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Drug-induced liver disease

Andrea Fisler, Tobias Breidthardt, Nadine Schmidlin, Helmut Hopfer, Michael Dickenmann, Katrin König, Patricia Hirt-Minkowski
Renal dysfunction in the setting of cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial but most often due to decreased kidney perfusion from intravascular volume depletion, acute tubular injury/necrosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity may be associated with a cholestatic injury pattern. We report a case of a 56-year-old man with a diagnosis of bile cast nephropathy, as a complication of drug-induced severe hyperbilirubinemia due to the abuse of intramuscular anabolic steroids bought on the internet to increase muscular mass for bodybuilding training...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Matthias Buechter, Guido Gerken, Dieter P Hoyer, Stefanie Bertram, Jens M Theysohn, Viktoria Thodou, Alisan Kahraman
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening entity particularly when infectious complications worsen the clinical course. Urgent liver transplantation (LT) is frequently the only curative treatment. However, in some cases, recovery is observed under conservative treatment. Therefore, prognostic tools for estimating course of the disease are of great clinical interest. Since laboratory parameters sometimes lack sensitivity and specificity, enzymatic liver function measured by liver maximum capacity (LiMAx) test may offer novel and valuable additional information in this setting...
June 20, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Shan Li, Xiaoman Wang, Jielei Zhang, Jingyi Li, Xiaogang Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Chao Han, Lixia Zhang, Lili Zheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Benjamin Leroy-Freschini, Giorgio Treglia, Xavier Argemi, Caroline Bund, Romain Kessler, Raoul Herbrecht, Alessio Imperiale
Background: Opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of pathogens, whose early diagnosis remains challenging. Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp, the most frequent pathogens in immunocompromised patients, frequently affect lungs, liver, bone and skin. Aim: To evaluate the impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the management of immunocompromised patients with IFI. Design: A single-center retrospective study included 51 immunocompromised patients with IFI diagnosis undergoing 83 18F-FDG PET/CTs...
June 18, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Anna M Hoy, Natasha McDonald, Ross J Lennen, Matteo Milanesi, Amy H Herlihy, Timothy J Kendall, William Mungall, Michael Gyngell, Rajarshi Banerjee, Robert L Janiczek, Philip S Murphy, Maurits A Jansen, Jonathan A Fallowfield
Non-invasive quantitation of liver disease using multiparametric MRI could refine clinical care pathways, trial design and preclinical drug development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of multiparametric MRI in experimental models of liver disease. Liver injury was induced in rats using 4 or 12 weeks carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) intoxication and 4 or 8 weeks methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet. Liver MRI was performed using a 7.0 Tesla small animal scanner at baseline and specified timepoints after liver injury...
June 18, 2018: Biology Open
Martin Raasch, Enrico Fritsche, Andreas Kurtz, Michael Bauer, Alexander S Mosig
Complex cell culture models such as microphysiological models (MPS) mimicking human liver functionality in vitro are in the spotlight as alternative to conventional cell culture and animal models. Promising techniques like microfluidic cell culture or micropatterning by 3D bioprinting are gaining increasing importance for the development of MPS to address the needs for more predictivity and cost efficiency. In this context, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer new perspectives for the development of advanced liver-on-chip systems by recreating an in vivo like microenvironment that supports the reliable differentiation of hiPSCs to hepatocyte-like cells (HLC)...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Ivana Mikolasevic, Tajana Filipec-Kanizaj, Ivan Jakopcic, Iva Majurec, Alemka Brncic-Fischer, Nikola Sobocan, Irena Hrstic, Tea Stimac, Davor Stimac, Sandra Milic
One of the least studied topics in the field of obstetrics is liver disease during pregnancy, which creates a challenge for both gynecologists and hepatologists. Approximately 3% of pregnant women are affected by some form of liver disease during pregnancy. Some of these conditions can be fatal for both the mother and child. In addition, 3 types of liver disease need to be differentiated during pregnancy. One type is liver disease directly related to pregnancy, which can occur at a specific time during pregnancy...
June 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Mianhuan Li, Yi Lv, Feng Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Jiang Zhu, Hao Li, Jia Xiao
BACKGROUND: One of the major obstacles facing stem cell therapy is the limited number of functional stem cells available after transplantation due to the harsh microenvironment surrounding the damaged tissue. The aim of this study was to delineate the mechanistic involvement of lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) in the regulation of anti-stress and transplantation efficacy of stem cells. METHODS: Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) were treated with chemical toxin or ethanol to induce cell stress...
June 14, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Esther Caparrós, Rubén Francés
The three main causes of inflammation and chronic injury in the liver are viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, all of which can lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which in turn may prompt the need for liver transplant. The interleukin (IL)-20 is a subfamily part of the IL-10 family of cytokines that helps the liver respond to damage and disease, they participate in the control of tissue homeostasis, and in the immunological responses developed in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda, Heiner Wedemeyer, Johannes Wiegand, Ansgar W Lohse, Jacques Benichou, Michel Rossignol, Dominique Larrey, Lucien Abenhaim, Thierry Poynard, Eckart Schott
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous reports of acute liver injuries (ALI) in patients taking dronedarone triggered an EMA alert in 2011. This study aimed to assess the risk of ALI for class III antiarrhythmic drugs controlling for the use of other potential ALI-inducing drugs. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2014, consecutive ALI cases (≥50 years-old) were identified across Germany. ALI was defined as a new increase in at least one of the transaminases ≥3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or ≥2 ULN if alkaline phosphatase, with ("definite" case) or without ("biochemical" case) suggestive signs/symptoms of ALI, excluding other liver diseases...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
A P Cazzolla, K Zhurakivska, D Ciavarella, M G Lacaita, G Favia, N F Testa, G Marzo, V La Carbonara, G Troiano, L Lo Muzio
AIMS: The aim of this study is to report the case of the orthodontic treatment in a patient affected by primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and subjected to a combinate liver-kidney transplant. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 9-year patient was admitted to our department for the presence of facial dysmorphism. The patient was affected by primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and has undergone a combined liver-kidney transplantation. At the time of the visit, he was in treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and received a corticosteroid and an antibiotic therapy monthly...
June 8, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
A-Rang Im, Won-Kyung Yang, Yang-Chun Park, Seung Hyung Kim, Sungwook Chae
Insects represent the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth and are potential food and drug resources. Recently, we have demonstrated that a Forsythia viridissima extract prevented free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation in an in vitro cellular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of extracts of the insects Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis Kolbe, 1886 (PB), Oxya chinensis sinuosa Mishchenko, 1951 (OC), and Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer, 1773 (GB) in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD animal model, as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
June 7, 2018: Nutrients
Charis-Patricia Segeritz, Sheikh Tamir Rashid, Miguel Cardoso de Brito, Maria Serra Paola, Adriana Ordonez, Carola Maria Morell, Joseph E Kaserman, Pedro Madrigal, Nicholas Hannan, Laurent Gatto, Lu Tan, Andrew A Wilson, Kathryn Lilley, Stefan J Marciniak, Bibekbrata Gooptu, David A Lomas, Ludovic Vallier
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: α1 -antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. Individuals with the Z variant (Gly342Lys) retain polymerised protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of their hepatocytes, predisposing them to liver disease. The concomitant lack of circulating A1AT also causes lung emphysema. Greater insight into the mechanisms that link protein misfolding to liver injury will facilitate the design of novel therapies...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Saoussane Kharmoum, Meryem Soughi
Acute chemotherapy-induced lupus erythematosus (ALE) is rare. A few cases have been reported in the literature criminalizing capecitabine, paclitaxel and docetaxel. We report the case of a 64-year old female patient without a history of autoimmune diseases or of drug allergy followed up for invasive ductal carcinoma in the right breast immediately metastatized to the liver and to the lymph nodes. After AC60 first line chemotherapy regimen (a total of 6 cycles), she was treated with docetaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m2 ...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Hadiya Husain, Uzma Latief, Riaz Ahmad
Unearthing and employment of healthy substitutes is now in demand to tackle a number of diseases due to the excessive repercussions of synthetic drugs. In this frame of reference pomegranate juice (PGJ) is a boon comprising of anthocyanins and hydrolysable tannins, known for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Despite various documented roles of PGJ, there are no studies on antifibrotic potential in NDEA-induced mammalian liver fibrotic model. Hepatic fibrosis in rats was induced by the intra-peritoneal injection of NDEA (10 mlkg-1 b...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiachao Zhang, Zhaoxia Wang, Dongxue Huo, Yuyu Shao
Drugs used to treat liver diseases have serious side effects; it is important to search for safe functional foods with hepatoprotective functions and few side effects. In this study, potential hepatoprotective effects of goats' milk and cows' milk on mice with CCl4 -induced acute hepatic injury were evaluated. We also elucidated the role of goats' and cows' milk on the regulation of CCl4 -induced gut microbiota imbalance. In mice with liver damage induced by CCl4 , administration of goats' milk for 7 days prior to injection of CCl4 had beneficial effects on the indicators of liver damage within 1 day: the area of liver necrosis was small; activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and expression of the genes CYP2E1 and TNF- α were lower than that of model group of mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiujie Liu, Yu Shi, Yinghui Hu, Ke Luo, Ying Guo, Weiwei Meng, Yulin Deng, Rongji Dai
Liver fibrosis is a common pathological feature of many chronic liver diseases. Bupleurum marginatum Wall.ex DC (ZYCH) is a promising therapeutic for liver fibrosis. In this study, 25 compounds were isolated from ZYCH, and the effects of ZYCH on DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats were evaluated. The optimal effect group (H-ZYCH group) was selected for further proteomic analysis, and 282 proteins were altered in comparison to the DMN model group (FC > 1.2 or < 0.83, p < 0.05). Based on GO annotation analysis, clusters of drug metabolism, oxidative stress, biomolecular synthesis and metabolism, positive regulation of cell growth, extracellular matrix deposition, and focal adhesion were significantly regulated...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jui-Tung Liu, Mary Paige Lamprecht, Stephen A Duncan
The ability to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) provides new opportunities to study inborn errors in hepatic metabolism. However, to provide a platform that supports the identification of small molecules that can potentially be used to treat liver disease, the procedure requires a culture format that is compatible with screening thousands of compounds. Here, we describe a protocol using completely defined culture conditions, which allow the reproducible differentiation of human iPSCs to hepatocyte-like cells in 96-well tissue culture plates...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Innocent Lule Segamwenge, Miriam Kaunanele Bernard
Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients presenting with fulminant liver failure after varying periods of exposure to Efavirenz containing antiretroviral medications. Methods: We report a series of 4 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were admitted with acute liver failure (ALF) over a 6-month period. All these patients had been treated with a range of Efavirenz containing antiretroviral regimens and were negative for hepatitis A, B, and C infections as well as other opportunistic infections, all were negative for autoimmune hepatitis, and none had evidence of chronic liver disease or use of alcohol or herbal medications...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Lichen Bao, Jun Yin, Wen Gao, Qun Wang, Wenbing Yao, Xiangdong Gao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: NASH is the most severe form of NAFLD and is a serious public health problem around the world. There are currently no approved treatments for NASH. FGF21 has recently emerged as a promising drug candidate for metabolic diseases. However, the challenges in developing FGF21 as a novel medicine include its short plasma half-life and poor drug-like properties. Here, we explored the therapeutic effects of PsTag600-FGF21, an engineered long-acting FGF21 fusion protein, in NASH mice and revealed some of the mechanisms responsible for this activity...
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
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