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Enteral nutrition children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#1
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190552/use-of-balloon-dilatation-for-management-of-postoperative-intestinal-strictures-in-children-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#2
Christina Belza, Kevin Fitzgerald, Joao Amaral, Karen Steinberg, Yaron Avitzur, Paul W Wales
PURPOSE: Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) often require numerous operations to optimize intestinal function. Postoperative intestinal strictures are a complication that inhibits enteral feeding advancement and prolongs parenteral nutrition dependency, often requiring reoperation. Our objective was to review our experience with fluoroscopic balloon dilatation to treat intestinal strictures. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of intestinal failure patients with SBS was completed...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188079/current-practices-in-home-management-of-nasogastric-tube-placement-in-pediatric-patients-a-survey-of-parents-and-homecare-providers
#3
LaDonna Northington, Beth Lyman, Peggi Guenter, Sharon Y Irving, Lori Duesing
: Enteral feeding tubes are used in pediatric patients to deliver nutrition, fluids or medications. The literature related to short-term feeding tube (nasogastric [NG], hereafter known as NGT, or orogastric [OGT],) use in pediatric homecare patients is sparse. This descriptive study sought to gather baseline information about these children and how their feeding tubes are managed at home. Specifically, we sought to better understand how the tubes are placed and the method(s) used for tube placement verification...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185632/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-tapering-surgery-for-small-intestinal-dilatation-in-pediatric-short-bowel-syndrome
#4
Maria Hukkinen, Reetta Kivisaari, Antti Koivusalo, Mikko P Pakarinen
BACKGROUND: In remains unclear why in some short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients, the remaining small bowel (SB) dilates excessively leading to requirement of tapering surgery. METHODS: Among SBS children, we retrospectively analyzed risk factors for tapering surgery with logistic regression and compared the outcome of operated patients (n=16) to those managed conservatively (n=44) with Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: SBS was caused by necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (n=31), SB atresia (SBA) (n=13), midgut volvulus (n=12), or gastroschisis (n=4)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181921/feed-induced-dystonias-in-children-with-severe-central-nervous-system-disorders
#5
Santosh Mordekar, Manjula Velayudhan, David I Campbell
Dystonias can arise from any painful stimuli in neurologically disabled children. Classically, feed induced dystonias from mediastinal pain due to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease are described as Sandifer's spasm. We report a case series of 12 severely neurologically impaired children with enteral feed induced dystonias. Intestinal dysmotility was demonstrated in several. Improvements are seen with jejunal feeds or gut rest with Total Parenteral Nutrition. Use of parenteral nutrition in children with severe neurodisability requires thorough discussion with patient groups and commissioners to give clinicians guidelines to standardise care...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168985/predicting-time-to-full-enteral-nutrition-in-children-after-significant-bowel-resection
#6
Jessica Gonzalez-Hernandez, Purvi Prajapati, Gerald Ogola, Nandini Channabasappa, Barbara Drews, Hannah G Piper
PURPOSE: Parenteral nutrition (PN) contributes to considerable morbidity in children after significant bowel resection. This study evaluates the utility of clinical variables in predicting time to independence from PN. METHODS: After IRB approval, a retrospective review (1999-2012) of 71 children who were on PN for >6weeks after intestinal resection and successfully weaned was performed. Clinical characteristics were evaluated to determine the relationship to time to full enteral nutrition...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162764/gastrojejunostomy-tube-complications-a-single-center-experience-and-systematic-review
#7
James Morse, Robert Baird, Karl Muchantef, Dominique Levesque, Veronique Morinville, Pramod S Puligandla
PURPOSE: Gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJTs) enable enteral nutrition in infants/children with feeding intolerance. However, complications may be increased in small infants. We evaluated our single-institution GJT complication rate and systematically reviewed existing literature. METHODS: With REB approval, a retrospective single-institution analysis of GJT placements between 2009 and 2015 was performed. For the systematic review, MOOSE guidelines were followed. RESULTS: At our institution, 48 children underwent 154/159 successful insertions primarily for gastroesophageal reflux (n=27; 55%) and aspiration (n=11; 23%)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131521/espen-guideline-clinical-nutrition-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Alastair Forbes, Johanna Escher, Xavier Hébuterne, Stanisław Kłęk, Zeljko Krznaric, Stéphane Schneider, Raanan Shamir, Kalina Stardelova, Nicolette Wierdsma, Anthony E Wiskin, Stephan C Bischoff
INTRODUCTION: The ESPEN guideline presents a multidisciplinary focus on clinical nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODOLOGY: The guideline is based on extensive systematic review of the literature, but relies on expert opinion when objective data were lacking or inconclusive. The conclusions and 64 recommendations have been subject to full peer review and a Delphi process in which uniformly positive responses (agree or strongly agree) were required...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130790/antibiotic-prophylaxis-does-not-reduce-the-infection-rate-following-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-infants-and-children
#9
Anne L van Els, J Joris van Driel, C M Frank Kneepkens, Tim G J de Meij
AIM: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the standard for placing gastrostomy in children needing long-term enteral nutrition, with major and minor complications reported in up to 19% and 47.7% of children, respectively. We reviewed our experience with PEG, concentrating on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing infectious complications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-centre study that comprised all children up to 18 years of age who underwent a first PEG procedure in the VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, from 2008-2012...
January 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112064/nutrition-infection-and-stunting-the-roles-of-deficiencies-of-individual-nutrients-and-foods-and-of-inflammation-as-determinants-of-reduced-linear-growth-of-children
#10
D Joe Millward
The regulation of linear growth by nutritional and inflammatory influences is examined in terms of growth-plate endochondral ossification, in order to better understand stunted growth in children. Linear growth is controlled by complex genetic, physiological, and nutrient-sensitive endocrine/paracrine/autocrine mediated molecular signalling mechanisms, possibly including sleep adequacy through its influence on growth hormone secretion. Inflammation, which accompanies most infections and environmental enteric dysfunction, inhibits endochondral ossification through the action of mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, the activin A-follistatin system, glucocorticoids and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
January 23, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107568/oral-immunoglobulin-treatment-improved-intestinal-permeability-in-children-with-active-crohn-s-disease
#11
Tommy Sundqvist, Lars Stenhammar, Bo Tjellström, Karl-Eric Magnusson, Tony Forslund, Lotta Högberg
AIM: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic mucosal inflammation that affects the intestinal barrier function, for example by altering the intestinal permeability. This pilot clinical study investigated the impact of oral human immunoglobulin (OHIG) treatment on permeability characteristics in children with active luminal Crohn's disease. METHODS: The study was performed at the Department of Paediatrics, Norrköping Hospital, Sweden. Intestinal permeability was studied in three boys aged 13, 15 and 18 years with active CD, before and after a six-week treatment programme with OHIG, using different-sized polyethylene glycols the test molecules...
January 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103809/dietary-treatment-of-crohn-s-disease-perceptions-of-families-with-children-treated-by-exclusive-enteral-nutrition-a-questionnaire-survey
#12
Vaios Svolos, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Elaine Buchanan, Lee Curtis, Vikki Garrick, Jacqueline Hay, Susan Laird, Joanna Munro, Daniel R Gaya, Richard K Russell, Richard Hansen
BACKGROUND: Diet is strongly associated with the aetiology of Crohn's Disease (CD) and exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the primary induction treatment in paediatric CD. This study explored opinions around the use of EEN and alternative novel, solid food-based diets (SFDs) expressed by paediatric patients with CD, previously treated with EEN and their parents. METHODS: This anonymous questionnaire surveyed families of CD patients treated with EEN over 1 year...
January 19, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103724/the-effect-of-polymeric-formula-on-enterocyte-differentiation
#13
Gabrielle R Budd, Alan Aitchison, Andrew S Day, Jacqueline I Keenan
Exclusive enteral nutrition is established as an initial therapy to induce remission in active Crohn's disease (CD), especially in children, but the mechanisms of action of this therapy are yet to be fully defined. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a recognised marker of enterocyte differentiation, is implicated in the innate gut immune response to enteric pathogens. Using the Caco-2 human adenocarcinoma cell line, this study showed that the incubation of human cells with a polymeric formula (PF) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the expression of IAP on the cell surface...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092152/issues-in-nutrition-dietary-considerations-in-select-chronic-conditions
#14
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Chronic diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract also tend to affect nutrition. The incidence of chronic liver disease is increasing. As the prevalence of obesity rises, so do the incidences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with chronic liver disease usually have some degree of malnutrition. In the absence of encephalopathy, patients with chronic liver disease should consume more protein than that in the average diet. There is some controversy about whether diet plays a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089618/24-hour-protein-arginine-and-citrulline-metabolism-in-fed-critically-ill-children-a-stable-isotope-tracer-study
#15
Carlijn T I de Betue, Xiomara C Garcia Casal, Dick A van Waardenburg, Stephen M Schexnayder, Koen F M Joosten, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Marielle P K J Engelen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The reference method to study protein and arginine metabolism in critically ill children is measuring plasma amino acid appearances with stable isotopes during a short (4-8 h) time period and extrapolate results to 24-h. However, 24-h measurements may be variable due to critical illness related factors and a circadian rhythm could be present. Since only short duration stable isotope studies in critically ill children have been conducted before, the aim of this study was to investigate 24-h appearance of specific amino acids representing protein and arginine metabolism, with stable isotope techniques in continuously fed critically ill children...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063770/a-post-operative-feeding-protocol-to-improve-outcomes-for-neonates-with-critical-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Jennifer Newcombe, Eileen Fry-Bowers
Neonates with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) are vulnerable to malnutrition during the post-operative period due to hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism. To improve nutritional outcomes during hospitalization, a nurse led post-operative enteral feeding protocol was implemented at a large U.S. children's hospital. During an eight-month implementation period, twenty-one neonates met protocol inclusion criteria. Days for neonates to achieve goal caloric feedings (120kcal/kg/day) were decreased. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed serum albumin levels and serial anthropometric measurements improved significantly throughout hospitalization (p<0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061521/quality-of-life-after-surgical-treatment-for-esophageal-atresia-long-term-outcome-of-154-patients
#17
Alice Catherine Hölscher, Michael Laschat, Vera Choinitzki, Nadine Zwink, Ekkehart Jenetzky, Oliver Münsterer, Ralf Kurz, Marcus Pauly, Ulrike Brokmeier, Andreas Leutner, Benno Ure, Martin Lacher, Johannes Schumacher, Heiko Reutter, Thomas Michael Boemers
Background The short- and long-term surgical results in patients with esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) have been described in depth from a physician's perspective. Contrarily, the perception and coping strategies of affected patients and their parents have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to generate data on this matter. Patients and Methods A total of 154 patients who had operative reconstruction for EA between 1971 and 2012 were evaluated for demographic data, surgical technique, affection of daily life, and coping strategies...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044044/livestock-ownership-among-rural-households-and-child-morbidity-and-mortality-an-analysis-of-demographic-health-survey-data-from-30-sub-saharan-african-countries-2005-2015
#18
Maneet Kaur, Jay P Graham, Joseph N S Eisenberg
Children living in homes with livestock may have both an increased risk of enteric infections and improved access to food, and therefore improved nutritional status. Few studies, however, have characterized these relationships in tandem. This study investigated the association between child health and household ownership of livestock. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 sub-Saharan African countries with 215,996 rural children under 5 years of age from 2005 to 2015...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039510/surgical-strategies-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Michael E Höllwarth
Extensive loss of small bowel in all age groups has significant morbidity and mortality consequences. Despite the astonishing ability of the small bowel to compensate for an extensive loss, long-term parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition, tailored to the need of the patients in relation to the missing intestinal regions is needed. Organ-preserving surgical intervention becomes necessary in patients with a very short intestinal transit time and in an other group of patients with impaired propulsive peristalsis...
December 30, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030482/pediatric-parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease
#20
Jill C Israelite
Pediatric parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is typically defined as a decrease in bile flow that is independent of a mechanical obstruction and of any other underlying liver disease. It is most often seen in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition support. Up to 50% to 66% of children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition are reported to be diagnosed with PNALD. The goal of treatment for PNALD is advancement to full enteral nutrition and elimination of dependence on parenteral nutrition support...
January 2017: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
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