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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160896/influence-of-fracture-stability-on-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-a-murine-femoral-fracture-model
#1
M Sabaté Brescó, L O'Mahony, S Zeiter, K Kluge, M Ziegler, C Berset, D Nehrbass, R G Richards, T F Moriarty
Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a major complication in surgically fixed fractures. Instability of the fracture after fixation is considered a risk factor for infection; however, few experimental data are available confirming this belief. To study whether stable fractures led to higher infection clearance, mouse femoral osteotomies were fixed with either stable or unstable fixation and the surgical site was contaminated with either Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis)or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)clinical isolates...
November 21, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160851/development-of-an-impedimetric-aptasensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Peggy Reich, Regina Stoltenburg, Beate Strehlitz, Dieter Frense, Dieter Beckmann
In combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, aptamer-based biosensors are a powerful tool for fast analytical devices. Herein, we present an impedimetric aptasensor for the detection of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The used aptamer targets protein A, a surface bound virulence factor of S. aureus. The thiol-modified protein A-binding aptamer was co-immobilized with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol onto gold electrodes by self-assembly. Optimization of the ratio of aptamer to 6-mercapto-1-hexanol resulted in an average density of 1...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160540/aqueous-humor-concentrations-of-topical-fluoroquinolones-alone-or-in-combination-with-a-steroid
#3
Rachel Lopes Rodrigues Gomes, Rodrigo Galvão Viana, Luiz Alberto Soares Melo, Alessandro Carvalho Cruz, Acácio Alves de Souza Lima, Eunice Mayumi Suenaga, Mauro Campos
PURPOSE: To compare the aqueous humor (AH) concentrations of moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% solutions alone or when treatment was combined with steroids, and to correlate these concentrations with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the most common endophthalmitis-causing organisms. METHODS: Patients undergoing phacoemulsification were enrolled to receive one drop of one of the following solutions: moxifloxacin (G1), moxifloxacin + dexamethasone (G2), gatifloxacin (G3), or gatifloxacin + c (G4), every 15 min, 1h before surgery...
September 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159979/ultrasound-microbubbles-enhance-the-activity-of-vancomycin-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilms-in-vivo
#4
Ying Dong, Junshuai Li, Pan Li, Jialin Yu
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the predominant pathogen of device-associated infections. By forming biofilms on the device surface, S epidermidis has substantial resistance to antibiotics and is difficult to eradicate. This study aimed to explore the synergistic effect of ultrasound (US)-mediated microbubbles combined with vancomycin on S epidermidis biofilms in a rabbit model. METHODS: Two polytetrafluoroethene catheters with preformed S epidermidis biofilms were implanted subcutaneously in a rabbit, one on either side of the spine...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158733/effect-of-ultraviolet-light-irradiation-combined-with-riboflavin-on-different-bacterial-pathogens-from-ocular-surface-infection
#5
Jing Shen, Qingfeng Liang, Guanyu Su, Yang Zhang, Zhiqun Wang, Hong Liang, Christophe Baudouin, Antoine Labbé
In order to study Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and riboflavin, twelve strains of Staphylococcus epidermis and twelve strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis. The growth situation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus under different experimental conditions was qualitatively observed. The number of colonies surviving bacteria was counted under different UV light power and different exposure time...
2017: Journal of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158277/high-dose-daptomycin-is-effective-as-an-antibiotic-lock-therapy-in-a-rabbit-model-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-catheter-related-infection
#6
Jana Basas, Marta Palau, Carlos Ratia, José Luis Del Pozo, María Teresa Martín-Gómez, Xavier Gomis, Eduard Torrents, Benito Almirante, Joan Gavaldà
Long-term catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) involving coagulase-negative Staphylococci are associated with poor patient outcomes, increased hospitalization and high treatment costs. The use of vancomycin-lock therapy has been an important step forward to treat these biofilms although failures appear in 20% of patients. In this study, we report that a high dose of daptomycin-lock therapy may offer a therapeutic advantage for these CRBSI in just 24 h of treatment.
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155275/antibacterial-compounds-from-the-australian-native-plant-eremophila-glabra
#7
Azizah A Algreiby, Katherine A Hammer, Zoey Durmic, Phil Vercoe, Gavin R Flematti
Recent reports of Eremophila glabra (R.Br.) Ostenf. (Scrophulariaceae) displaying antibacterial activity has led us to investigate the bioactive secondary metabolites responsible for this activity. Bioassay-directed fractionation of solvent extracts prepared from the leaves of E. glabra led to the isolation of seven serrulatane diterpenes, three flavonoids and the caffeoyl ester disaccharide verbascoside. Among these, four serrulatanes, namely 18-acetoxy-8, 20-dihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (14), 18,20-diacetoxy-8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (16), 8,18,20-triacetoxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (17) and 18-acetoxy-8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (18) are described for the first time, while 8,20-diacetoxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (3), 8,18,20-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (5) and 20-acetoxy-8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (19) were previously reported...
November 15, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153733/antibacterial-activity-of-endodontic-sealers-against-planktonic-bacteria-and-bacteria-in-biofilms
#8
Vasileios Kapralos, Andreas Koutroulis, Dag Ørstavik, Pia Titterud Sunde, Håkon Valen Rukke
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of 4 endodontic sealers against bacteria planktonic grown or in biofilms commonly detected from persistent and secondary endodontic infections. METHODS: The antibacterial activity of the sealers AH Plus, TotalFill BC sealer, RoekoSeal, and Guttaflow 2 was investigated for planktonic grown and 24-hour-old biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#9
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136156/increase-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-emergence-of-major-international-high-risk-clonal-lineages-in-dogs-and-cats-with-urinary-tract-infection-16-year-retrospective-study
#10
Cátia Marques, Adriana Belas, Andreia Franco, Catarina Aboim, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba
Objectives: To evaluate temporal trends in antimicrobial resistance, over 16 years, in bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and the clonal lineages of bacteria harbouring critical antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted for 948 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI (1999-2014). Resistance mechanisms were detected by PCR, namely ESBL/AmpC in third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, mecA in methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and aac(6')-Ieaph(2″)-Ia and aph(2″)-1d in high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) enterococci...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134255/identification-of-generic-and-pathogen-specific-cord-blood-monocyte-transcriptomes-reveals-a-largely-conserved-response-in-preterm-and-term-newborn-infants
#11
Emma de Jong, David G Hancock, Julie Hibbert, Christine Wells, Peter Richmond, Karen Simmer, David Burgner, Tobias Strunk, Andrew J Currie
Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis are predominant causes of neonatal sepsis, particularly affecting preterm infants. Susceptibility to infection has been attributed to "immature" innate monocyte defences, but no studies have assessed global transcriptional responses of neonatal monocytes to these pathogens. Here, we aimed to identify and characterise the neonatal monocyte transcriptional responses to E. coli and S. epidermidis and the role of common modifiers such as gestational age (GA) and exposure to chorioamnionitis (a common complication of preterm birth) to better understand early life innate immune responses...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127333/a-light-activated-antimicrobial-surface-is-active-against-bacterial-viral-and-fungal-organisms
#12
Tim Walker, Melisa Canales, Sacha Noimark, Kristopher Page, Ivan Parkin, Jane Faull, Manni Bhatti, Lena Ciric
Evidence has shown that environmental surfaces play an important role in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Deploying antimicrobial surfaces in hospital wards could reduce the role environmental surfaces play as reservoirs for pathogens. Herein we show a significant reduction in viable counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and MS2 Bacteriophage after light treatment of a medical grade silicone incorporating crystal violet, methylene blue and 2 nm gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, a migration assay demonstrated that in the presence of light, growth of the fungus-like organism Pythium ultimum and the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea was inhibited...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126275/active-antimicrobial-efflux-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-building-up-of-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-biocides-in-a-major-opportunistic-pathogen
#13
Sofia Santos Costa, Miguel Viveiros, Constança Pomba, Isabel Couto
Objectives: To analyse the efflux-mediated response of Staphylococcus epidermidis to ethidium bromide (EtBr), a substrate of multidrug efflux pumps (EPs). Methods: The susceptible reference strain S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 was exposed to a step-wise adaptation to EtBr. The resulting EtBr-adapted strains were characterized regarding their antibiotic and biocide susceptibility by MIC determination and evaluation of efflux activity by re-determination of MICs in the presence of known efflux inhibitors and real-time fluorometry...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125279/molecular-weight-and-charge-density-effects-of-guanidinylated-biodegradable-polycarbonates-on-antimicrobial-activity-and-selectivity
#14
Chloe A Hae Cho, Chao Liang, Janesha Perera, Jie Liu, Kyriakos G Varnava, Vijayalekshmi Sarojini, Ralph P Cooney, Duncan J McGillivray, Margaret A Brimble, Simon Swift, Jianyong Jin
Six guanidine functionalized aliphatic biodegradable polycarbonates with varying molecular weights and charge densities were synthesized via postsynthesis modification of alkyne containing polycarbonates using Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry. The concept of passive diluting group was to modify the cationic charge density of the polycarbonate without changing its hydrophilicity. Within the molecular weight range from 8000 to 30000 g mol(-1), these guanidine polycarbonates exhibited broad-spectrum biocidal activity with low toxicity to red blood cells (RBCs)...
November 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123438/intravitreal-infliximab-injection-to-treat-experimental-endophthalmitis
#15
Osman Ondas, Orhan Ates, Sadullah Keles, Kenan Yildirim, Orhan Baykal, Selina Aksak Karamese, Murat Karamese, Hakan Uslu, Mustafa Yildirim, Muhammet Emin Naldan, Irem Ates
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of an intravitreal injection of infliximab and of dexamethasone combined with vancomycin to treat experimental endophthalmitis induced by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between March 25 and April 13, 2012. Twenty-five six-month-old healthy rabbits were used, each weighing 2.5-3 kg. The rabbits were randomized into five groups with five animals per group. Endophthalmitis was induced by 0...
October 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117532/structure-mechanics-and-instability-of-fibrin-clot-infected-with-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#16
Tianhui Maria Ma, J Scott VanEpps, Michael J Solomon
Health care-associated infection, over half of which can be attributed to indwelling medical devices, is a strong risk factor for thromboembolism. Although most experimental models of medical device infection draw upon isolated bacterial biofilms, in fact there is no infection without host protein contribution. Here we study, to our knowledge, a new model for medical device infection-that of an infected fibrin clot-and show that the common blood-borne pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis influences this in vitro model of a blood clot mechanically and structurally on both microscopic and macroscopic scales...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113958/comparison-of-two-jatropha-species-euphorbiaceae-used-popularly-to-treat-snakebites-in-northeastern-brazil-chemical-profile-inhibitory-activity-against-bothrops-erythromelas-venom-and-antibacterial-activity
#17
Juliana Félix-Silva, Jacyra A S Gomes, Júlia M Fernandes, Angela K C Moura, Yamara A S Menezes, Elizabeth C G Santos, Denise V Tambourgi, Arnóbio A Silva-Junior, Silvana M Zucolotto, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jatropha species (Euphorbiaceae) are largely used in traditional medicine to treat different pathologies in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In Northeastern Brazilian folk medicine, several Jatropha species, such as Jatropha gossypiifolia L. and Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill., are indistinctly used to treat snakebites. AIM OF THE STUDY: To compare two of the Brazilian most used Jatropha species for snakebites (J. gossypiifolia and J...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113746/quinoline-derivatives-bearing-pyrazole-moiety-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-as-possible-antibacterial-and-antifungal-agents
#18
Mohamed F El Shehry, Mostafa M Ghorab, Samir Y Abbas, Eman A Fayed, Said A Shedid, Yousry A Ammar
In an attempt for development of new antimicrobial agents, three series of quinoline derivatives bearing pyrazole moiety have been synthesized. The first series was synthesized through the synthesis of 4-(quinolin-2-yloxy)benzaldehyde and 4-(quinolin-2-yloxy)acetophenone and then treatment with ketone or aldehyde derivatives to afford the corresponding chalcones. Cyclization of the latter chalcones with hydrazine derivatives led to the formation of new pyrazoline derivatives. The second series was synthesized via the synthesis of 2-hydrazinylquinoline and then treatment with formylpyrazoles to afford the corresponding hydrazonyl pyrazole derivatives...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113051/antibacterial-activity-of-the-non-cytotoxic-peptide-p-bthtx-i-%C3%A2-and-its-serum-degradation-product-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#19
Norival A Santos-Filho, Rafaela S Fernandes, Bruna F Sgardioli, Matheus A S Ramos, Julia P Piccoli, Ilana L B C Camargo, Tais M Bauab, Eduardo M Cilli
Antimicrobial peptides can be used systemically, however, their susceptibility to proteases is a major obstacle in peptide-based therapeutic development. In the present study, the serum stability of p-BthTX-I (KKYRYHLKPFCKK) and (p-BthTX-I)₂, a p-BthTX-I disulfide-linked dimer, were analyzed by mass spectrometry and analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antimicrobial activities were assessed by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth...
November 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113034/directed-evolution-of-recombinant-c-terminal-truncated-staphylococcus-epidermidis-lipase-at2-for-the-enhancement-of-thermostability
#20
Jiivittha Veno, Nor Hafizah Ahmad Kamarudin, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali, Malihe Masomian, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman
In the industrial processes, lipases are expected to operate at temperatures above 45 °C and could retain activity in organic solvents. Hence, a C-terminal truncated lipase from Staphylococcus epidermis AT2 (rT-M386) was engineered by directed evolution. A mutant with glycine-to-cysteine substitution (G210C) demonstrated a remarkable improvement of thermostability, whereby the mutation enhanced the activity five-fold when compared to the rT-M386 at 50 °C. The rT-M386 and G210C lipases were purified concurrently using GST-affinity chromatography...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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