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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527793/prevalence-of-non-aureus-staphylococcus-species-causing-intramammary-infections-in-canadian-dairy-herds
#1
Larissa A Z Condas, Jeroen De Buck, Diego B Nobrega, Domonique A Carson, Sohail Naushad, Sarne De Vliegher, Ruth N Zadoks, John R Middleton, Simon Dufour, John P Kastelic, Herman W Barkema
Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the microorganisms most frequently isolated from bovine milk worldwide, are a heterogeneous group of numerous species. To establish their importance as a group, the distribution of individual species needs to be determined. In the present study, NAS intramammary infection (IMI) was defined as a milk sample containing ≥1,000 cfu/mL in pure or mixed culture that was obtained from a cohort of cows assembled by the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Overall, 6,213 (6.3%) of 98,233 quarter-milk samples from 5,149 cows and 20,305 udder quarters were associated with an NAS IMI...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524724/antibacterial-effect-of-hydrogen-peroxide-titanium-dioxide-suspensions-in-the-decontamination-of-rough-titanium-surfaces
#2
David Wiedmer, Fernanda Cristina Petersen, Jessica Lönn-Stensrud, Hanna Tiainen
The chemical decontamination of infected dental implants is essential for the successful treatment of peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial effect of a hydrogen peroxide-titanium dioxide (H2O2-TiO2) suspension against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Titanium (Ti) coins were inoculated with a bioluminescent S. epidermidis strain for 8 h and subsequently exposed to H2O2 with and without TiO2 nanoparticles or chlorhexidine (CHX). Bacterial regrowth, bacterial load and viability after decontamination were analyzed by continuous luminescence monitoring, live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524087/in-vitro-assessment-of-early-bacterial-activity-on-micro-nanostructured-ti6al4v-surfaces
#3
Benjamin Valdez-Salas, Ernesto Beltrán-Partida, Sandra Castillo-Uribe, Mario Curiel-Álvarez, Roumen Zlatev, Margarita Stoytcheva, Gisela Montero-Alpírez, Lidia Vargas-Osuna
It is imperative to understand and systematically compare the initial interactions between bacteria genre and surface properties. Thus, we fabricated a flat, anodized with 80 nm TiO₂ nanotubes (NTs), and a rough Ti6Al4V surface. The materials were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We cultured in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to evaluate the bacterial-surface behavior by FE-SEM and viability calculation...
May 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522724/draft-genome-sequence-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-clinical-strain-goi1153754-03-14-isolated-from-an-infected-knee-prosthesis
#4
Marta Bottagisio, Alessio Soggiu, Arianna B Lovati, Marco Toscano, Cristian Piras, Carlo L Romanò, Luigi Bonizzi, Paola Roncada, Lorenzo Drago
We announce the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strain GOI1153754-03-14, isolated from an infected orthopedic prosthesis. The reported genomic sequence will provide valuable information concerning the mechanisms of the biofilm formation on metallic implants.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522446/non-contact-electromagnetic-induction-heating-for-eradicating-bacteria-and-yeasts-on-biomaterials-and-possible-relevance-to-orthopaedic-implant-infections-in-vitro-findings
#5
B G Pijls, I M J G Sanders, E J Kuijper, R G H H Nelissen
OBJECTIVES: Infection of implants is a major problem in elective and trauma surgery. Heating is an effective way to reduce the bacterial load in food preparation, and studies on hyperthermia treatment for cancer have shown that it is possible to heat metal objects with pulsed electromagnetic fields selectively (PEMF), also known as induction heating. We therefore set out to answer the following research question: is non-contact induction heating of metallic implants effective in reducing bacterial load in vitro? METHODS: Titanium alloy cylinders (Ti6Al4V) were exposed to PEMF from an induction heater with maximum 2000 watts at 27 kHz after being contaminated with five different types of micro-organisms: Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; spore-forming Bacillus cereus; and yeast Candida albicans...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506885/high-proportions-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-dental-caries-harbor-multiple-classes-of-antibiotics-resistance-significantly-increase-inflammatory-interleukins-in-dental-pulps
#6
Darshan Devang Divakar, Muzaheed, Sultan Salem Aldeyab, Sara A Alfawaz, Abdulaziz Abdullah AlKheraif, Aftab Ahmed Khan
Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of most prevalent in dental caries or dental pulp which has the capability of horizontal genetic transfer between different bacterial species in the oropharynx, suggesting that it may evolve with the dissemination of resistant determinants, This study was performed to molecularly characterize and differentiate S. epidermidis isolated from dental caries and healthy individual. Also, two important cytokines in inflammation were assayed caused due to S. epidermidis of health and dental caries sources...
May 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504348/broad-spectrum-macromolecular-antimicrobials-with-biofilm-disruption-capability-and-in-vivo-efficacy
#7
Jeremy P K Tan, Daniel J Coady, Haritz Sardon, Alexander Yuen, Shujun Gao, Shaun W Lim, Zhen Chang Liang, Eddy W Tan, Shrinivas Venkataraman, Amanda C Engler, Mareva Fevre, Robert Ono, Yi Yan Yang, James L Hedrick
In this study, antimicrobial polymers are synthesized by the organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of an eight-membered heterocyclic carbonate monomer that is subsequently quaternized with methyl iodide. These polymers demonstrate activity against clinically relevant Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungus Candida albicans with fast killing kinetics. Importantly, the polymer efficiently inhibits biofilm growth and lyses existing biofilm, leading to a reduction in biomass and cell viability...
May 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502956/evaluation-of-biofilm-forming-ability-of-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-roof-of-an-old-house
#8
Marwa Jardak, Faten Abdelli, Rahma Laadhar, Raphael Lami, Didier Stien, Sami Aifa, Sami Mnif
The bacterial diversity associated with biofilm-forming ability was studied. Eighteen bacterial strains were isolated from a microbial film collected from the roof of an old house located in Sfax, Tunisia. The purity of these microorganisms was confirmed by microscopic observation after repeated streaking on a Tryptic Soy agar medium. Biofilm formation was estimated using preliminary tests including a motility test, microbial adhesion to solvents (MATS), and the Congo Red Agar method (CRA). Since these tests showed no significant result, microplate tests, such as crystal violet and resazurin assays, were used...
May 15, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496492/infective-endocarditis-report-from-a-main-referral-teaching-hospital-in-iran
#9
Behrooz Heydari, Iman Karimzadeh, Hossein Khalili, Esfandiar Shojaei, Abdolrasool Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess the demographic, clinical, paraclinical, microbiological, echocardiographic, and therapeutic profile as well as in-hospital outcome of patients with infective endocarditis at a referral center for various infectious diseases in Iran. METHODS: Required demographic, clinical, plausible complications and paraclinical data were collected from patients' medical charts. Echocardiographic findings were obtained by performing transthoracic and/or transesophageal echocardiography as clinically indicated...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495626/promising-biocidal-activity-of-thymol-loaded-chitosan-silver-nanoparticles-t-c-agnps-as-anti-infective-agents-against-perilous-pathogens
#10
H M Manukumar, S Umesha, H N Naveen Kumar
The advent of biodegradable polymer-encapsulated drug nanoparticles has made an exciting area of drug delivery research. The present study investigated novel and simple route for synthesis of thymol loaded chitosan silver nanoparticles (T-C@AgNPs) using chitosan and thymol as reducing, capping agent respectively to understand the therapeutic efficacy. The UV-vis spectroscopy, DLS, FT-IR, SEM, EDS, XRD used for characterization and radical scavenging activity, anti-microbial and biocompatibility was taken to ascertain an efficacy of novel T-C@AgNPs...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491057/identification-of-genes-controlled-by-the-essential-yycfg-two-component-system-reveals-a-role-for-biofilm-modulation-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#11
Tao Xu, Yang Wu, Zhiwei Lin, Ralph Bertram, Friedrich Götz, Ying Zhang, Di Qu
Biofilms play a crucial role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis, while little is known about whether the essential YycFG two-component signal transduction system (TCS) is involved in biofilm formation. We used antisense RNA (asRNA) to silence the yycFG TCS in order to study its regulatory functions in S. epidermidis. Strain 1457 expressing asRNA yycF exhibited a significant delay (~4-5 h) in entry to log phase, which was partially complemented by overexpressing ssaA. The expression of asRNA yycF and asRNA yycG resulted in a 68 and 50% decrease in biofilm formation at 6 h, respectively, while they had no significant inhibitory effect on 12 h biofilm formation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489611/fdg-pet-ct-in-aortic-valve-bioprosthesis-infection
#12
Lucia Rampin, Alice Ferretti, Maria Cristina Marzola, Lolita Sasset, Sotirios Chondrogiannis, Anna Maria Cattelan, Domenico Rubello, Patrick M Colletti
A 62-year-old man presented with persistent fever, weakness, and retrosternal pain 3 years after aortic valve bioprosthesis (AVR). His white blood cell count was 11,000/μL and C-reactive protein was 13.6 mg/dL. Consecutive blood cultures isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis and capitis. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated small aortic valve prosthesis vegetation. F-FDG PET/CT revealed prominent AVR activity, SUVmax = 12.2. He was treated with daptomycin, meropenem, and gentamicin for 1 month and followed by daptomycin and carbapenem for 3 months...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489410/strategically-designing-a-pumpless-microfluidic-device-on-an-inert-polypropylene-substrate-with-potential-application-in-biosensing-and-diagnostics
#13
Elham Shirani, Amir Razmjou, Hossein Tavassoli, Amir Landarani-Isfahani, Saghar Rezaei, Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani, Mohsen Asadnia, Jingwei Hou, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
This study is an attempt to make a step forward to implement the very immature concept of pumpless transportation of liquid into a real miniaturized device or lab-on-chip (LOC) on a plastic substrate. "Inert" plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) are used in a variety of biomedical applications but their surface engineering is very challenging. Here, it was demonstrated that with a facile innovative wettability patterning route using fluorosilanized UV-independent TiO2 nanoparticle coating it is possible to create wedge-shape open microfluidic tracks on inert solid surfaces for low-cost biomedical devices (Lab-on-plastic)...
May 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488331/terminalia-ferdinandiana-exell-extracts-inhibit-the-growth-of-body-odour-forming-bacteria
#14
Kane McManus, Aiden Wood, Mitchell Henry Wright, Ben Matthews, Anthony Carlson Greene, Ian Edwin Cock
OBJECTIVE: T. ferdinandiana extracts are potent growth inhibitors of many bacterial pathogens. They may also inhibit the growth of malodour producing bacteria and thus be useful deodorant components, although this is yet to be tested. METHODS: T. ferdinandiana fruit and leaf solvent extracts were investigated by disc diffusion and liquid dilution MIC assays against the most significant bacterial contributors to axillary and plantar malodour formation. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484708/activity-of-fosfomycin-and-daptomycin-containing-bone-cement-on-selected-bacterial-species-being-associated-with-orthopedic-infections
#15
Sigrun Eick, Kevin Hofpeter, Anton Sculean, Claudia Ender, Susann Klimas, Sebastian Vogt, Sandor Nietzsche
The purpose of this study was to determine activity of fosfomycin/gentamicin and daptomycin/gentamicin-containing PMMA bone-cement against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MSSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and E. coli (ESBL; only fosfomycin). Test specimens of the bone cement were formed and bacteria in two concentrations were added one time or repeatedly up to 96 h. All fosfomycin-containing cement killed ultimately all MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and E. coli within 24 h; growth of MRSA was suppressed up to 48 h...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483964/towards-elimination-of-pin-tract-infections-novel-antibacterial-coating-on-orthopaedic-wires
#16
Dmitry Gil, Sergey Shuvaev, Anastasia Frank-Kamenetskii, Vladimir Reukov, Christopher Gross, Alexey Vertegel
Novel approaches to prevention of microbial infections after insertion of orthopedic external fixators are in great demand because of extremely high incidence rate of such infections, which can reach up to 100% for longer implant residence times. Monolaurin is an antimicrobial agent with known safety record, broadly used in food and cosmetic industries; however, its use in antimicrobial coatings of medical devices has not been studied in much detail. Here, we report the use of monolaurin as an antibacterial coating on external fixators for the first time...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483950/in-vitro-activity-of-linezolid-against-clinically-important-gram-positive-cocci-in-the-united-states-a-5-year-summary-of-in-vitro-activity-and-resistance-mechanisms-from-the-leader-surveillance-program-2011-2015
#17
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer M Streit, Patricia A Hogan, Robert K Flamm
This study describes linezolid susceptibility testing results for 6,741 gram-positive pathogens from 60 U.S. sites collected during 2015 for the LEADER Program. In addition, the study summarizes linezolid in vitro activity, resistance mechanisms, and molecular typing obtained for 2011 to 2015. During 2015, linezolid showed potent activity when tested against Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting >99.9% of 3,031 isolates at ≤2 mg/liter. Similarly, linezolid showed coverage against 99.2% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 99...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482553/iodine-loaded-metal-organic-framework-as-growth-triggered-antimicrobial-agent
#18
Ai-Nhan Au-Duong, Cheng-Kang Lee
Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) is one of easily available metal organic frameworks because of its facile preparation via mixing aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate and 2-methylimidazole. It turned into a very effective pH-responsive bactericide after loading with iodine. Approximately, 0.9g of iodine could be readily loaded into one gram of ZIF-8 from iodine dissolved n-heptane solution. Both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus could be very effectively killed by iodine loaded ZIF-8 (ZIF-8@I) at pH6...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482525/titania-sol-gel-coatings-containing-silver-on-newly-developed-tisi-alloys-and-their-antibacterial-effect
#19
Diana Horkavcová, Pavel Novák, Iva Fialová, Martin Černý, Eva Jablonská, Jan Lipov, Tomáš Ruml, Aleš Helebrant
New materials with appropriate mechanical properties and an antibacterial effect are constantly being sought for orthopedic and dental applications. The aim of this study was to investigate newly developed TiSi alloys coated with titania sol-gel containing silver. Titanium alloys with 5 or 10wt% of silicon were prepared by vacuum arc remelting and dip-coated with titania sol containing either AgNO3 or Ag3PO4 in two concentrations. The size and distribution of the particles in the layer were evaluated, as well as layer compactness (SEM)...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482470/imaging-of-intracellular-behavior-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilms-by-slit-scanning-confocal-raman-microscopy-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-with-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy
#20
Chisato Takahashi, Kusuo Ueno, Junichi Aoyama, Mariko Adachi, Hiromitsu Yamamoto
In drug delivery systems employing polymeric nanoparticles, accurate delivery of drugs to target sites such as bacterial cells, cell tissues, and organelles is essential. In particular, when designing drug delivery systems for the treatment of the biofilm infections, evaluation of the interaction between polymeric nanoparticles and biofilm or bacterial cells using a simple technique is of significant importance. Here we develop two types of novel techniques for the biological imaging of the intracellular behavior of two types of polymeric nanoparticles, biodegradable chitosan-modified poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles and chitosan-modified polyvinyl caprolactam - polyvinyl acetate -polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus®, Sol) nanoparticles, within a Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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