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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332945/the-human-skin-microbiome
#1
REVIEW
Allyson L Byrd, Yasmine Belkaid, Julia A Segre
Functioning as the exterior interface of the human body with the environment, skin acts as a physical barrier to prevent the invasion of foreign pathogens while providing a home to the commensal microbiota. The harsh physical landscape of skin, particularly the desiccated, nutrient-poor, acidic environment, also contributes to the adversity that pathogens face when colonizing human skin. Despite this, the skin is colonized by a diverse microbiota. In this Review, we describe amplicon and shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing studies that have been used to assess the taxonomic diversity of microorganisms that are associated with skin from the kingdom to the strain level...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332251/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-compared-with-the-other-glycopeptides
#2
REVIEW
Valentin Al Jalali, Markus Zeitlinger
Telavancin was discovered by modifying the chemical structure of vancomycin and belongs to the group of lipoglycopeptides. It employs its antimicrobial potential through two distinct mechanisms of action: inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and induction of bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization. In this article we review the clinically relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of telavancin. For comparison, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of the other glycopeptides are presented...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329229/chemical-composition-and-evaluation-of-the-biological-properties-of-the-essential-oil-of-the-dietary-phytochemical-lippia-citriodora
#3
Eleni Fitsiou, Gregoria Mitropoulou, Katerina Spyridopoulou, Manolis Vamvakias, Haido Bardouki, Alex Galanis, Katerina Chlichlia, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Mihalis Ι Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa
The aim of the study was to characterize the chemical composition and biological properties of the essential oil from the plant Lippia citriodora grown in Greece. The essential oil volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS indicating citral as the major component. Τhe antimicrobial properties were assayed using the disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger were sensitive to Lippia citriodora oil, but not Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas fragi...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325106/transcriptomic-profiling-of-interacting-nasal-staphylococci-species-reveals-global-changes-in-gene-and-non-coding-rna-expression
#4
Grith M M Hermansen, Pavelas Sazinas, Ditte Kofod, Andrew Millard, Paal Skytt Andersen, Lars Jelsbak
Interspecies interactions between bacterial pathogens and the commensal microbiota can influence disease outcome. In the nasal cavities, Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to be a determining factor for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and biofilm formation. However, the interaction between S. epidermidis and S. aureus has mainly been described by phenotypic analysis, and little is known about how this interaction modulates gene expression.This study aimed to determine the interactome of nasal S. aureus and S...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322409/tracking-competent-host-defence-to-chronic-inflammation-an-in-vivo-model-of-peritonitis
#5
Javier Uceda Fernandez, David Millrine, Simon A Jones
Anti-microbial host defence is dependent on the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of infection, the elimination of invading pathogens, and the efficient resolution of inflammation so as to minimise damage to the host. The peritoneal cavity provides an easily accessible and physiologically relevant system where the delicate balance of these processes may be studied. Here, we describe murine models of peritoneal inflammation that enable studies of both competent anti-microbial immunity and inflammation associated tissue damage as a consequence of recurrent bacterial challenge...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317687/the-synergistic-bactericidal-effect-of-vancomycin-on-utmd-treated-biofilm-involves-damage-to-bacterial-cells-and-enhancement-of-metabolic-activities
#6
Jian Hu, Ning Zhang, Lifang Li, Ning Zhang, Yanfen Ma, Chedong Zhao, Qian Wu, Ying Li, Nianan He, Xiaoqin Wang
In this study, the synergistic effect of vancomycin, a cell wall synthesis inhibitor, and ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), on cell viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis, embedded in biofilm, was investigated. Biofilms are the leading causes of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections of medical implants and prosthetics worldwide. The antibiotic-resistant nature of biofilm-embedded pathogens poses a critical challenge to the medical community. Previously, studies have demonstrated the efficacy of using ultrasound waves and UTMD in circumventing this problem...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317174/elective-endoscopic-variceal-ligation-is-not-a-risk-factor-for-bacterial-infection-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#7
Sergio Maimone, Francesca Saffioti, Roberto Filomia, Gaia Caccamo, Carlo Saitta, Socrate Pallio, Pierluigi Consolo, Sara Sabatini, Krizia Sitajolo, Maria Stella Franzè, Irene Cacciola, Giovanni Raimondo, Giovanni Squadrito
BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis are at high risk of bacterial infections. Invasive procedures are generally believed to increase this susceptibility. AIMS: We investigated the incidence of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients undergoing elective endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). METHODS: We enrolled 60 consecutive cirrhotic patients who underwent a total number of 112 elective EVL procedures. One to seven bands were applied at each session until variceal eradication...
December 20, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310083/design-and-synthesis-of-cell-selective-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-diastereomeric-peptidomimetic-with-potent-in-vivo-antibacterial-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus
#8
Rikeshwer Prasad Dewangan, Gopal Singh Bisht, Vijay Pal Singh, Mohammad Shahar Yar, Santosh Pasha
Design of therapeutically viable antimicrobial peptides with cell selectivity against microorganisms is an important step towards the development of new antimicrobial agents. Here, we report four de novo designed, short amphipathic sequences based on a α-helical template comprising of Lys, Trp and Leu or their corresponding D-and/or β-amino acids. Sequence A-12 was protease susceptible whereas its α/β-diastereomeric analogue UNA-12 was resistant to trypsin and proteinase K up to 24 h. A-12 and UNA-12 exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity (MIC: 2-32 µg/mL) against pathogens including methicillin resistant S...
December 26, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301730/the-aetiopathogenesis-of-capsular-contracture-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Yara Bachour, Stephan P Verweij, Susan Gibbs, Johannes C F Ket, Marco J P F Ritt, Frank B Niessen, Margriet G Mullender
BACKGROUND: Capsular contracture is the most frequent complication after breast augmentation or reconstruction with breast implants. The immune system plays a prominent role in capsular contracture formation, albeit to an unknown extent. Bacterial contamination in situ has been hypothesized to be causative for capsular contracture. How this relates to the immunological processes involved is unknown. This article aims to provide an overview of immunological and bacterial factors involved in development of capsular contracture...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295572/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-biological-activities-of-aziridine-derivatives-of-urea-and-thiourea
#10
Aleksandra Kowalczyk, Adam M Pieczonka, Michał Rachwalski, Stanisław Leśniak, Paweł Stączek
In the present paper, we report the synthesis and evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activities of aziridine-thiourea derivatives. A series of aziridines in reaction with isocyanates and isothiocyanates to obtain urea and thiourea derivatives were used. The structures of all new products were confirmed based on spectroscopic data (¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HR-MS). These compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of bacteria. Six of the tested compounds appeared to be promising agents against reference strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis...
December 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291157/staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-nares-and-prosthetic-joint-infections-are-mupirocin-susceptible
#11
Lavin Salih, Staffan Tevell, Emeli Månsson, Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Bengt Hellmark, Bo Söderquist
The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility including mupirocin among Staphylococcus. epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) (n=183) and nasal isolates (n=75) from patients intended to undergo prosthetic joint replacements. Susceptibility to mupirocin (used for eradication of nasal carriership of Staphylococcus aureus) was investigated by gradient test, and susceptibility to various other antimicrobial agents was investigated by disc diffusion test...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287710/rifampin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-molecular-characterization-and-fitness-cost-of-rpob-mutations
#12
Yu Mi Wi, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Cassandra L Brinkman, Jean Y H Lee, Benjamin P Howden, Robin Patel
Molecular mechanisms and characteristics of rifampin resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis are poorly characterized, even though S. epidermidis is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens associated with indwelling medical device-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of rifampin resistance and to characterize the associated molecular mechanisms in S. epidermidis. Rifampin-resistant mutants from two rifampin-susceptible S. epidermidis strains, RP62A and IDRL-8883, were selected through in vitro and in vivo exposure to rifampin...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280751/different-genotypes-of-adhesion-operon-genes-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-various-ocular-infections
#13
Mehrnoush Sharifinejad, Narjes Shokatpour, Farshad Farnaghi, Zohreh Abedinyfar, Fahimeh Asadi Amoli, Farahnoosh Doustdar
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the common causes of bacterial keratitis and post-operation infections. One of the most important virulence factors of S. epidermidis is biofilm formation. Poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) production is critical for biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. The intercellular adhesion (ica) operon is formed by icaA, icaD, icaB, and icaC genes, which participate in the biosynthesis of PNAG. Strains of S. epidermidis from different infections show different genotypes in relation to adhesion operon genes...
December 26, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280095/the-efficacy-of-tetrasodium-edta-on-biofilms
#14
S L Percival, A-M Salisbury
The aetiology of delayed wound healing characteristic of a chronic wound is relatively unknown but is thought to be due to a combination of the patient's underlying pathophysiology and external factors including infection and biofilm formation. The invasion of the wound by the hosts' resident microbiome and exogenous microorganisms can lead to biofilm formation. Biofilms have increased tolerance to antimicrobial interventions and constitute a concern to chronic wound healing. Consequently, anti-biofilm technologies with proven efficacy in areas outside of wound care need evaluation to determine whether their efficacy could be relevant to the control of biofilms in wounds...
December 27, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278804/adherence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-onto-surfactant-laden-contact-lenses
#15
Reynalyn Mosuela, Shelan Mustafa, Simon Gould, Hany Hassanin, Raid G Alany, Amr ElShaer
There is an immense research interest to utilise contact lens (CLs) as a popular platform for ocular drug delivery. However, CLs are the major predisposing factors of bacterial keratitis which is commonly caused by adhesion of microbes such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The aim of the current study is to explore the effect of surfactants; Poloxamer 188, Polysorbate 80 and Tetronic® 90R4 (at 0.25% - 3% v/v) on the characteristics of CLs and on the adhesion abilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the lenses' surfaces...
December 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277530/antibacterial-activity-of-high-concentrations-of-carvedilol-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#16
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Przemysław Bernat, Aleksandra Felczak, Sylwia Różalska, Katarzyna Lisowska
Many drugs used for the treatment of other diseases have shown excellent antibacterial potential or enhance the action of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of a popular ß-blocker, carvedilol, and the potential mechanism of its antibacterial action. The antibacterial activity of carvedilol was evaluated using the microdilution method, and its influence on the viability of bacterial cells was investigated by the AlamarBlue® test. Changes in phospholipid and fatty acid composition were analysed using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276385/green-synthesis-palladium-nanoparticles-mediated-by-white-tea-camellia-sinensis-extract-with-antioxidant-antibacterial-and-antiproliferative-activities-toward-the-human-leukemia-molt-4-cell-line
#17
Susan Azizi, Mahnaz Mahdavi Shahri, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Raha Abdul Rahim, Abdullah Rasedee, Rosfarizan Mohamad
Among nanoparticles used for medical applications, palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) are among the least investigated. This study was undertaken to develop PdNPs by green synthesis using white tea (W.tea; Camellia sinensis) extract to produce the Pd@W.tea NPs. The Pd@W.tea NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Pd@W.tea NPs were spherical (size 6-18 nm) and contained phenols and flavonoids acquired from the W...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273721/topographical-diversity-of-common-skin-microflora-and-its-association-with-skin-environment-type-an-observational-study-in-chinese-women
#18
Xi Li, Chao Yuan, Licong Xing, Philippe Humbert
This study evaluated cutaneous microbial distribution, and microbial co-occurrence at different body sites and skin environments in Chinese women (39.6 ± 11.9 years, N = 100) during the winter season. Microbial distribution (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonadaceae, and Malassezia furfur), association with biomarkers (antimicrobial peptides: LL-37, β-defensins [HBD-2, HBD-3]), and claudin-1) and skin biophysical parameters (transepidermal water loss, pH, skin scaliness and roughness, sebum and hydration levels) were also determined...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273413/two-new-bis-iridoids-isolated-from-scabiosa-stellata-and-their-antibacterial-antioxidant-anti-tyrosinase-and-cytotoxic-activities
#19
Meryem Lehbili, Abdulmagid Alabdul Magid, Jane Hubert, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Jean-Hugues Renault, Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Hamid Morjani, Amin Abedini, Sophie C Gangloff, Zahia Kabouche
This study presents the chemical profile investigation of a 70% ethanol extract obtained from Scabiosa stellata, a medicinal herbaceous traditionally used to treat heel cracks. A 13C NMR-based dereplication methodology was firstly applied on centrifugal partition chromatography-generated fractions in order to quickly identify the major compounds of the extract. The dereplication process was then completed by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography in order to identify unknown or minor compounds...
December 19, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273244/bacterial-keratitis-treated-by-strengthened-antibiotic-eye-drops-an-18-months-review-of-clinical-cases-and-antibiotic-susceptibilities
#20
J Saillard, L Spiesser-Robelet, P Gohier, T Briot
PURPOSE: To describe, in patients treated for infectious keratitis, the microorganisms identified and their antibiotic susceptibility over a period of 18 months. METHOD: Retrospective, descriptive, non-comparative study. Medical and biological data were extracted from the patients' file treated with strengthened antibiotic eye drops at Angers University Hospital between January 2015 and June 2016. The main elements noted were the bacteria involved and their susceptibility to antibiotics...
December 19, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
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