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Maïté Van Cauter, Olivier Cornu, Jean-Cyr Yombi, Hector Rodriguez-Villalobos, Ludovic Kaminski
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) is a rare but devastating complications with high morbitity and mortality. The identification of the causal microorganism remains crucial and determines therapeutic strategies and success. Microbiology cultures remain the common method to diagnose PJI. Unfortunately, 14% of intra-articular punctures remain negative after culture. The microorganisms are best detected by inoculation of microbiology samples in blood culture bottles (Bactec), or after sonication of the implant and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2018: PloS One
Jinzhong Xu, Peng Liu, Xinyang Li, Lishe Gan, Pinmei Wang
Four novel stemphol derivatives, pleosporols A-D (1, 2 and mixture of 3 and 4) together with known compounds stemfolones (mixture of 5 and 6), stemphol (7) were isolated from a marine fungus Pleospora sp. (PO4) derived from the gut of marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The planar structures of novel compounds were elucidated on the basis of mass and NMR spectral analysis. The stereo-chemistries of 1-2 were determined by CD spectra, NOESY data, coupling constants analysis and modified Mosher's method while the absolute configurations of 3-6 were not clear...
March 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Ojan Assadian, Paul N Humphreys, Karen J Ousey
Disinfection of gloved hands is increasingly advocated in situations where visibly not soiled gloves are used during multiple clinical activities on the same patient. Since there is no data demonstrating that such practice attributes to lower bacterial transfer during clinical care, a standardised experimental study was conducted. Gloved hands touched chicken breasts contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis with or without disinfection before toughing sterile catheter valves. Contaminated gloves transferred 5...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Despoina Angeliki Stavropoulou, Emiel Van Reckem, Stefaan De Smet, Luc De Vuyst, Frédéric Leroy
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are involved in colour and flavour formation of fermented meats. Their communities are established either spontaneously, as in some artisan-type products, or using a starter culture. The latter usually consists of Staphylococcus carnosus and/or Staphylococcus xylosus strains, although strains from other CNS species also have potential for application. However, it is not entirely clear how the fitness of alternative starter cultures within a fermented meat matrix compares to conventional ones and how this may be affected by processing conditions...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Juliana S Novais, Caroline S Moreira, Ana Carolina J A Silva, Raquel S Loureiro, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Vitor F Ferreira, Helena C Castro, David R da Rocha
The aims of this study were the planning, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, searching for potential lead compounds against bacterial biofilm formation. A series of 12 new analogs of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones were synthesized by adding a thiol and different substituents to a ο-quinone methide using microwave irradiation. The compounds were tested against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Manuel Kussmann, Stefan Hauer, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
Peritonitis is still the main infectious complication among patients on peritoneal dialysis. For treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, the intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics admixed to peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) should be preferred. However, the influence of diverse PDFs on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been investigated insufficiently. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available PDFs...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Emeli Månsson, Berolla Sahdo, Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Eva Särndahl, Bo Söderquist
Nosocomial sequence types of Staphylococcus epidermidis dominate in prosthetic joint infections. We examined caspase-1 activation in human neutrophils after incubation with Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections and normal skin flora. Active caspase-1 was lower after incubation with isolates from prosthetic joint infections than after incubation with commensal isolates. Both host and isolate dependent differences in active caspase-1 were noted. Our results indicate that there might be a host-dependent incapacity to elicit a strong caspase-1 response towards certain strains of S...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Hassan Al Moussawi, Michael Krzyzak, Zainab Awada, Jean M Chalhoub
A brain abscess is defined as a focal intracerebral infection consisting of an encapsulated collection of pus, which can be a life-threatening complication of infections, trauma, or surgery. While immunocompromised patients can have a wide array of causative organisms, bacterial species represent the most common etiology in immunocompetent individuals. The incidence of brain abscesses ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 per 100,000, with a high predisposition among immunocompromised patients and in those with disruption of the blood-brain barrier...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Sandra Schulz, Manfred Maitz, Stefanie Hänsel, Lars D Renner, Carsten Werner
Advanced blood contacting biomaterials are designed to combine antiseptic and anticoagulant functionalities. Here, we present a new in vitro methodology for the analysis of bacterial adhesion and growth after the preceding human whole blood incubation of the tested materials. Poly(styrene) surfaces as well as thrombin-responsive and non-responsive poly(ethylene glycol)-heparin hydrogel coatings, with and without silver functionalization, were analyzed with this approach using freshly drawn human whole blood and various human pathogens (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli)...
March 15, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Katherine Y Le, Matthew D Park, Michael Otto
The primary virulence factor of the skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus epidermidis , is the ability to form biofilms on surfaces of implanted materials. Much of this microorganism's pathogenic success has been attributed to its ability to evade the innate immune system. The primary defense against S. epidermidis biofilm infection consists of complement activation, recruitment and subsequent killing of the pathogen by effector cells. Among pathogen-derived factors, the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA), as well as the accumulation-associated protein (Aap), and the extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) have been shown to modulate effector cell-mediated killing of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luís Belo, Isa Serrano, Eva Cunha, Carla Carneiro, Luis Tavares, L Miguel Carreira, Manuela Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Most of surgical site infections (SSI) are caused by commensal and pathogenic agents from the patient's microbiota, which may include antibiotic resistant strains. Pre-surgical asepsis of the skin is one of the preventive measures performed to reduce SSI incidence and also antibiotic resistance dissemination. However, in veterinary medicine there is no agreement on which biocide is the most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two pre-surgical skin asepsis protocols in dogs...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Torbjörn Bengtsson, Johanna Lönn, Hazem Khalaf, Eleonor Palm
Antimicrobial resistance needs to be tackled from new angles, and antimicrobial peptides could be future candidates for combating bacterial infections. This study aims to investigate in vitro the bactericidal effects of the lantibiotic gallidermin on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, possible cytotoxic effects and its impact on host-microbe interactions. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of gallidermin were determined, and cytotoxicity and proinflammatory effects of gallidermin on fibroblasts, red blood cells (RBCs) and in whole blood were investigated...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Shikha Sharma, Vasvi Chaudhry, Sanjeet Kumar, Prabhu B Patil
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prominent commensal member of human skin microbiome and an emerging nosocomial pathogen, making it a good model organism to provide genomic insights, correlating its transition between commensalism and pathogenicity. While there are numerous studies to understand differences in commensal and pathogenic isolates, systematic efforts to understand variation and evolutionary pattern in multiple strains isolated from healthy individuals are lacking. In the present study, using whole genome sequencing and analysis, we report presence of diverse lineages of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Emma de Jong, David G Hancock, Christine Wells, Peter Richmond, Karen Simmer, David Burgner, Tobias Strunk, Andrew J Currie
Preterm infants are uniquely susceptible to late-onset sepsis that is frequently caused by the skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Innate immune responses, particularly from monocytes, are a key protective mechanism. Impaired cytokine production by preterm infant monocytes is well described, but few studies have comprehensively assessed the corresponding monocyte transcriptional response. Innate immune responses in preterm infants may be modulated by inflammation such as prenatal exposure to histologic chorioamnionitis which complicates 40-70% of preterm pregnancies...
March 13, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Kevin L Garvin, Ryan E Miller, Todd M Gilbert, Anthony M White, Elizabeth R Lyden
BACKGROUND: Two-stage reimplantation has consistently yielded high rates of success for patients with chronic prosthetic joint infection, although results more than 5 years after reimplantation are not commonly reported. Numerous factors may contribute to the risk of reinfection, although these factors-as well as the at-risk period after reimplantation-are not well characterized. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the risk of reinfection after reimplantation for prosthetic joint infection at a minimum of 5 years? (2) Is the bacteriology of the index infection associated with late reinfection? (3) Is the presence of bacteria at the time of reimplantation associated with late reinfection? METHODS: Between 1995 and 2010, we performed 97 two-stage revisions in 93 patients for prosthetic joint infection of the hip or knee, and all are included in this retrospective study...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Alexander Q Cusumano, Joshua G Pierce
Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of 3-hydroxy-1,5-dihydro-2H-pyrrol-2-ones as antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE). Lead compound 38 showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8 and 4 μg/mL against MRSA and MRSE, respectively. Furthermore, compound 38 displayed a MIC of 8-16 μg/mL against linezolid-resistant MRSA. These molecules, previously underexplored as antibacterial agents, serve as a new scaffold for antimicrobial development...
February 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Asher M Siddiqui, Jitendra A Sattigeri, Kalim Javed, Syed Shafi, M Shamim, Smita Singhal, Zubbair M Malik
Gram-positive bacteria are among the most common human pathogens associated with clinical infections which range from mild skin infections to sepsis. Resistance towards existing class of drugs by Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is a growing concern. There is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics which are active against resistant strains of Gram positive bacteria. We report herein a novel class of spiropyrimidinetrione oxazolidinone derivatives as novel antibacterial agents...
March 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Catarina Leal Seabra, Cláudia Nunes, Manuela Brás, Maria Gomez-Lazaro, Celso A Reis, Inês C Gonçalves, Salette Reis, M Cristina L Martins
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the major risk factors for gastric cancer development. Available antibiotic-based treatments not only fail in around 20% of patients but also have a severe negative impact on the gut microbiota. Recently, we demonstrated that nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), even without any drug loaded, are bactericidal against H. pylori at low concentrations. This work aims to clarify NLC mode of action and to evaluate if their bactericidal effect is specific to H. pylori without affecting bacteria from microbiota...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Luiza Pinheiro, Priscila L Mello, Ligia M Abraão, José Eduardo Corrente, Maria de Lourdes Rs Cunha
AIM: To evaluate the adequacy of the disc-diffusion test and E-test® compared with detection of mecA for coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures, nasal swabs and wounds. RESULTS: Agreement between all techniques was observed in 65.7% of cases. The greatest discrepancy between mecA/susceptible E-test was observed for non-epidermidis species. A resistance breakpoint ≤19 mm using the oxacillin disc was found to best classify all coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates; Staphylococcus epidermidis, ≤19 mm (oxacillin) and ≤27 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus capitis, ≤21 mm (oxacillin) and ≤18 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus warneri, MICs ≥0...
March 9, 2018: Future Microbiology
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