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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435849/effects-of-cyclic-compression-on-the-mechanical-properties-and-calcification-process-of-immature-chick-bone-tissue-in-culture
#1
Eijiro Maeda, Masashi Nakagaki, Katsuhisa Ichikawa, Kazuaki Nagayama, Takeo Matsumoto
Contribution of mechanical loading to tissue growth during both the development and post-natal maturation is of a particular interest, as its understanding would be important to strategies in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The present study has been performed to investigate how immature bone responds to mechanical loading using an ex vivo culture system. A slice of the tibia, with the thickness of 3 mm, was obtained from 0-day-old chick. For the ex vivo culture experiment in conjunction with cyclic compressive loading, we developed a custom-made, bioreactor system where both the load and the deformation applied to the specimen was recorded...
June 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435085/adolescent-changes-in-hindbrain-noradrenergic-a2-neurons-in-male-rats
#2
Laurie Pham, Madelyn R Baker, Ziasmin Shahanoor, Russell D Romeo
During adolescence, the increased susceptibility to stress-related dysfunctions (e.g., anxiety, drug use, obesity) may be influenced by changes in the hormonal stress response mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We have previously reported that restraint stress leads to significantly prolonged HPA responses in pre-adolescent compared to adult rats. Further, pre-adolescent animals exposed to restraint show greater levels of neural activation than adults in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), a key nucleus integrating information from brain regions that coordinate HPA responses...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434685/influence-of-inhomogeneous-dental-posts-on-stress-distribution-in-tooth-root-and-interfaces-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#3
Mojtaba Mahmoudi, Ali Reza Saidi, Parviz Amini, Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: In post-core crown restorations, the use of flexible posts concentrates stresses at the dentin and the use of stiff posts concentrates stresses at the interfaces. A class of inhomogeneous materials (called functionally graded materials) has been proposed for posts to resolve the weaknesses of both flexible and rigid posts. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to design an inhomogeneous post and investigate its influence on the stress distribution of post-core crown restorations...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430298/an-experimental-numerical-investigation-on-the-effects-of-macroporous-scaffold-geometry-on-cell-culture-parameters
#4
Hadis Eghbali, Michele M Nava, Gabriella Leonardi, Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori, Roberto Sebastiano, Abdolreza Samimi, Manuela T Raimondi
INTRODUCTION: Perfused bioreactors have been demonstrated to be effective in the delivery of nutrients and in the removal of waste products to and from the interior of cell-populated three-dimensional scaffolds. In this paper, a perfused bioreactor hosting a macroporous scaffold provided with a channel is used to investigate transport phenomena and culture parameters on cell growth. METHODS: MG63 human osteosarcoma cells were seeded on macroporous poly​(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds provided with a channel...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428255/nucleosome-nucleosome-interactions-via-histone-tails-and-linker-dna-regulate-nuclear-rigidity
#5
Yuta Shimamoto, Sachiko Tamura, Hiroshi Masumoto, Kazuhiro Maeshima
Cells, as well as the nuclei inside them, experience significant mechanical stress in diverse biological processes including contraction, migration, and adhesion. The structural stability of nuclei must therefore be maintained in order to protect genome integrity. Despite extensive knowledge on nuclear architecture and components, however, the underlying physical and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We addressed this in the present study by subjecting isolated human cell nuclei to microneedle-based quantitative micromanipulation with a series of biochemical perturbations of the chromatin...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427886/identification-of-excipients-for-stabilizing-fiberless-adenovirus-as-biopharmaceuticals
#6
Grit Kupgan, Shyamal P Choudhari, Nicholas H Flynn, Adane Nigatu, Sravanthi Vupputuri, William D Picking, Wendy L Picking, Joshua D Ramsey
Reducing the promiscuous tropism of native adenovirus by using fiberless adenovirus is advantageous towards its use as a gene therapy vector or vaccine component. The removal of the fiber protein on native adenovirus abrogates several undesirable interactions; however, this approach decreases the particle's physical stability. In order to create stable fiberless adenovirus for pharmaceutical use, the effects of temperature and pH on the particle's stability profile must be addressed. Our results indicate that the stability of fiberless adenovirus is increased when it is stored in mildly acidic conditions around pH 6...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425587/hybrid-finite-difference-finite-element-immersed-boundary-method
#7
Boyce E Griffith, Xiaoyu Luo
The immersed boundary method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses a Lagrangian description of the structural deformations, stresses, and forces along with an Eulerian description of the momentum, viscosity, and incompressibility of the fluid-structure system. The original immersed boundary methods described immersed elastic structures using systems of flexible fibers, and even now, most immersed boundary methods still require Lagrangian meshes that are finer than the Eulerian grid. This work introduces a coupling scheme for the immersed boundary method to link the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables that facilitates independent spatial discretizations for the structure and background grid...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424626/a-rat-immobilization-model-based-on-cage-volume-reduction-a-physiological-model-for-bed-rest
#8
Enrica Marmonti, Sílvia Busquets, Míriam Toledo, Marina Ricci, Marc Beltrà, Victòria Gudiño, Francesc Oliva, José M López-Pedrosa, Manuel Manzano, Ricardo Rueda, Francisco J López-Soriano, Josep M Argilés
Bed rest has been an established treatment in the past prescribed for critically illness or convalescing patients, in order to preserve their body metabolic resource, to prevent serious complications and to support their rapid path to recovery. However, it has been reported that prolonged bed rest can have detrimental consequences that may delay or prevent the recovery from clinical illness. In order to study disuse-induced changes in muscle and bone, as observed during prolonged bed rest in humans, an innovative new model of muscle disuse for rodents is presented...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424310/heart-rate-regulation-in-diving-sea-lions-the-vagus-nerve-rules
#9
REVIEW
Paul J Ponganis, Birgitte I McDonald, Michael S Tift, Cassondra L Williams
Recent publications have emphasized the potential generation of morbid cardiac arrhythmias secondary to autonomic conflict in diving marine mammals. Such conflict, as typified by cardiovascular responses to cold water immersion in humans, has been proposed to result from exercise-related activation of cardiac sympathetic fibers to increase heart rate, combined with depth-related changes in parasympathetic tone to decrease heart rate. After reviewing the marine mammal literature and evaluating heart rate profiles of diving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), we present an alternative interpretation of heart rate regulation that de-emphasizes the concept of autonomic conflict and the risk of morbid arrhythmias in marine mammals...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422762/silencing-smoc2-ameliorates-kidney-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-transformation
#10
Casimiro Gerarduzzi, Ramya K Kumar, Priyanka Trivedi, Amrendra K Ajay, Ashwin Iyer, Sarah Boswell, John N Hutchinson, Sushrut S Waikar, Vishal S Vaidya
Secreted modular calcium-binding protein 2 (SMOC2) belongs to the secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) family of matricellular proteins whose members are known to modulate cell-matrix interactions. We report that SMOC2 is upregulated in the kidney tubular epithelial cells of mice and humans following fibrosis. Using genetically manipulated mice with SMOC2 overexpression or knockdown, we show that SMOC2 is critically involved in the progression of kidney fibrosis. Mechanistically, we found that SMOC2 activates a fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) to stimulate stress fiber formation, proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix production...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421329/characterization-of-two-tt2-type-myb-transcription-factors-regulating-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-tetraploid-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum
#11
Nan Lu, Marissa Roldan, Richard A Dixon
Two TT2-type MYB transcription factors identified from tetraploid cotton are involved in regulating proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, providing new strategies for engineering condensed tannins in crops. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites involved in stress resistance in plants, and are health supplements that help to reduce cholesterol levels. As one of the most widely grown crops in the world, cotton provides the majority of natural fabrics and is a supplemental food for ruminant animals...
April 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419804/simultaneous-reconstruction-of-the-medial-and-lateral-collateral-ligaments-for-chronic-combined-ligament-injuries-of-the-ankle
#12
Toshito Yasuda, Hiroaki Shima, Katsunori Mori, Seiya Tsujinaka, Masashi Neo
BACKGROUND: Objective data on chronic injuries of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the ankle are scarce. Chronic MCL injuries are frequently associated with lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries. For patients with chronic combined MCL and LCL injuries, the authors have performed simultaneous surgery of the 2 ligaments. HYPOTHESIS: Simultaneous surgery of the 2 ligaments may be effectively used to treat chronic combined MCL and LCL injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418035/chronic-social-defeat-reduces-myelination-in-the-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Michael L Lehmann, Thaddeus K Weigel, Abdel G Elkahloun, Miles Herkenham
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in top-down control of the brain's stress axis, and its structure and function are particularly vulnerable to stress effects, which can lead to depression in humans and depressive-like states in animals. We tested whether chronic social defeat produces structural alterations in the mPFC in mice. We first performed a microarray analysis of mPFC gene expression changes induced by defeat, and biological pathway analysis revealed a dominant pattern of down-regulation of myelin-associated genes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415441/stress-stiffened-silicon-nitride-micro-bridges-array-as-substrate-with-tunable-stiffness-for-cell-culture
#14
Jianfeng Chen, Guangli Liu, Chengfu Ma, Gang Zhao, Wenqiang Du, Wulin Zhu, Jiaru Chu
Recently, interactions between one-dimensional structural stiffness of physical micro environments and cell biological process have been widely studied. However in previous studies, the influence of structural stiffness on biological process was coupled with the influence of micro fiber curvature. Therefore decoupling the influences of fiber curvature and structural stiffness on cell biological process is of prime importance. In this study, we proposed a novel cell culture substrate comprised of silicon nitride bridges whose structure stiffness can be regulated by altering the axial residual stress without changing material and geometry properties...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415422/synthesis-and-characterization-of-redox-sensitive-heparin-%C3%AE-sitosterol-micelles-their-application-as-carriers-for-the-pharmaceutical-agent-doxorubicin-and-investigation-of-their-antimetastatic-activities-in-vitro
#15
Tilahun Ayane Debele, Shewaye Lakew Mekuria, Hsieh-Chih Tsai
Although there are several clinical attempts to treat tumors at the primary site, only few therapies can inhibit the spread of metastatic cancers. In this study, we synthesized redox-sensitive heparin-β-sitosterol micelles that show antimetastatic activity. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared analyses confirmed the formation of bioreducible heparin-β-sitosterol (bHSC) conjugates, whereas dynamic light scattering was used to measure the particle size and zeta potential. Both 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry assays confirmed the low toxicity of the synthesized micelles...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414734/micrornas-as-reference-genes-for-quantitative-pcr-in-cotton
#16
Anna Karoline Silva Fausto, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Elisson Romanel, Maite F S Vaslin
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is the most important non-food plant in the world. Studies concerning the fiber quality and plant fitness of cotton at molecular level depend on high sensitive and reproducible gene-expression assays. However, only a few reports have described genes suitable for normalizing gene expression data. In this study, we report for the first time that microRNAs (miRNAs) are reliable reference genes (RGs) for cotton gene expression normalization in quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409417/how-nucleus-mechanics-and-ecm-microstructure-influence-the-invasion-of-single-cells-and-multicellular-aggregates
#17
Chiara Giverso, Alessandro Arduino, Luigi Preziosi
In order to move in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix, the nucleus of a cell must squeeze through the narrow spacing among the fibers and, by adhering to them, the cell needs to exert sufficiently strong traction forces. If the nucleus is too stiff, the spacing too narrow, or traction forces too weak, the cell is not able to penetrate the network. In this article, we formulate a mathematical model based on an energetic approach, for cells entering cylindrical channels composed of extracellular matrix fibers...
April 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408886/a-pointwise-method-for-identifying-biomechanical-heterogeneity-of-the-human-gallbladder
#18
Wenguang Li, Nigel C Bird, Xiaoyu Luo
Identifying the heterogeneous biomechanical property of human gallbladder (GB) walls from non-invasive measurements can have clinical significance in patient-specific modeling and acalculous biliary pain diagnosis. In this article, a pointwise method was proposed to measure the heterogeneity of ten samples of human GB during refilling. Three different points, two on the equator of GB body 90° apart and one on the apex of GB fundus, were chosen to represent the typical regions of interest. The stretches at these points were estimated from ultrasound images of the GB during the bile emptying phase based on an analytical model...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408059/effect-of-a-high-protein-high-fiber-diet-plus-supplementation-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-the-nutritional-status-of-patients-with-cirrhosis
#19
A Ruiz-Margáin, R U Macías-Rodríguez, S L Ríos-Torres, B M Román-Calleja, O Méndez-Guerrero, P Rodríguez-Córdova, A Torre
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The potential benefits of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in cirrhosis extend beyond just the improvement of nutritional status. Their effects include improvement of glucose tolerance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, as has been shown in several studies. A dual nutritional approach of a high-protein, high-fiber diet plus BCAAs in cirrhosis could have additional benefits, compared with BCAAs alone. Such an approach has not been explored and therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of a high-protein, high-fiber diet plus BCAA supplementation over a 6-month period of time on the nutritional status of patients with cirrhosis, as well as its safety and tolerability for those same patients...
April 10, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405836/chondrogenesis-and-hypertrophy-in-response-to-aggregate-behaviors-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-a-dendrimer-immobilized-surface
#20
Sopita Wongin, Yuuki Ogawa, Mee-Hae Kim, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat, Masahiro Kino-Oka
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the behaviors of aggregates of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy using spatiotemporal expression patterns of chondrogenic (type II collagen) and hypertrophic (type X collagen) markers during chondrogenesis. RESULTS: hMSCs were cultured on either a polystyrene surface or polyamidoamine dendrimer surface with a fifth generation (G5) dendron structure in chondrogenic medium and growth medium...
April 12, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
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