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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778048/pathogens-constancy-harbinger-of-nosocomial-infection-cum-identification-of-resistant-genes-and-drug-designing
#1
Sana Farooq Ahmad, Ibrar Khan, Abdul Wadood, Sadiq Azam, Noor Rehman, Muhammad Waqas, Kashif Bashir, Asaf Ali Khan
Hospitals are the most prominent places for the growth and spread of bacteria which are resistant to the available antibiotics. This antibiotic resistance is due to the over and misuse of antibiotic dosages of a high-density of patient population which are in frequent interaction with inanimate items of the hospitals and the consequent risk of cross infection. Out of 1010 samples of the current study, 510 (50.49%) were culture positive of which 329 (64.5%) were Gram-positive while 181 (35.49%) Gram negative...
April 22, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776929/antibacterial-effects-of-phage-lysin-lysgh15-on-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms-of-diverse-staphylococci
#2
Yufeng Zhang, Mengjun Cheng, Hao Zhang, Jiaxin Dai, Zhimin Guo, Xinwei Li, Yalu Ji, Ruopeng Cai, Hengyu Xi, Xinwu Wang, Yibing Xue, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu
Treatment of infections caused by staphylococci has become more difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains as well as biofilm formation. In this study, we observed the ability of the phage lysin LysGH15 to eliminate staphylococcal planktonic cells and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis All these strains were sensitive to LysGH15, showing reductions in bacterial counts of approximately 4 log units within 30 min after treatment with 20 μg/mL LysGH15, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 8 μg/mL to 32 μg/mL...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776416/rapid-urease-test-rut-for-evaluation-of-urease-activity-in-oral-bacteria-in-vitro-and-in-supragingival-dental-plaque-ex-vivo
#3
Gunnar Dahlén, Haidar Hassan, Susanne Blomqvist, Anette Carlén
BACKGROUND: Urease is an enzyme produced by plaque bacteria hydrolysing urea from saliva and gingival exudate into ammonia in order to regulate the pH in the dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the urease activity among oral bacterial species by using the rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format and to examine whether this test could be used for measuring the urease activity in site-specific supragingival dental plaque samples ex vivo. METHODS: The RUT test is based on 2% urea in peptone broth solution and with phenol red at pH 6...
May 18, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771236/can-dalbavancin-be-used-as-a-catheter-lock-solution
#4
Cristina Díaz-Ruíz, Beatriz Alonso, Emilia Cercenado, Raquel Cruces, Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, María Guembe
PURPOSE: The new lipoglycopeptide dalbavancin has only been approved for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. However, its alternative use as a catheter lock solution could facilitate the conservative management of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Our objective was to assess the stability and activity of dalbavancin alone and in combination with heparin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) biofilms...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769615/indoor-wet-cells-as-a-habitat-for-melanized-fungi-opportunistic-pathogens-on-humans-and-other-vertebrates
#5
Xiaofang Wang, Wenying Cai, A H G Gerrits van den Ende, Junmin Zhang, Ting Xie, Liyan Xi, Xiqing Li, Jiufeng Sun, Sybren de Hoog
Indoor wet cells serve as an environmental reservoir for a wide diversity of melanized fungi. A total of 313 melanized fungi were isolated at five locations in Guangzhou, China. Internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) sequencing showed a preponderance of 27 species belonging to 10 genera; 64.22% (n = 201) were known as human opportunists in the orders Chaetothyriales and Venturiales, potentially causing cutaneous and sometimes deep infections. Knufia epidermidis was the most frequently encountered species in bathrooms (n = 26), while in kitchens Ochroconis musae (n = 14), Phialophora oxyspora (n = 12) and P...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768238/one-pot-green-fabrication-of-metallic-silver-nanoscale-materials-using-crescentia-cujete-l-and-assessment-of-their-bactericidal-activity
#6
Seetharaman Prabukumar, Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan, Gnanasekar Sathishkumar, Mani Illaiyaraja, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan
In this study, the leaf extract of an important medicinal plant Crescentia cujete L. (CC) was employed as a green reducing agent to synthesise highly-stable C. cujete silver nanoparticles (CCAgNPs). The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanoparticles was initially observed by a colour change which generates an intense surface plasmon resonance peak at 417 nm using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Various optimisation factors such as temperature, pH, time and the stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture were performed, which influence the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of CCAgNPs...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768034/staphylococcus-aureus-induces-mucosal-type-2-immune-response-via-epithelial-cell-derived-cytokines
#7
Feng Lan, Nan Zhang, Gabriele Holtappels, Natalie De Ruyck, Olga Krysko, Koen Van Crombruggen, Harald Braun, Sebastian L Johnston, Nikos G Papadopoulos, Luo Zhang, Claus Bachert
RATIONALE: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is characterized by a T helper cell 2-skewed upper airway inflammation. Mucosal Staphylococcus aureus colonization is found in the majority of nasal polyps patients. Staphylococcus aureus is known to induce type 2 cytokine release via enterotoxins. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of non-enterotoxin producing Staphylococcus aureus on type 2 cytokine release. METHODS: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-33 and type 2 cytokines were assessed in a human mucosal tissue model upon Staphylococcus aureus infection...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755418/microbiome-and-culture-based-analysis-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-compared-to-healthy-sinus-mucosa
#8
Kerstin Koeller, Daniel P R Herlemann, Tobias Schuldt, Attila Ovari, Ellen Guder, Andreas Podbielski, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Bernhard Olzowy
The role of bacteria in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still not well understood. Whole microbiome analysis adds new aspects to our current understanding that is mainly based on isolated bacteria. It is still unclear how the results of microbiome analysis and the classical culture based approaches interrelate. To address this, middle meatus swabs and tissue samples were obtained during sinus surgery in 5 patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), 5 patients with diffuse CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), 5 patients with unilateral purulent maxillary CRS (upm CRS) and 3 patients with healthy sinus mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753159/defining-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-catheter-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-an-outpatient-adult-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-program
#9
Marissa K McDonald, Kathryn A Culos, Katie S Gatwood, Caleb Prow, Heidi Chen, Bipin N Savani, Michael Byrne, Adetola A Kassim, Brian G Engelhardt, Madan Jagasia, Gowri Satyanarayana
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients are at an increased risk of developing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) due to prolonged periods of myelosuppression, immunosuppression, and indwelling catheter days. CLABSIs are among the most serious complications in HCT recipients and can lead to prolonged hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, lengthy antimicrobial therapies, and increased mortality. There is a lack of data regarding the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of CLABSIs in the HCT population undergoing outpatient transplantation...
May 9, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752963/ses-proteins-as-possible-targets-for-vaccine-development-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-infections
#10
Dorien Hofmans, Laleh Khodaparast, Ladan Khodaparast, Els Vanstreels, Mohammad Shahrooei, Johan Van Eldere, Lieve Van Mellaert
OBJECTIVES: The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is progressively involved in device-related infections. Since these infections involve biofilm formation, antibiotics are not effective. Conversely, a vaccine can be advantageous to prevent these infections. In view of vaccine development, predicted surface proteins were evaluated on their potential as a vaccine target. METHODS: Immunoglobulins directed against S. epidermidis surface proteins SesB, M, O, Q and R, were used to firstly affirm their surface location...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751119/bacteriological-relevance-of-linezolid-versus-vancomycin-in-postoperative-empirical-treatment-of-osteoarticular-infections-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#11
E Takoudju, P Bemer, S Touchais, N Asseray, S Corvec, L Khatchatourian, N Serandour, D Boutoille
BACKGROUND: Our center replaced vancomycin by linezolid in 2015 for the postoperative empirical treatment of osteoarticular infections (OAI). OBJECTIVES: This work aims to assess the bacteriological relevance of linezolid for orthopaedic postoperative probabilistic antibiotic therapy. METHODS: Analysis of an observational cohort of patients empirically treated by a combination of linezolid with piperacillin/tazobactam during the immediate postoperative stage for an OAI between July 1st 2015 and July 1st 2016, in a French reference center...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749386/lantibiotic-production-is-a-burden-for-the-producing-staphylococci
#12
Patrick Ebner, Sebastian Reichert, Arif Luqman, Bernhard Krismer, Peter Popella, Friedrich Götz
Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides that contain non-proteinogenic amino acids lanthionine and 3-methyllanthionine and are produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Here we addressed the pros and cons of lantibiotic production for its producing strains. Two staphylococcal strains, S. gallinarum Tü3928 and S. epidermidis Tü3298 producing gallidermin and epidermin respectively were selected. In each of these parental strains, the structural genes gdmA and epiA were deleted; all the other biosynthetic genes including the immunity genes were left intact...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745132/monitoring-metabolic-reactions-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-exposed-to-silicon-nitride-using-in-situ-time-lapse-raman-spectroscopy
#13
Francesco Boschetto, Tetsuya Adachi, Satoshi Horiguchi, Danny Fainozzi, Fulvio Parmigiani, Elia Marin, Wenliang Zhu, Bryan McEntire, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, Osam Mazda, Eriko Ohgitani, Giuseppe Pezzotti
Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens, particularly associated with periprosthetic infections of biomedical implants. Silicon nitride (Si3N4), a nonoxide biomaterial widely used in spinal implants, has shown bacteriostatic effects against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; however, the physicochemical interactions between Si3N4 and bacteria yet remain conspicuously unexplored. In situ time-lapse Raman spectroscopic experiments were conducted by exposing S...
May 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744925/microcalorimetric-detection-of-staphylococcal-biofilm-growth-on-various-prosthetic-biomaterials-after-exposure-to-daptomycin
#14
Christen Ravn, Inês Santos Ferreira, Elena Maiolo, Søren Overgaard, Andrej Trampuz
Primary aim of this in vitro study was to test the efficacy of daptomycin to eradicate staphylococcal biofilms on various orthopedic implant materials. Secondary aim was to quantitatively estimate the formation of staphylococcal biofilm. We tested six clinically important biomaterials: cobalt chrome, pure titanium, grid-blasted titanium, porous plasma-coated titanium with/without hydroxyapatite, and polyethylene. Biofilms of S. aureus and S. epidermidis were formed on the samples and thereafter exposed to daptomycin...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738907/dual-role-of-layered-double-hydroxide-nanocomposites-on-antibacterial-activity-and-degradation-of-tetracycline-and-oxytetracyline
#15
Zaineb Bouaziz, Laurence Soussan, Jean-Marc Janot, Maguy Jaber, Abdesslem Ben Haj Amara, Sebastien Balme
The antibiotic intercalation inside the layered double hydroxide (LDH) layers was usually considered for water decontamination but rarely for drug delivery. Here, tetracycline (TCH) and oxytetracycline (OXY) were immobilized in Zn2 Al-Cl LDH following two methods: co-precipitation and anionic exchange. The interfacial concentration of antibiotic varies from 0.04 to 0.5 depending the method of immobilization. The antibiotics are not intercalated in the interlayer space allowing their release in 10 Hours. The antibacterial activity against both E...
May 2, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738292/comparison-of-antimicrobial-activity-of-selected-commercially-available-wound-dressing-materials
#16
Piotr Szweda, Grzegorz Gorczyca, Robert Tylingo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine the antimicrobial potential of eight selected, commercially available wound dressings containing different antimicrobial agents: silver, chlorhexidine acetate, povidone-iodine, and manuka honey. METHOD: The materials were tested against four reference strains of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (PCM 2051), Staphylococcus epidermidis (PCM 2118), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Escherichia coli (K12), using the disc diffusion-like method and a time-killing assay...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737589/ll-37-fragments-have-antimicrobial-activity-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilms-and-wound-healing-potential-in-hacat-cell-line
#17
Paola Saporito, Michelle Vang Mouritzen, Anders Løbner-Olesen, Håvard Jenssen
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common nosocomial pathogen able to form biofilms in indwelling devices, resulting in chronic infections, which are refractory to antibiotics treatment. Staphylococcal biofilms are also associated with the delayed reepithelization and healing of chronic wounds. The human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has been proven active against S. epidermidis biofilms in vitro and to promote wound healing. As previous studies have demonstrated that fragments of LL-37 could possess an equal antibacterial activity as the parent peptide, we tested whether shorter (12-mer) synthetic fragments of LL-37 maintained the antibiofilm and/or immune modulating activity, aiming at the identification of essential regions within the LL-37 parent sequence...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735842/role-of-insertion-sequence-element-is-256-as-a-virulence-marker-and-its-association-with-biofilm-formation-among-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-from-hospital-and-community-settings-in-chennai-south-india
#18
Saravanan Murugesan, Stalin Mani, Indhumathy Kuppusamy, Padma Krishnan
The objective of this study was to detect the association of biofilm formation with IS256 among clinical and carrier isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). A total of 71 MRSE isolates were included in this study. Phenotypic detection of biofilm formation was done by Congo red agar method. Detection of genes associated with biofilm formation (icaAD, aap and atlE) and insertion sequence IS256 was done by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 71 MRSE isolates,19/40 (47.5%) clinical isolates from hospital settings and 11/31 (35...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734000/alkoxyphenylthiazoles-with-broad-spectrum-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogens
#19
Moustafa ElAwamy, Haroon Mohammad, Abdelrahman Hussien, Nader S Abutaleb, Mohamed Hagras, Rabah A T Serya, Azza T Taher, Khaled Am Abouzid, Mohamed N Seleem, Abdelrahman S Mayhoub
With the continued rise of antibiotic resistance and reduced susceptibility to almost all front-line antibiotics, multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections represent an incessant threat to healthcare providers. This study presents a new series of phenylthiazole compounds where two active moieties were combined into one scaffold. The antibacterial activity of the hybrid structures extended to include several clinically-relevant multi-drug resistant pathogens including methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, cephalosporin-resistant and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731649/comparative-evaluation-of-methods-for-the-detection-of-biofilm-formation-in-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-and-correlation-with-antibiogram
#20
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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