasticity, and memory formation; however, its contribution in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders is not fully understood. We investigated the involvement of MNK1/2 (MAPK-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 and 2) and their target, eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E), in depression-like behavior in mice. Mice carrying a mutation in eIF4E for the MNK1/2 phosphorylation site (Ser209Ala, Eif4e ki/ki), the Mnk1/2 double knockout mice (Mnk1/2-/- ), or mice treated with the MNK1/2 inhibitor, cercosporamide, displayed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, impaired serotonin-induced excitatory synaptic activity in the prefrontal cortex, and diminished firing of the dorsal raphe neurons...
June 25, 2018: Nature Communications
Shmuel Graffi, Pia Leon, Michael Mimouni, Yoav Nahum, Rossella Spena, Leila Mattioli, Massimo Busin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between graft thickness/regularity and visual outcomes of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). METHODS: Records of post-DSAEK patients who were examined by anterior segment optical coherence tomography at "Villa Igea" Private Hospital (Forlì, Italy) since April 2015 were reviewed. Pachymetric and elevation maps of both host cornea and graft were analyzed. Graft regularity was determined based on the root mean square error (RMSE) of the graft pachymetric measurements taken 3 and 6 mm from the center and the RMSE of the corneal elevation measurements at its posterior and interface surfaces...
June 19, 2018: Cornea
Simon T Hui, Zeyneb Kurt, Iina Tuominen, Frode Norheim, Richard C Davis, Calvin Pan, Darwin L Dirks, Clara E Magyar, Samuel W French, Karthickeyan Chella Krishnan, Simon Sabir, Francisco Campos-Pérez, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Luis Macías-Kauffer, Paola León-Mimila, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Xia Yang, Simon W Beaven, Adriana Huertas-Vazquez, Aldons J Lusis
We report the genetic analysis of a "humanized" hyperlipidemic mouse model for progressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Mice carrying transgenes for human APOE*3-Leiden and CETP and fed a "Western" diet were studied on the genetic backgrounds of over 100 inbred mouse strains. The mice developed hepatic inflammation and fibrosis that was highly dependent on genetic background, with vast differences in the degree of fibrosis. Histological analysis showed features characteristic of human NASH, including macrovesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, inflammatory foci and pericellular collagen deposition...
June 16, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Marcia Campillo-Navarro, Kahiry Leyva-Paredes, Luis Donis-Maturano, Gloria M Rodríguez-López, Rodolfo Soria-Castro, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, Nahum Puebla-Osorio, Stephen E Ullrich, Julieta Luna-Herrera, Leopoldo Flores-Romo, Héctor Sumano-López, Sonia M Pérez-Tapia, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Iris Estrada-García, Rommel Chacón-Salinas
Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of human morbidity and mortality. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) employs different strategies to evade and counterattack immune responses persisting for years. Mast cells are crucial during innate immune responses and help clear infections via inflammation or by direct antibacterial activity through extracellular traps (MCETs). Whether Mtb induce MCETs production is unknown. In this study, we report that viable Mtb did not induce DNA release by mast cells, but heat-killed Mtb (HK-Mtb) did...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xingshun Qi, Xiaozhong Guo, Eric M Yoshida, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Valerio De Stefano, Frank Tacke, Andrea Mancuso, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Sien-Sing Yang, Rolf Teschke, Ankur Arora, Dominique-Charles Valla
In real-world clinical practice, the acceptance of anticoagulation therapy in the management of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis is limited by the fear of an increased bleeding risk. Additionally, accumulating evidence indicates that spontaneous recanalization of PVT may occur in the absence of antithrombotic treatment. Therefore, risk stratification based on outcomes in such patients is crucial for determining a therapeutic strategy. In this paper, we draw attention to the distinct clinical entity, "transient PVT" by introducing two cases with PVT that spontaneously recanalized in the absence of antithrombotic treatment...
June 5, 2018: BMC Medicine
Nahum Zepeta-Flores, Mahara Valverde, Alejandro Lopez-Saavedra, Emilio Rojas
The importance of glutathione (GSH) in alternative cellular roles to the canonically proposed, were analyzed in a model unable to synthesize GSH. Gene expression analysis shows that the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton pathway is strongly impacted by the absence of GSH. To test this hypothesis, we evaluate the effect of GSH depletion via buthionine sulfoximine (5 and 12.5 mM) in human neuroblastoma MSN cells. In the present study, 70% of GSH reduction did not induce reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation, or cytotoxicity, which enabled us to evaluate the effect of glutathione in the absence of oxidative stress...
June 4, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Shmuel Graffi, Pia Leon, Yoav Nahum, Shay Gutfreund, Rossella Spena, Leila Mattioli, Massimo Busin
AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of ultrathin Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (UT-DSAEK) performed in eyes after failure of primary Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: This was a retrospective, non-comparative interventional case series done in a tertiary care hospital. The study group included 21 eyes of patients which underwent UT-DSAEK following the failure of primary DMEK. Outcome measures included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and endothelial cell density (ECD) both recorded 6 and 12 months postoperatively as well as central graft thickness (CGT) measured 6 months after UT-DSAEK...
May 29, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Timothy J O'Brien, Mohammad Bonakdar, Suyashree Bhonsle, Robert E Neal, Charles H Aardema, John L Robertson, S Nahum Goldberg, Rafael V Davalos
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the effects of active electrode cooling, via internal fluid circulation, on the irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion, deployed electric current and temperature changes using a perfused porcine liver model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bipolar electrode delivered IRE electric pulses with or without activation of internal cooling to nine porcine mechanically perfused livers. Pulse schemes included a constant voltage, and a preconditioned delivery combined with an arc-mitigation algorithm...
May 28, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Adi Ovadia, Amit Nahum, Diana Tasher, Shirli Abiri, Larisa Epov, Aharon Kessel, Ilan Dalal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Jessica H Guadarrama-Orozco, Guillermo R Cantú-Quintanilla, Diana Ávila-Montiel, Myriam Altamirano-Bustamante, Ingris Peláez-Ballestas, Cristina Caballero-Velarde, Luis E Juárez-Villegas, Nahúm de la Vega-Morell, Javier Kelly-García, Adalberto de Hoyos-Bermea, Elisa Dorantes-Acosta, José D Gamboa-Marrufo, Onofre Muñoz-Hernández, Juan Garduño-Espinosa
Background: Laws refer that minors do not have the capability to give informed consent for their own medical attention. However, there are special conditions in which they are allowed to decide about their health. The greater the judgement and experience limitations in minors, the less weight is given to the values and objectives they express. Also, the more adverse consequences might be, the higher the level of authority that is demanded to decide on behalf of the minor, thus granting the State the capability to guarantee the well-being of the minor...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Gabriel Reynés-Llompart, Cristina Gámez-Cenzano, José Luis Vercher-Conejero, Aida Sabaté-Llobera, Nahúm Calvo-Malvar, Josep M Martí-Climent
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of a penalized-likelihood image reconstruction method (Q.Clear) under different count statistics and lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) on a BGO scanner, in order to obtain an optimum penalization factor (β value) to study and optimize for different acquisition protocols and clinical goals. METHODS: Both phantom and patient images were evaluated. Data from an image quality phantom were acquired using different Lesion-to-Background ratios and acquisition times...
May 21, 2018: Medical Physics
John D Fenwick, Georgios Georgiou, Carl G Rowbottom, Tracy S A Underwood, Sudhir Kumar, Alan E Nahum
Differences in detector response between measured small fields, f clin, and wider reference fields, f msr , can be overcome by using correction factors [Formula: see text] or by designing detectors with field-size invariant responses. The changing response in small fields is caused by perturbations of the electron fluence within the detector sensitive volume. For solid-state detectors, it has recently been suggested that these perturbations might be caused by the non-water-equivalent effective atomic numbers Z of detector materials, rather than by their non-water-like densities...
June 8, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ronit Machtinger, Tamar Berman, Michal Adir, Abdallah Mansur, Andrea A Baccarelli, Catherine Racowsky, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser, Ravit Nahum
Mounting evidence suggests possible adverse effects of intrauterine exposure to certain phenols and phthalates, two classes of endocrine disruptor chemicals, on the developing fetus, with consequences into later life. These findings have contributed to the replacement of some chemicals, such as di‑2‑ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA), in consumer products. For the current study we quantified urinary concentrations of biomarkers of exposure among 50 pregnant women in Israel to several phthalates, bisphenols and personal care product chemicals, as well as DEHP and BPA alternatives...
July 2018: Environment International
Vania Cruz-Ramón, Paulina Chinchilla-López, Oscar Ramírez-Pérez, Nancy E Aguilar-Olivos, Luis F Alva-López, Ericka Fajardo-Ordoñez, Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez, Patrick G Northup, Nicolas Intagliata, Stephen H Caldwell, Xingshun Qi, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Thrombosis is a vascular disorder of the liver often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Cirrhosis is a predisposing factor for portal venous system thrombosis. The aim of this study is to determine differences between cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics that develop thrombosis in portal venous system and to evaluate if cirrhosis severity is related to the development of portal venous system thrombosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied patients diagnosed with portal venous system thrombosis using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan and doppler ultrasound at Medica Sur Hospital from 2012 to 2017...
May 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Adi Eindor-Abarbanel, Timna Naftali, Nahum Ruhimovich, Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit, Fabiana Sklerovsky-Benjaminov, Fred Konikoff, Shai Matalon, Haim Shirin, Yael Milgrom, Efrat Broide
Background: Adherence is generally associated with improved treatment outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Different components of the patient profile have an impact on patient adherence. Capturing nonadherent patients by identifying modifiable risk factors in daily practice still remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for nonadherence in IBD patients. Methods: Patients filled out questionnaires including demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic information and accessibility to gastrointestinal services...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Marco J Hernández-Chávez, Bernardo Franco, Diana M Clavijo-Giraldo, Nahúm V Hernández, Eine Estrada-Mata, Héctor Manuel Mora-Montes
Candida tropicalis is an opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for mucosal and systemic infections. The cell wall is the initial contact point between a fungal cell and the host immune system, and mannoproteins are important components that play key roles when interacting with host cells. In Candida albicans, mannans are modified by mannosyl-phosphate moieties, named phosphomannans, which can work as molecular scaffolds to synthesize β1,2-mannooligosaccharides, and MNN4 is a positive regulator of the phosphomannosylation pathway...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
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