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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441623/identification-of-a-macrobrachium-nipponense-c-type-lectin-with-a-close-evolutionary-relationship-to-vertebrate-lectins
#1
Xin Huang, Tingting Li, Min Jin, Shaowu Yin, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
C-type lectins (CTLs) are involved in the innate immune defense of vertebrates and invertebrates against invading pathogens. This study cloned and characterized a novel C-type lectin (MnCTL) of the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense. The cloned MnCTL cDNA encompasses an open reading frame of 774 nucleotides and encodes polypeptides of 257 residues. The deduced MnCTL protein contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with an EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif in calcium-binding site 2. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MnCTL has a closer evolutionary relationship with vertebrate lectins than with invertebrate lectins...
April 22, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441421/high-prevalence-of-mrsa-and-esbl-among-asylum-seekers-in-the-netherlands
#2
Sofanne J Ravensbergen, Matthijs Berends, Ymkje Stienstra, Alewijn Ott
Migration is one of the risk factors for the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). The increasing influx of migrants challenges local health care systems. To provide evidence for both hospital hygiene measure and empirical antibiotic therapy, we analysed all cultures performed in asylum seekers between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015 for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and for multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE). We compared these with cultures from the Dutch patient population with risk factors for carriage of MDRO...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441360/erythromycin-modification-that-improves-its-acidic-stability-while-optimizing-it-for-local-drug-delivery
#3
Erika L Cyphert, Jaqueline D Wallat, Jonathan K Pokorski, Horst A von Recum
The antibiotic erythromycin has limited efficacy and bioavailability due to its instability and conversion under acidic conditions via an intramolecular dehydration reaction. To improve the stability of erythromycin, several analogs have been developed-such as azithromycin and clarithromycin-which decrease the rate of intramolecular dehydration. We set out to build upon this prior work by developing a conjugate of erythromycin with improved pH stability, bioavailability, and preferential release from a drug delivery system directly at the low pH of an infection site...
April 25, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441350/synthesis-and-bioactivity-evaluation-of-novel-2-salicyloylbenzofurans-as-antibacterial-agents
#4
Phuong-Thuy T Phan, Thu-Trang T Nguyen, Hong-Nhung T Nguyen, Bao-Khanh N Le, Thao T Vu, Dong C Tran, Tuan-Anh N Pham
In order to discover new antibacterial agents, series of 2-salicyloylbenzofuran derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-(+) strains (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 29213, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300, and Streptococcus faecalis (S. faecalis) ATCC 29212) and one Gram-(-) strain (Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 25922). The 2-salicyloylbenzofuran heterocycles were generated by Rap-Stoermer condensation of salicylaldehydes with phenacyl bromides and then converted to diverse O-ether derivatives by Williamson synthesis...
April 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441320/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-is-ineffective-as-an-adjuvant-to-daptomycin-with-rifampicin-treatment-in-a-murine-model-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-implant-associated-osteomyelitis
#5
Nis Pedersen Jørgensen, Kasper Hansen, Caroline Marie Andreasen, Michael Pedersen, Kurt Fuursted, Rikke L Meyer, Eskild Petersen
Implant-associated infections caused by bacterial biofilms are difficult to treat. Surgical intervention is often necessary to cure the patient, as the antibiotic recalcitrance of biofilms renders them untreatable with conventional antibiotics. Intermittent hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has been proposed as an adjuvant to conventional antibiotic treatment and it has been speculated that combining HBOT with antibiotics could improve treatment outcomes for biofilm infections. In this study we addressed whether HBOT could improve treatment outcomes of daptomycin and rifampicin combination therapy...
April 25, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441093/catching-the-evader-can-monoclonal-antibodies-interfere-with-staphylococcus-aureus-immune-escape
#6
Jean-Philippe Rasigade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440961/non-bactericidal-zinc-complexing-ligand-as-a-biofilm-inhibitor-structure-guided-contrasting-effect-on-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#7
Vidushi Kapoor, Rajanikant Rai, Durairaj Thiyagarajan, Sandipan Mukherjee, Gopal Das, Ramesh Aiyagari
Zinc-complexing ligands are prospective antibiofilm agents, given the pivotal role of zinc in the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. To this end, the potential of a thiosemicarbazone (C1) and a benzothiazole-based ligand (C4) in the prevention of S. aureus biofilm formation was assessed. C1 displayed a bimodal activity as it hindered biofilm formation only at low concentrations and promoted biofilm growth at higher concentrations. In case of C4, a dose-dependent inhibition of S. aureus biofilm growth was observed...
April 25, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440618/design-of-antibacterial-polyethersulfone-membranes-via-covalently-attaching-hydrogel-thin-layers-loaded-with-ag-nanoparticles
#8
Min He, Qian Wang, Rui Wang, Yi Xie, Weifeng Zhao, Changsheng Zhao
In order to inhibit the bacteria attachment and the subsequent formation of bio-films on polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA)/poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) antibacterial hydrogel thin layers were covalently attached onto the membranes, followed by loading Ag nanoparticles. In our strategy, double bonds were firstly introduced onto PES membrane surfaces to provide anchoring sites, and then the hydrogel layers were synthesized on the membrane surfaces via UV light initiated cross-linking copolymerization...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440203/antimicrobial-biofilm-inhibitory-and-anti-infective-activity-of-metallic-nanoparticles-against-multi-drug-resistant-mrsa-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pa01
#9
Jamuna Bai Ashwathanarayan, Ravishankar Rai Vittal
BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a major concern to the scientific community. Novel approaches such as the use of functionalized nanomaterials with antimicrobial activity is required to treat infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the metallic nanoparticles (iron, gold, zinc oxide and copper oxide) were evaluated for the antimicrobial, biofilm inhibitory and anti-infective activity against human pathogens methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01...
April 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440108/microbiology-of-the-upper-and-lower-airways-in-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#10
Lindsay Sobin, Kosuke Kawai, Alexandria L Irace, Ozgul Gergin, Michael Cunningham, Gregory S Sawicki, Eelam A Adil
Objective To evaluate the microbiology of the upper and lower airways in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who underwent sinus surgery. Study Design Retrospective case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care children's hospital. Subjects and Methods A total of 201 paired sinus and pulmonary cultures from 105 CF patients were identified between 1996 and 2014. Demographics and culture results were analyzed. Results The mean age of patients was 11.2 ± 5.4 years (range, 1-27 years), and approximately one-half were female...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439680/microbiological-evaluation-of-infected-pelvic-lymphocele-after-robotic-prostatectomy-potential-predictors-for-culture-positivity-and-selection-of-the-best-empirical-antimicrobial-therapy
#11
Alaa Hamada, Catalina Hwang, Jorge Fleisher, Ingolf Tuerk
OBJECTIVES: To examine symptomatology and microbiology of infected lymphocele (LC) post-robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) and to assess for potential predictors for LC fluid culture positivity. Secondly, to provide general recommendations about use of select antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: This was a single-center, IRB-approved, retrospective, case series review conducted between October 2008 and October 2014. Data included symptomatology, microbiology of symptomatic LC in men post-robotic prostatectomy and PLND...
April 24, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439602/antibiogram-profile-of-septic-meningitis-among-children-in-duhok-iraq
#12
Abdulrahman T Saadi, Nadir A Garjees, Aveen H Rasool
  To determine the prevalence of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the antibiogram profile in pediatric patients with suspected meningitis. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2016 in the Hevi Paediatric Teaching Hospital in Duhok, Iraq. The CSF samples were withdrawn from 432 pediatric patients suspected of meningitis. The samples were cultured, and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed.  Results: There were 33 (7.6%) culture positive cases among 432 CSF samples...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438975/galectin-3-is-a-target-for-proteases-involved-in-the-virulence-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Jonas Elmwall, Jakub Kwiecinski, Manli Na, Abukar Ahmed Ali, Veronica Osla, Lindsey Shaw, Wanzhong Wang, Karin Sävman, Elisabet Josefsson, Johan Bylund, Tao Jin, Amanda Welin, Anna Karlsson
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and soft-tissue infection. The bacterium expresses four major proteases emerging as virulence factors; aureolysin (Aur), V8 protease (SspA), staphopain A (ScpA), and staphopain B (SspB). We hypothesized that human galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in immune regulation and antimicrobial defense, is a target for these proteases, and that proteolysis of galectin-3 is a novel immune evasion mechanism. Indeed, supernatants from laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438946/potassium-iodide-potentiates-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-mediated-by-rose-bengal-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#14
Xiang Wen, Xiaoshen Zhang, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Ahmed El-Hussein, Ying-Ying Huang, Tadeusz Sarna, Michael R Hamblin
Rose Bengal (RB) is a halogenated xanthene dye that has been used to mediate antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation for several years. While highly active against Gram-positive bacteria, RB is largely inactive in killing Gram-negative bacteria. We have discovered that addition of the non-toxic salt potassium iodide (100mM) potentiates green light (540nm)-mediated killing by up to six extra logs with Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gram-positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal yeast Candida albicans...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438941/new-macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-b-resistance-gene-erm-48-on-the-novel-plasmid-pjw2311-in-staphylococcus-xylosus
#15
Juliette R K Wipf, Matthew C Riley, Stephen A Kania, David A Bemis, Sabrina Andreis, Sybille Schwendener, Vincent Perreten
Whole-genome sequencing of Staphylococcus xylosus strain JW2311 from bovine mastitis milk identified the novel 49.3 kb macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance plasmid pJW2311. It contained the macrolide resistance gene mph(C), the macrolide-streptogramin B resistance gene msr(A), and the new MLSB resistance gene erm (48) and could be transformed into S. aureus by electroporation. Functionality of erm (48) was demonstrated by cloning and expression in S. aureus.
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438938/a-tick-antivirulence-protein-potentiates-antibiotics-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Nabil M Abraham, Lei Liu, Brandon L Jutras, Kristen Murfin, Ali Acar, Timur O Yarovinsky, Erica Sutton, Martin Heisig, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, Erol Fikrig
New strategies are needed to combat antibiotic resistance, especially against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus A tick antifreeze glycoprotein, IAFGP, possess potent anti-biofilm properties against a variety of clinical pathogens including S. aureus Synergy between IAFGP, or a peptide (P1) representative of a repeat region of the protein, with different antibiotics was assessed in vitro Antibiotics that synergized with either IAFPG or P1 were further evaluated in vivo using vertebrate and invertebrate infection models...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438928/the-impact-of-healthcare-exposure-on-genotypic-antiseptic-tolerance-among-pediatric-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#17
J Chase McNeil, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
Background: Staphylococcus aureus possessing either the smr or qacA/B genes are associated with decreased susceptibility to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and other antiseptics. Previous studies of antiseptic tolerant staphylococci have largely focused on high-risk populations and the exact role of healthcare exposure on acquisition of these organisms is unclear. We sought to describe the risk factors and features of infection caused by antiseptic tolerant S. aureus in a general pediatric population.Methods: Isolates were selected from an ongoing S...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438824/comparison-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-lock-solutions-with-and-without-heparin-against-biofilm-producing-bacteria
#18
Megan K Luther, Leonard A Mermel, Kerry L LaPlante
PURPOSE: The activity of linezolid and vancomycin lock solutions against biofilm-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis was studied. METHODS: Two strains each of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and S. epidermidis, and 1 strain of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecalis and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis were tested against vancomycin and linezolid to assess prevention of biofilm formation and eradication of these pathogens within a formed biofilm...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438599/newly-identified-invertebrate-type-lysozyme-splys-i-in-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-exhibiting-muramidase-deficient-antimicrobial-activity
#19
Jian Zhou, Shu Zhao, Wen-Hong Fang, Jun-Fang Zhou, Jing-Xiao Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xin-Cang Li
Lysozymes are widely distributed immune effectors exerting muramidase activity against the peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall to trigger cell lysis. However, some invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozymes deficient of muramidase activity still exhibit antimicrobial activity. To date, the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effect of muramidase-deficient i-type lysozymes remains unclear. Accordingly, this study characterized a novel i-type lysozyme, Splys-i, in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Splys-i shared the highest identity with the Litopenaeus vannamei i-type lysozyme (Lvlys-i2, 54% identity) at the amino acid level...
April 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438282/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-stayphylococcus-aureus-to-honey
#20
Muhammad Barkaat Hussain, Abdul Hannan, Muhammad Absar, NadeemShafique Butt
Wound infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is becoming much complicated and costly to treat as antimicrobial resistance is quite common. Twenty five MRSA strains isolated from infected wounds and three ATCC reference strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to locally produced black seed (Nigella sativa), beri (ZiziphusJujuba) and shain honey (Plectranthus rugosus wall) by agar incorporation assay. Medically graded manuka honey (UMF 21(+)) was included as control. Locally produced black seed honey inhibited all clinical isolates at mean MIC of 5...
May 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
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