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traction force microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982683/mechanical-and-signaling-roles-for-keratin-intermediate-filaments-in-the-assembly-and-morphogenesis-of-mesendoderm-tissue-at-gastrulation
#1
Pooja R Sonavane, Chong Wang, Bette Dzamba, Gregory F Weber, Ammasi Periasamy, Douglas W DeSimone
Coordination of individual cell behaviors is a critical step in the assembly and morphogenesis of tissues. Xenopus mesendoderm cells migrate collectively along a fibronectin (FN) substrate at gastrulation but how the adhesive and mechanical forces required for these movements are generated and transmitted is unclear. Traction force microscopy (TFM) was used to establish that traction stresses are limited primarily to leading edge cells in mesendoderm explants and that these forces are balanced by intercellular stresses in follower rows...
October 5, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955712/analysis-of-contractility-and-invasion-potential-of-two-canine-mammary-tumor-cell-lines
#2
Kaisa Rajakylä, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Sari Tojkander
Cancer cells are surrounded by a mechanically and biochemically distinct microenvironment that undergoes dynamic changes throughout the neoplastic progression. During this progression, some cancer cells acquire abnormal characteristics that potentiate their escape from the primary tumor site, to establish secondary tumors in distant organs. Recent studies with several human cancer cell lines have shown that the altered physical properties of tumor cells, such as their ability to apply high traction forces to the surroundings, are directly linked with their potential to invade and metastasize...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952551/progress-in-integrative-biomaterial-systems-to-approach-three-dimensional-cell-mechanotransduction
#3
REVIEW
Ying Zhang, Kin Liao, Chuan Li, Alvin C K Lai, Ji-Jinn Foo, Vincent Chan
Mechanotransduction between cells and the extracellular matrix regulates major cellular functions in physiological and pathological situations. The effect of mechanical cues on biochemical signaling triggered by cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions on model biomimetic surfaces has been extensively investigated by a combination of fabrication, biophysical, and biological methods. To simulate the in vivo physiological microenvironment in vitro, three dimensional (3D) microstructures with tailored bio-functionality have been fabricated on substrates of various materials...
August 24, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931598/coordinated-increase-of-nuclear-tension-and-lamin-a-with-matrix-stiffness-out-competes-lamin-b-receptor-which-favors-soft-tissue-phenotypes
#4
Amnon Buxboim, Jerome Irianto, Joe Swift, Avathamsa Athirasala, Jae-Won Shin, Florian Rehfeldt, Dennis E Discher
Matrix stiffness that is sensed by a cell or measured by a purely physical probe reflects the intrinsic elasticity of the matrix and also how thick or thin the matrix is. Here, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their nuclei spread in response to thickness-corrected matrix micro-elasticity, with increases in nuclear tension and nuclear stiffness resulting from increases in myosin-II and lamin-A,C. Linearity between the widely varying projected area of a cell and its nucleus across many matrices, timescales, and myosin-II activity levels indicates a constant ratio of nucleus-to-cell volume, despite the differentiation potential of MSCs...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919310/cadherin-11-promotes-neural-crest-cell-spreading-by-reducing-intracellular-tension-mapping-adhesion-and-mechanics-in-neural-crest-explants-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#5
REVIEW
Carina Blaue, Jubin Kashef, Clemens M Franz
During development cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) display a striking transition from collective to single-cell migration, but the mechanisms enabling individual NCCs to separate from the neural crest tissue are still incompletely understood. In this study we have employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate potential adhesive and mechanical changes associated with the dissociation of individual cells from cohesive Xenopus NCC explants at early stages of migration. AFM-based single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) revealed a uniform distribution of cell-cell adhesion forces within NCC explants, including semi-detached leader cells in the process of delaminating from the explant edge...
September 15, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915383/force-activatable-biosensor-enables-single-platelet-force-mapping-directly-by-fluorescence-imaging
#6
Yongliang Wang, Dana N LeVine, Margaret Gannon, Yuanchang Zhao, Anwesha Sarkar, Bailey Hoch, Xuefeng Wang
Integrin-transmitted cellular forces are critical for platelet adhesion, activation, aggregation and contraction during hemostasis and thrombosis. Measuring and mapping single platelet forces are desired in both research and clinical applications. Conventional force-to-strain based cell traction force microscopies have low resolution which is not ideal for cellular force mapping in small platelets. To enable platelet force mapping with submicron resolution, we developed a force-activatable biosensor named integrative tension sensor (ITS) which directly converts molecular tensions to fluorescent signals, therefore enabling cellular force mapping directly by fluorescence imaging...
September 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836206/traction-force-measurement-using-deformable-microposts
#7
Tianfa Xie, Jamar Hawkins, Yubing Sun
Recent findings suggest that mechanical forces strongly influence wound repair and fibrosis across multiple organ systems. Traction force is vital to the characterization of cellular responses to mechanical stimuli. Using hydrogel-based traction force microscopy, a FRET-based tension sensor, or microengineered cantilevers, the magnitude of traction forces can be measured. Here, we describe a traction force measurement methodology using a dense array of elastomeric microposts. This platform can be used to measure the traction force of a single cell or a colony of cells with or without geometric confinement...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797233/full-l1-regularized-traction-force-microscopy-over-whole-cells
#8
Alejandro Suñé-Auñón, Alvaro Jorge-Peñas, Rocío Aguilar-Cuenca, Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Hans Van Oosterwyck, Arrate Muñoz-Barrutia
BACKGROUND: Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is a widespread technique to estimate the tractions that cells exert on the surrounding substrate. To recover the tractions, it is necessary to solve an inverse problem, which is ill-posed and needs regularization to make the solution stable. The typical regularization scheme is given by the minimization of a cost functional, which is divided in two terms: the error present in the data or data fidelity term; and the regularization or penalty term...
August 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793219/stiff-substrates-increase-inflammation-induced-endothelial-monolayer-tension-and-permeability
#9
Rebecca Lownes Urbano, Christina Furia, Sarah Basehore, Alisa Morss Clyne
Arterial stiffness and inflammation are associated with atherosclerosis, and each have individually been shown to increase endothelial monolayer tension and permeability. The objective of this study was to determine if substrate stiffness enhanced endothelial monolayer tension and permeability in response to inflammatory cytokines. Porcine aortic endothelial cells were cultured at confluence on polyacrylamide gels of varying stiffness and treated with either tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or thrombin. Monolayer tension was measured through vinculin localization at the cell membrane, traction force microscopy, and phosphorylated myosin light chain quantity and actin fiber colocalization...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753694/endogenous-sheet-averaged-tension-within-a-large-epithelial-cell-colony
#10
Sandeep P Dumbali, Lanju Mei, Shizhi Qian, Venkat Maruthamuthu
Epithelial cells form quasi-two-dimensional sheets that function as contractile media to effect tissue shape changes during development and homeostasis. Endogenously generated intrasheet tension is a driver of such changes, but has predominantly been measured in the presence of directional migration. The nature of epithelial cell-generated forces transmitted over supracellular distances, in the absence of directional migration, is thus largely unclear. In this report, we consider large epithelial cell colonies which are archetypical multicell collectives with extensive cell-cell contacts but with a symmetric (circular) boundary...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726917/engineering-micromyocardium-to-delineate-cellular-and-extracellular-regulation-of-myocardial-tissue-contractility
#11
Nethika R Ariyasinghe, Caitlin H Reck, Alyssa A Viscio, Andrew P Petersen, Davi M Lyra-Leite, Nathan Cho, Megan L McCain
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death, in part due to limitations of existing models of the myocardium. Myocardium consists of aligned, contractile cardiac myocytes interspersed with fibroblasts that synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). The cellular demographics and biochemical and mechanical properties of the ECM remodel in many different cardiac diseases. However, the impact of diverse cellular and extracellular remodeling on the contractile output of the myocardium are poorly understood...
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708434/epithelial-cells-induce-a-cyclooxygenase-1-dependent-endogenous-reduction-in-airway-smooth-muscle-contractile-phenotype
#12
Michael J O'Sullivan, Elizabeth Gabriel, Alice Panariti, Chan Y Park, Gijs Ijpma, Jeffrey J Fredberg, Anne-Marie Lauzon, James G Martin
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells are phenotypically regulated to exist in either a proliferative or a contractile state. However the influence of other airway structural cell types on ASM cell phenotype is largely unknown. Although epithelial cells are known to drive ASM proliferation, their effects on the contractile phenotype are uncertain. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that epithelial cells reduce the contractile phenotype of ASM cells. To do so, we measured force production by traction microscopy, gene and protein expression as well as calcium release by Fura-2 ratiometric imaging...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674019/changes-in-e-cadherin-rigidity-sensing-regulate-cell-adhesion
#13
Caitlin Collins, Aleksandra K Denisin, Beth L Pruitt, W James Nelson
Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (Ecad-Fc), we showed that E-cadherin-dependent epithelial cell adhesion was sensitive to changes in PA gel elastic modulus that produced striking differences in cell morphology, actin organization, and membrane dynamics...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655845/force-generation-by-groups-of-migrating-bacteria
#14
Benedikt Sabass, Matthias D Koch, Guannan Liu, Howard A Stone, Joshua W Shaevitz
From colony formation in bacteria to wound healing and embryonic development in multicellular organisms, groups of living cells must often move collectively. Although considerable study has probed the biophysical mechanisms of how eukaryotic cells generate forces during migration, little such study has been devoted to bacteria, in particular with regard to the question of how bacteria generate and coordinate forces during collective motion. This question is addressed here using traction force microscopy. We study two distinct motility mechanisms of Myxococcus xanthus, namely, twitching and gliding...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633918/traction-force-and-its-regulation-during-cytokinesis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#15
Md Golam Sarowar Jahan, Shigehiko Yumura
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division. Dictyostelium cells have multiple modes of cytokinesis, including cytokinesis A, B and C. Cytokinesis A is a conventional mode, which depends on myosin II in the contractile ring. Myosin II null cells divide depending on substratum-attachment (cytokinesis B) or in a multi-polar fashion independent of the cell cycle (cytokinesis C). We investigated the traction stress exerted by dividing cells in the three different modes using traction force microscopy. In all cases, the traction forces were directed inward from both poles...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627753/traction-force-microscopy-in-3-dimensional-extracellular-matrix-networks
#16
M Cóndor, J Steinwachs, C Mark, J M García-Aznar, B Fabry
Cell migration through a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix depends strongly on the ability of cells to generate traction forces. To overcome the steric hindrance of the matrix, cells need to generate sufficiently high traction forces but also need to distribute these forces spatially in a migration-promoting way. This unit describes a protocol to measure spatial maps of cell traction forces in 3-D biopolymer networks such as collagen, fibrin, or Matrigel. Traction forces are computed from the relationship between measured force-induced matrix deformations surrounding the cell and the known mechanical properties of the matrix...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604737/optogenetic-control-of-rhoa-reveals-zyxin-mediated-elasticity-of-stress-fibres
#17
Patrick W Oakes, Elizabeth Wagner, Christoph A Brand, Dimitri Probst, Marco Linke, Ulrich S Schwarz, Michael Glotzer, Margaret L Gardel
Cytoskeletal mechanics regulates cell morphodynamics and many physiological processes. While contractility is known to be largely RhoA-dependent, the process by which localized biochemical signals are translated into cell-level responses is poorly understood. Here we combine optogenetic control of RhoA, live-cell imaging and traction force microscopy to investigate the dynamics of actomyosin-based force generation. Local activation of RhoA not only stimulates local recruitment of actin and myosin but also increased traction forces that rapidly propagate across the cell via stress fibres and drive increased actin flow...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532442/an-integrated-enhancement-and-reconstruction-strategy-for-the-quantitative-extraction-of-actin-stress-fibers-from-fluorescence-micrographs
#18
Zhen Zhang, Shumin Xia, Pakorn Kanchanawong
BACKGROUND: The stress fibers are prominent organization of actin filaments that perform important functions in cellular processes such as migration, polarization, and traction force generation, and whose collective organization reflects the physiological and mechanical activities of the cells. Easily visualized by fluorescence microscopy, the stress fibers are widely used as qualitative descriptors of cell phenotypes. However, due to the complexity of the stress fibers and the presence of other actin-containing cellular features, images of stress fibers are relatively challenging to quantitatively analyze using previously developed approaches, requiring significant user intervention...
May 22, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521203/3d-full-field-quantification-of-cell-induced-large-deformations-in-fibrillar-biomaterials-by-combining-non-rigid-image-registration-with-label-free-second-harmonic-generation
#19
Alvaro Jorge-Peñas, Hannelore Bové, Kathleen Sanen, Marie-Mo Vaeyens, Christian Steuwe, Maarten Roeffaers, Marcel Ameloot, Hans Van Oosterwyck
To advance our current understanding of cell-matrix mechanics and its importance for biomaterials development, advanced three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are necessary. Cell-induced deformations of the surrounding matrix are commonly derived from the displacement of embedded fiducial markers, as part of traction force microscopy (TFM) procedures. However, these fluorescent markers may alter the mechanical properties of the matrix or can be taken up by the embedded cells, and therefore influence cellular behavior and fate...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476967/in-situ-fabrication-of-zirconium-titanium-nano-composite-and-its-coating-on-ti-6al-4v-for-biomedical-applications
#20
Manickam Chellappa, Uthirapathy Vijayalakshmi
In this study, nanocomposite powder consisting of zirconia and titania (Zr-Ti) have been synthesised by sol-gel method, with the aim of protecting Ti-6Al-4V surface. A simple and low cost electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique has been employed for coating the nanocomposite material on Ti-6Al-4V. The prepared nanocomposite powder was characterised for its functional groups, phase purity, surface topography by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy...
February 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
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