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Airway mucus production and secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932196/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-reduces-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-neutrophilic-inflammation-and-mucin-hypersecretion-in-rats
#1
Yingmin Liang, Kenneth W K Liu, Sze C Yeung, Xiang Li, Mary S M Ip, Judith C W Mak
Background: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechins in Chinese green tea, has been studied for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in cell and animal models. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of EGCG on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion in the CS-exposed rat model. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into either sham air (SA) or CS exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918442/the-role-of-periostin-in-lung-fibrosis-and-airway-remodeling
#2
REVIEW
David N O'Dwyer, Bethany B Moore
Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma is a major health problem globally affecting millions of people worldwide with significant associated morbidity and mortality...
September 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894207/positive-feedback-of-the-amphiregulin-egfr-erk-pathway-mediates-pm2-5-from-wood-smoke-induced-muc5ac-expression-in-epithelial-cells
#3
Lingmei Huang, Jinding Pu, Fang He, Baoling Liao, Binwei Hao, Wei Hong, Xiuqin Ye, Jinglong Chen, Jun Zhao, Sha Liu, Juan Xu, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
Biomass fuel smoke is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is characterized by mucous cell metaplasia and enhanced mucus secretion. We investigated the effect of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) from wood smoke (WSPM2.5) on the expression of the most prominent secreted mucin, MUC5AC. Wood smoke was able to induce MUC5AC expression in the rat respiratory tract after 3 months of exposure. WSPM2.5 could induce MUC5AC production in both primary human airway epithelial cells and the NCI-H292 cell line...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886691/impaired-response-of-the-bronchial-epithelium-to-inflammation-characterizes-severe-equine-asthma
#4
Laurence Tessier, Olivier Côté, Mary Ellen Clark, Laurent Viel, Andrés Diaz-Méndez, Simon Anders, Dorothee Bienzle
BACKGROUND: Severe equine asthma is a naturally occurring lung inflammatory disease of mature animals characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion and airway remodeling. Exacerbations are triggered by inhalation of dust and microbial components. Affected animals eventually are unable of aerobic performance. In this study transcriptomic differences between asthmatic and non-asthmatic animals in the response of the bronchial epithelium to an inhaled challenge were determined...
September 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874459/protease-activated-receptor-2-activates-airway-apical-membrane-chloride-permeability-and-increases-ciliary-beating
#5
Derek B McMahon, Alan D Workman, Michael A Kohanski, Ryan M Carey, Jenna R Freund, Benjamin M Hariri, Bei Chen, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee
Mucociliary clearance, driven by the engine of ciliary beating, is the primary physical airway defense against inhaled pathogens and irritants. A better understanding of the regulation of ciliary beating and mucociliary transport is necessary for identifying new receptor targets to stimulate improved clearance in airway diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and chronic rhinosinusitis. In this study, we examined the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, a GPCR previously shown to regulate airway cell cytokine and mucus secretion, and transepithelial Cl(-) current...
September 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830530/prenatal-tobacco-smoke-exposure-predisposes-offspring-mice-to-exacerbated-allergic-airway-inflammation-associated-with-altered-innate-effector-function
#6
Maria Ferrini, Sophia Carvalho, Yoon Hee Cho, Britten Postma, Lucas Miranda Marques, Kent Pinkerton, Kevan Roberts, Zeina Jaffar
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal and early life environmental exposures have adverse effects on pulmonary function and are important contributors in the development of childhood asthma and allergic disease. The mechanism by which environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in utero promotes the development of allergic asthma remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to ETS in order to understand events responsible for the development or exacerbation of allergic asthma...
August 22, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815724/secreted-products-of-fasciola-hepatica-inhibit-the-induction-of-t-cell-responses-that-mediate-allergy
#7
Conor M Finlay, Anna M Stefanska, Michelle M Coleman, Hanne Jahns, Joseph P Cassidy, Rachel M McLoughlin, Kingston H G Mills
There is evidence from epidemiology studies of a negative association between infection with helminth parasites and the development of allergy and asthma. Here we demonstrate that the excretory/secretory products of the helminth Fasciola hepatica (FHES) protected mice against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma when administered at time of allergen sensitisation. FHES reduced the accumulation of mucus, eosinophils and lymphocytes into the airways of allergen-challenged mice. Furthermore, FHES treatment suppressed Th2 responses in the airways...
August 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805732/the-mechanistic-links-between-insulin-and-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-cftr-cl-channel
#8
REVIEW
Yoshinori Marunaka
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily and regulates Cl(-) secretion in epithelial cells for water secretion. Loss-of-function mutations to the CFTR gene cause dehydrated mucus on the apical side of epithelial cells and increase the susceptibility of bacterial infection, especially in the airway and pulmonary tissues. Therefore, research on the molecular properties of CFTR, such as its gating mechanism and subcellular trafficking, have been intensively pursued...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618071/histamine-receptor-2-modifies-inkt-cell-activity-within-the-inflamed-lung
#9
R Ferstl, R Frei, W Barcik, E Schiavi, K Wanke, M Ziegler, N Rodriguez-Perez, D Groeger, P Konieczna, S Zeiter, D Nehrbass, R Lauener, C A Akdis, L O'Mahony
BACKGROUND: Histamine is a key immunoregulatory mediator and can dampen proinflammatory responses via activation of histamine receptor 2 (H2 R). The aim of this study was to determine the role of H2 R in modulating lung inflammatory responses. METHODS: H2 R was blocked using famotidine or activated using dimaprit in both the ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite extract (HDM) murine models of respiratory inflammation. H2 R-deficient animals and CD1d/H2 R-deficient animals were utilized to examine the CD1d presentation of lipid antigens (αGalCer or OCH) to invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells...
June 15, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578323/oxytetracycline-inhibits-mucus-secretion-and-inflammation-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#10
Said Ahmad Shah, Hajime Ishinaga, Kazuhiko Takeuchi
Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, but its nonantibacterial effects in the human respiratory tract are unknown. In this study, the effects of oxytetracycline on mucus secretion and inflammation were examined by PCR and ELISA in the human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292. Oxytetracycline (10 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced MUC5AC gene expression and MUC5AC protein levels in NCI-H292 cells. It also downregulated IL-8 and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein levels. Our findings demonstrated that oxytetracycline suppressed mucus production and inflammation in human respiratory epithelial cells, providing further evidence for the usefulness of oxytetracycline for human airway inflammatory diseases...
2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543283/targeting-pp2a-and-proteasome-activity-ameliorates-features-of-allergic-airway-disease-in-mice
#11
P M Nair, M R Starkey, T J Haw, G Liu, J C Horvat, J C Morris, N M Verrills, A R Clark, A J Ammit, P M Hansbro
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an allergic airway disease (AAD) caused by aberrant immune responses to allergens. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase with anti-inflammatory activity. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) controls many cellular processes, including the initiation of inflammatory responses by protein degradation. We assessed whether enhancing PP2A activity with fingolimod (FTY720) or 2-amino-4-(4-(heptyloxy) phenyl)-2-methylbutan-1-ol (AAL(S) ), or inhibiting proteasome activity with bortezomib (BORT), could suppress experimental AAD...
May 24, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531919/bupleurum-chinense-extract-ameliorates-an-ova-induced-murine-allergic-asthma-through-the-reduction-of-the-th2-and-th17-cytokines-production-by-inactivation-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#12
Thi Tho Bui, Chun Hua Piao, Chang Ho Song, Hee Soon Shin, Ok Hee Chai
Bupleurum chinense belongs to the Bupleurum spp. family that has been used in traditional herbal medicine for over thousand years. It has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-fibrotic and immunomodulatory effect. However, the effect of B. Chinense on allergic asthma remains unclear. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of B. Chinense extracts (BCE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we evaluated the number of total cells, differential inflammatory cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung homogenate as well as histological structure...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470140/temporal-structure-function-variation-in-cultured-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelium-associated-with-acute-single-exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-or-e-cigarette-vapor
#13
Johnny L Carson, Laura Zhou, Luisa Brighton, Katherine H Mills, Haibo Zhou, Ilona Jaspers, Milan Hazucha
OBJECTIVE: Mucociliary clearance sustains a baseline functionality and an "on demand" capability to upregulate clearance upon irritant exposure involving mucus hypersecretion and accelerated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) modulated by nitric oxide (NO). This study characterized these elements as well as cellular and exogenous NO concentrations subsequent to a single exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) or e-cigarette vapor (EV) on cultured human airway epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-liquid interface (ALI) airway epithelial cultures per nonsmoking human subjects were subjected to single TS or EV exposures...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420758/the-foxm1-inhibitor-rcm-1-suppresses-goblet-cell-metaplasia-and-prevents-il-13-and-stat6-signaling-in-allergen-exposed-mice
#14
Lifeng Sun, Xiaomeng Ren, I-Ching Wang, Arun Pradhan, Yufang Zhang, Hannah M Flood, Bo Han, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Tanya V Kalin, Vladimir V Kalinichenko
Goblet cell metaplasia and excessive mucus secretion associated with asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. We performed a high-throughput screen to identify small molecules targeting a transcriptional network critical for the differentiation of goblet cells in response to allergens. We identified RCM-1, a nontoxic small molecule that inhibited goblet cell metaplasia and excessive mucus production in mice after exposure to allergens...
April 18, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129031/virus-like-particle-vaccines-containing-f-or-f-and-g-proteins-confer-protection-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-without-pulmonary-inflammation-in-cotton-rats
#15
Hye Suk Hwang, Ki-Hye Kim, Youri Lee, Young-Tae Lee, Eun-Ju Ko, SooJin Park, Jong Seok Lee, Byung-Cheol Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Martin L Moore, Sang-Moo Kang
Vaccine-enhanced disease has been a major obstacle in developing a safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study demonstrates the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines containing RSV F (F VLP), G (G VLP), or F and G proteins (FG VLP) in cotton rats. RSV specific antibodies were effectively induced by vaccination of cotton rats with F VLP or FG VLP vaccines. After challenge, lung RSV clearance was observed with RSV F, G, FG VLP, and formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccines...
May 4, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116959/immunomodulatory-indications-of-azithromycin-in-respiratory-disease-a-concise-review-for-the-clinician
#16
REVIEW
Cassondra L Cramer, Allie Patterson, Abdulrazak Alchakaki, Ayman O Soubani
Azithromycin has a well-characterized bacteriostatic activity. However, it also has a robust immunomodulatory effect that has proven beneficial in a variety of chronic illnesses. This effect results in decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the acute phase and promotes resolution of chronic inflammation in the later phases. Specifically, azithromycin has direct activity on airway epithelial cells to maintain their function and reduce mucus secretion. These characteristics have resulted in the use of azithromycin in the management of a variety of chronic lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, diffuse panbronchiolitis, and asthma...
June 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115645/evaluating-the-toxicity-of-cigarette-whole-smoke-solutions-in-an-air-liquid-interface-human-in-vitro-airway-tissue-model
#17
Xuefei Cao, Levan Muskhelishvili, John Latendresse, Patricia Richter, Robert H Heflich
Exposure to cigarette smoke causes a multitude of pathological changes leading to tissue damage and disease. Quantifying such changes in highly differentiated in vitro human tissue models may assist in evaluating the toxicity of tobacco products. In this methods development study, well-differentiated human air-liquid-interface (ALI) in vitro airway tissue models were used to assess toxicological endpoints relevant to tobacco smoke exposure. Whole mainstream smoke solutions (WSSs) were prepared from 2 commercial cigarettes (R60 and S60) that differ in smoke constituents when machine-smoked under International Organization for Standardization conditions...
March 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035597/identification-of-essential-genes-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-for-its-growth-in-airway-mucus
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mohammed Abd Alrahman, Sang Sun Yoon
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been identified as an important causative agent of airway infection, mainly in cystic fibrosis. This disease is characterized by defective mucociliary clearance induced in part by mucus hyper-production. Mucin is a major component of airway mucus and is heavily O-glycosylated, with a protein backbone. Airway infection is known to be established with bacterial adhesion to mucin. However, the genes involved in mucin degradation or utilization remain elusive. In this study, we sought to provide a genetic basis of P...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992060/cb2-receptors-regulate-natural-killer-cells-that-limit-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-asthma
#19
M E Ferrini, S Hong, A Stierle, D Stierle, N Stella, K Roberts, Z Jaffar
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease involving the complementary actions of innate and adaptive immune responses. Endogenously generated cannabinoids acting via CB2 receptors play important roles in both homeostatic and inflammatory processes. However, the contribution of CB2-acting eicosanoids to the innate events preceding sensitization to the common house dust mite (HDM) allergen remains to be elucidated. We investigated the role of CB2 activation during allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation and natural killer (NK) cell effector function...
June 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865862/impaired-mucus-clearance-exacerbates-allergen-induced-type-2-airway-inflammation-in-juvenile-mice
#20
Benedikt Fritzsching, Matthias Hagner, Lu Dai, Sandra Christochowitz, Raman Agrawal, Charlotte van Bodegom, Simone Schmidt, Jolanthe Schatterny, Stephanie Hirtz, Ryan Brown, Michelle Goritzka, Julia Duerr, Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Marcus A Mall
BACKGROUND: Type 2 airway inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced asthma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, we demonstrated that reduced mucociliary clearance, a characteristic feature of asthma, produces spontaneous type 2 airway inflammation in juvenile β-epithelial Na(+) channel (Scnn1b)-transgenic (Tg) mice. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the role of impaired mucus clearance in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced type 2 airway inflammation and identify cellular sources of the signature cytokine IL-13...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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