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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441427/programmable-type-iii-a-crispr-cas-dna-targeting-modules
#1
H Travis Ichikawa, John C Cooper, Leja Lo, Jason Potter, Rebecca M Terns, Michael P Terns
The CRISPR-Cas systems provide invader defense in a wide variety of prokaryotes, as well as technologies for many powerful applications. The Type III-A or Csm CRISPR-Cas system is one of the most widely distributed across prokaryotic phyla, and cleaves targeted DNA and RNA molecules. In this work, we have constructed modules of Csm systems from 3 bacterial species and heterologously expressed the functional modules in E. coli. The modules include a Cas6 protein and a CRISPR locus for crRNA production, and Csm effector complex proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438975/galectin-3-is-a-target-for-proteases-involved-in-the-virulence-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Jonas Elmwall, Jakub Kwiecinski, Manli Na, Abukar Ahmed Ali, Veronica Osla, Lindsey Shaw, Wanzhong Wang, Karin Sävman, Elisabet Josefsson, Johan Bylund, Tao Jin, Amanda Welin, Anna Karlsson
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and soft-tissue infection. The bacterium expresses four major proteases emerging as virulence factors; aureolysin (Aur), V8 protease (SspA), staphopain A (ScpA), and staphopain B (SspB). We hypothesized that human galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in immune regulation and antimicrobial defense, is a target for these proteases, and that proteolysis of galectin-3 is a novel immune evasion mechanism. Indeed, supernatants from laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438824/comparison-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-lock-solutions-with-and-without-heparin-against-biofilm-producing-bacteria
#3
Megan K Luther, Leonard A Mermel, Kerry L LaPlante
PURPOSE: The activity of linezolid and vancomycin lock solutions against biofilm-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis was studied. METHODS: Two strains each of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and S. epidermidis, and 1 strain of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecalis and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis were tested against vancomycin and linezolid to assess prevention of biofilm formation and eradication of these pathogens within a formed biofilm...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437452/enhanced-antibacterial-metabolite-production-through-the-application-of-statistical-methodologies-by-a-streptomyces-nogalater-niist-a30-isolated-from-western-ghats-forest-soil
#4
Jubi Jacob, Reshma Uma Rajendran, Syama Hari Priya, Jayamurthy Purushothaman, Dileep Kumar Bhaskaran Nair Saraswathy Amma
Streptomyces strains isolated from Nelliyampathy forest soil of Western Ghats, Kerala, India were evaluated for their antibacterial efficacy against two indicator pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Among 140 strains tested, sixteen recorded potent antibacterial properties and were further screened against eleven bacterial pathogens. A strain identified as Streptomyces nogalater and designated as NIIST A30 exhibited maximum inhibition against all the test pathogens. Among the eight fermentation media tested, inorganic salts starch broth recorded the best for antibacterial production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434696/complete-eradication-of-biofilm-from-orthopedic-materials
#5
Jeffrey T Leary, Matthew M Werger, William H Broach, Lindsey N Shaw, Brandon G Santoni, Thomas L Bernasek, Steven T Lyons
BACKGROUND: Interest exists in finding alternatives to current management strategies in periprosthetic joint infections, which typically include a 2-stage revision with placement of an antibiotic spacer and delayed placement of a new implant. We studied the efficacy of autoclaving, ultrasonication, and mechanical scrubbing for sterilization and biofilm eradication on infected cobalt-chrome discs. METHODS: Strains of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA252 or Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A were grown on the discs...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430300/left-ventricular-assist-pump-pocket-infection-conservative-treatment-strategy-for-destination-therapy-candidates
#6
Elie Haddad, François-Xavier Lescure, Walid Ghodhbane, Laurent Lepage, Camille D'humieres, William Vindrios, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Patrick Nataf, Matthias Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, particularly among patients with advanced disease and no access to cardiac transplantation. LVAD implantation is not only a bridge-to-transplantation option for patients awaiting a heart donor, but is often used as bridge-to-destination therapy in patients unsuited for transplantation for various reasons. LVAD infection is considered the second-most common cause of death in patients who survive the initial 6 months on LVAD support...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427133/-effects-of-application-of-vancomycin-in-the-early-stage-of-patients-with-extremely-severe-burn
#7
Z Zhu, G W Cao, J J Bao, Z H Hu, Z Shen, H Tao, B Cao, F Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn, in order to provide reference to drug for anti-infection treatment in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn. Methods: Data of 15 patients of Kunshan explosion on August 2nd, 2014, admitted to the Department of Intensive Care in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy of continuously intravenous dripping of vancomycin (combined with imipenem) in the early stage of burns (before and on post burn day 14) was analyzed...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422479/on-demand-gas-to-liquid-process-to-fabricate-thermoresponsive-antimicrobial-nanocomposites-and-coatings
#8
Bijay Kumar Poudel, Jae Hong Park, Jeong Hoon Byeon
Antimicrobial material is emerging as a major component of the mitigation strategy against microbial growth on abiotic surfaces. In this work, a newly designed process is proposed to fabricate thermoresponsive antimicrobial nanocomposites (TANs) and coatings (TACs) as an on-demand system. Thermoresponsive polymer (TRP)-incorporated silver (Ag) nanocomposites with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs; Ag-SNP@TRP or Ag-CNT@TRP) were produced by a single-pass gas-to-liquid process. The SNPs or CNTs were first produced by spark ablation and successively injected for dispersal in a liquid cell containing polydimethylsiloxane, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), and silver nitrate under ultrasound irradiation...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420633/fibrin-sheath-associated-endovascular-infection-of-the-heart-the-trojan-horse-of-indwelling-central-venous-catheters
#9
Muhammad Adil Sheikh, Mohamed Shokr, Walid Ibrahim, Shaun Cardozo
Chronic indwelling central venous catheters can result in formation of fibrin sheaths increasing risk of occlusion, thrombosis and infection. Endovascular infection of right-sided heart structures induced by such sheaths is very rare. A 48-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease initially treated for diabetic ketoacidosis developed persistent Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteraemia without an identifiable source. Although transthoracic echocardiography was unremarkable, transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a fibrin sheath and vegetations in superior vena cava-right atrium junction, which was the site of the tip of a central catheter that had been removed 2 months prior, consistent with fibrin sheath-associated endovascular infection...
April 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420544/disclosing-agents-for-the-intraoperative-identification-of-biofilms-on-orthopedic-implants
#10
Joshua A Parry, Melissa J Karau, Sanjeev Kakar, Arlen D Hanssen, Robin Patel, Matthew P Abdel
BACKGROUND: Disclosing agents are dyes used in dentistry to colorize plaque (biofilm) and may offer a means for intraoperative detection of biofilms on orthopedic implants. Methylene blue (MB) stains biofilm and is safely used in orthopedic applications. Injection of MB into acutely infected prosthetic knees before debridement may enable visualization of biofilm, which could influence treatment decisions. The aims of this study were to determine if MB could be used to visualize biofilm on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implants and to determine if MB staining has an antimicrobial effect that might interfere with subsequent culture...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418807/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-in-human-milk-from-mothers-of-preterm-compared-with-term-neonates
#11
Hiie Soeorg, Tuuli Metsvaht, Imbi Eelmäe, Hanna Kadri Metsvaht, Sirli Treumuth, Mirjam Merila, Mari-Liis Ilmoja, Irja Lutsar
BACKGROUND: Human milk is the preferred nutrition for neonates and a source of bacteria. Research aim: The authors aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology and genetic content of staphylococci in the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates. METHODS: Staphylococci were isolated once per week in the 1st month postpartum from the human milk of mothers of 20 healthy term and 49 preterm neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and multilocus sequence typing were used...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418794/microbial-diversity-in-milk-of-women-with-mastitis-potential-role-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-viridans-group-streptococci-and-corynebacteria
#12
Pilar Mediano, Leonides Fernández, Esther Jiménez, Rebeca Arroyo, Irene Espinosa-Martos, Juan M Rodríguez, María Marín
BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis constitutes a significant cause of premature weaning. However, its etiology, linked to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, has been scarcely reported. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the microbial diversity in milk samples from women suffering from lactational mastitis and to identify more accurately a collection of isolates belonging to coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and coryneform bacteria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive one-group study...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418636/defining-molecular-details-of-the-chemistry-of-biofilm-formation-by-raman-microspectroscopy
#13
Paul R Carey, Blake R Gibson, Jordan F Gibson, Michael E Greenberg, Hossein Heidari-Torkabadi, Marianne Pusztai-Carey, Sean T Weaver, Grant R Whitmer
Two protocols that allow for the comparison of Raman spectra of planktonic cells and biofilm formed from these cells in their growth phase have been developed. Planktonic cells are washed and flash-frozen in <1 min to reduce the time for metabolic changes during processing, prior to freeze-drying. Biofilm is formed by standing cells in 50 μL indentations in aluminum foil in an atmosphere of saturated water vapor for 24-48 h. The results for Escherichia coli type K12 cells, which do not readily form biofilm, are compared to those for Staphylococcus epidermidis cells, which prolifically synthesize biofilm...
April 19, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417060/burden-and-predictors-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-s-pseudintermedius-infections-among-dogs-presented-at-an-academic-veterinary-hospital-in-south-africa-2007-2012
#14
Daniel N Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Fortune Sithole, Agricola Odoi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococci are commensals of the mucosal surface and skin of humans and animals, but have been implicated in infections such as otitis externa, pyoderma, urinary tract infections and post-surgical complications. Laboratory records provide useful information to help investigate these infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the burdens of these infections and use multinomial regression to examine the associations between various Staphylococcus infections and demographic and temporal factors among dogs admitted to an academic veterinary hospital in South Africa...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416398/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-poly-aminoethyl-modified-chitosan-and-its-hydrogel-used-as-antibacterial-wound-dressing
#15
Yubei Zhang, Qifeng Dang, Chengsheng Liu, Jingquan Yan, Dongsu Cha, Shengnan Liang, Xiaoli Li, Bing Fan
This study aims to develop new antibacterial hydrogel wound dressings composed of poly(aminoethyl) modified chitosan (PAEMCS). FTIR, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis demonstrated that PAEMCS was successfully synthesized via grafting poly(aminoethyl) groups onto hydroxyl groups on chitin first, and removing acetyl groups from the grafted polymer afterward. XRD and TGA implied its well-defined crystallinity and thermostability. Furthermore, a series of hydrogels were fabricated under the participation of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (DHP)...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414038/modulation-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-rp62a-extracellular-polymeric-layer-by-marine-cyclic-dipeptide-cyclo-l-leucyl-l-prolyl-thwarts-biofilm-formation
#16
Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of biofilm mediated implant-associated infections. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is a key component of most biofilms and in pathogens it specifically protects the entrenched-bacterial cells from antibiotics and hosts immune response, and thereby makes the infection ineradicable. Recently, the prominence of cyclic dipeptides in interfering with biofilms and the associated virulence factors of pathogens has offered an alternative to eliminate difficult-to-treat infections...
April 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413761/synthesis-characterization-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-near-ir-photoactive-functionalized-gold-multibranched-nanoparticles
#17
Yevgeniya Kalachyova, Anasiya Olshtrem, Olga A Guselnikova, Pavel S Postnikov, Roman Elashnikov, Pavel Ulbrich, Silvie Rimpelova, Václav Švorčík, Oleksiy Lyutakov
Surface-modified gold multibranched nanoparticles (AuMs) were prepared by simple chemical reduction of gold chloride aqueous solution followed by in situ modification by using water-soluble arenediazonium tosylates with different functional organic groups. Chemical and morphological structures of the prepared nanoparticles were examined by using transmission electron and scanning electron microscopies. The covalent grafting of organic compounds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and Raman spectroscopy techniques...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412552/copper-containing-mesoporous-bioactive-glass-nanoparticles-as-multifunctional-agent-for-bone-regeneration
#18
Alessandra Bari, Nora Bloise, Sonia Fiorilli, Giogia Novajra, Maria Vallet-Regí, Giovanna Bruni, Almudena Torres-Pardo, José M González-Calbet, Livia Visai, Chiara Vitale-Brovarone
The application of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) containing controllable amount of different ions, with the aim to impart antibacterial activity, as well as stimulation of osteogenesis and angiogenesis, is attracting an increasing interest. In this contribution, in order to endow nano-sized MBG with additional biological functions, the framework of a binary SiO2-CaO mesoporous glass was modified with different concentrations of copper ions (2 and 5% mol.), through a one-pot ultrasound-assisted sol-gel procedure...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412024/prevalence-of-bacterial-contamination-in-platelet-concentrates-at-the-national-center-of-blood-transfusion-mexico
#19
G Ibáñez-Cervantes, J M Bello-López, V Fernández-Sánchez, C A Domínguez-Mendoza, L I Acevedo-Alfaro
OBJECTIVES: Most common bacterial sepsis associated with transfusion is caused by contaminated Platelet Concentrates (PC). The screening of PC to detect bacterial contamination is obligatory in Mexico, and it is carried out in quality control programs. In Mexico, the identification and molecular characterization of bacterial contaminants to detect contamination sources have not been implemented due to high costs; however, it is an actual current need. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred PC were randomly selected and microbiologically analyzed...
April 12, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411222/effect-of-antimicrobial-and-physical-treatments-on-growth-of-multispecies-staphylococcal-biofilms
#20
Elizabeth J Stewart, David E Payne, Tianhui Maria Ma, J Scott VanEpps, Blaise R Boles, John G Younger, Michael J Solomon
The prevalence and structure of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis within multispecies biofilms was found to depend sensitively on physical environment and antibiotic dosage. Although these species commonly infect similar sites, such as orthopedic implants, little is known about their behavior in multispecies communities, particularly in response to treatment. This research establishes that S. aureus is much more prevalent than S. epidermidis when simultaneously seeded and grown in unstressed conditions (pH = 7, 37°C) in both laboratory and clinical strains...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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