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Lauren Tennyson, Matthew Rytel, Stacy Palcsey, Leslie Meyn, Rui Liang, Pamela Moalli
BACKGROUND: Polypropylene mesh is widely used for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. While these surgeries demonstrate favorable functional and anatomical outcomes, their use has been limited by complications, the two most common being exposure and pain. Growing evidence suggests T lymphocytes play a critical role in regulating the host response to biomaterials. OBJECTIVES: To define and characterize the T cell response and correlate the response to collagen deposition in fibrotic capsules in mesh tissue complexes removed for the complications of pain versus exposure...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Pengcheng Li, Joy Nyangasi Kirungu, Hejun Lu, Richard Odongo Magwanga, Pu Lu, Xiaoyan Cai, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Yuqing Hou, Yuhong Wang, Yanchao Xu, Renhai Peng, Yingfan Cai, Yun Zhou, Kunbo Wang, Fang Liu
Wild cotton species have significant agronomic traits that can be introgressed into elite cultivated varieties. The use of a genetic map is important in exploring, identification and mining genes which carry significant traits. In this study, 188 F2mapping individuals were developed from Gossypium thurberi (female) and Gossypium trilobum (male), and were genotyped by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 12,560 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, developed by Southwest University, thus coded SWU were screened out of which only 994 were found to be polymorphic, and 849 markers were linked in all the 13 chromosomes...
2018: PloS One
Sahar Y Al-Okbi, Doha A Mohamed, Eman E Abd-Elhady, Ahmed M S Hussein, Enas S K Al-Siedy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accused as inducer of both cardiovascular and chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of combined freeze dried orange juice with its dried pulp supplemented with methionine, as functional food, in comparison to orange bioactive constituents, as parallel formula, in NAFLD rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximate composition, dietary fibers, minerals, total phenolics, fatty acids and phytosterols were determined in the orange functional food...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Fiaz Alam, Zainab Shafique, Sayyeda Tayyeba Amjad, Mohammad Hassham Hassan Bin Asad
Natural products have been extensively investigated for antidiabetic therapy. Many of the natural products have direct or indirect effect in diabetes pathways as enzyme inhibitors. The most involved mechanisms are inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase, lens aldose reductase, oxidative stress protection, inhibition of formation of advanced glycation end products, inhibition of aldose reductase, lowering plasma glucose levels, altering enzyme activity of hexokinases and glucose-6-phosphate, synthesizing and releasing of insulin, postprandial hyperglycemia inhibition, stimulation of GLUT-4, decreasing activity of G6P, lowering the level of skeletal hexokinases, etc...
November 11, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Reza Avazmohammadi, Michael Hill, Marc Simon, Michael Sacks
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) imposes substantial pressure overload on the right ventricular free wall (RVFW), leading to myofiber hypertrophy and remodeling of its collagen fiber architecture. The transmural nature of these adaptations and their effects on the macroscopic mechanical behavior of the RVFW remain largely unexplored. In the present work, we extended our constitutive model for RVFW myocardium to investigate the transmural mechanical and structural remodeling post-PAH. Recent murine experimental studies provided us with comprehensive histomorphological and biaxial mechanical data for viable, passive myocardium for normal and post hypertensive cases...
December 2017: APL bioengineering
Weiren Luo, Fei Gao, Siyi Li, Lei Liu
Background: The self-renewal and tumourigenicity of FoxM1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain largely unknown. In this study, we attempt to investigate the self-renewal and tumourigenicity of FoxM1 and its clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Several assays including cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, colony formation, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, tumor spheres, and mice model were used to detect the biological function of FoxM1 in NPC. The association between FoxM1 and clinical pathological features, and stem cell markers was analyzed using immunohistochemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Dušan T Sokolović, Ljubiša Lilić, Vesko Milenković, Rade Stefanović, Tatjana Popović Ilić, Branimir Mekić, Igor Ilić, Nikola M Stojanović, Ivan R Ilić
Animal models demonstrating skeletal muscle (SM) disorders are rarely investigated, although these disorders accompany liver disorders and can occur during prolonged exercise/training. In cases of SM disorders exogenous antioxidants, such as melatonin, could help by generally improving tissues antioxidant capacities. We aimed to analyze the potential of melatonin in preventing biochemical and structural changes in rat biceps muscle (BM) occurring after an acute exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). Biceps muscles obtained from male Wistar rats belonging to different experimental groups were biochemically (determination of tissue MDA, total antioxidant capacity, GSH, CAT, SOD and GPx activities) and pathologically analyzed...
November 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Jeffrey M Mattson, Yunjie Wang, Yanhang Zhang
The contribution of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to the biological and mechanical functions of biological tissue has emerged as an important area of research. GAGs provide structural basis for the organization and assembly of extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanics of tissue with low GAG content can be indirectly affected by the interaction of GAGs with collagen fibers, which have long been known to be one of the primary contributors to soft tissue mechanics. Our earlier study showed that enzymatic GAG depletion results in straighter collagen fibers that are recruited at lower levels of stretch, and a corresponding shift in earlier arterial stiffening (Mattson et al...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Matthew J Socha, Steven S Segal
Effective oxygen delivery to active muscle fibers requires that vasodilation initiated in distal arterioles, which control flow distribution and capillary perfusion, ascends the resistance network into proximal arterioles and feed arteries, which govern total blood flow into the muscle. With exercise onset, ascending vasodilation reflects initiation and conduction of hyperpolarization along endothelium from arterioles into feed arteries. Electrical coupling of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells evokes the rapid component of ascending vasodilation, which is sustained by ensuing release of nitric oxide during elevated luminal shear stress...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Vladimir B Issurin
Block periodized (BP) training is an innovative and prospective approach that is drawing increasing attention from coaching scientists and practitioners. However, its further dissemination and implementation demands serious scientific biological underpinnings. More specifically, the fundamental scientific concepts of homeostatic regulation, stress adaptation and the law of supercompensation determine the biological essence and content of appropriate block mesocycles, i.e., the accumulation, transmutation and realization cycles, respectively...
November 8, 2018: Sports Medicine
Naima Ali, Jennifer Marsh, Simon Godfrey, Daryl R Williams
The sorption of aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia solutions in keratin fibers and its subsequent effect on their mechanical performance has been investigated. The diffusion kinetics of MEA into keratin fibers for 0.1, 1.0, and 5 v/v % MEA in water at 30 and 50 °C were found to exhibit two clear regimes of absorption behavior: a linear Fickian diffusion regime for initial times up to 100 min, after which a second slower uptake process was observed. Single fiber tensile tests showed that the Young's modulus and the tensile failure stress for 5% MEA-treated fibers, compared to untreated fibers, were 25% lower after 1 h of treatment and 50% lower after 9 h of treatment...
October 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Adriana Palmeira Dias Rodrigues, Anelize Sartori Santos Bortolozzo, Fernanda Magalhães Arantes-Costa, Beatriz Mangueira Saraiva-Romanholo, Flávia Castro Ribas de Souza, Thayse Regina Brüggemann, Fernanda Paula Roncon Santana, Marlon Vilela de Brito, Camila Ramalho Bonturi, Natalia Neto Dos Santos Nunes, Carla Máximo Prado, Edna Aparecida Leick, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva, Milton de Arruda Martins, Renato Fraga Righetti, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo Tibério
INTRODUCTION: Proteinase inhibitors have been associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and may represent a potential therapeutic treatment for asthma. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI) on pulmonary mechanical function, eosinophilic recruitment, inflammatory cytokines, remodeling and oxidative stress in an experimental model of chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation...
November 8, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Wei Li, Kuan Sun, Zhongying Ren, Chengxiang Song, Xiaoyu Pei, Yangai Liu, Zhenyu Wang, Kunlun He, Fei Zhang, Xiaojian Zhou, Xiongfeng Ma, Daigang Yang
Sucrose transporters (SUTs) play key roles in allocating the translocation of assimilates from source to sink tissues. Although the characteristics and biological roles of SUTs have been intensively investigated in higher plants, this gene family has not been functionally characterized in cotton. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of SUT genes in the tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum . A total of 18 G. hirsutum SUT genes were identified and classified into three groups based on their evolutionary relationships...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Manuela Lavorato, Emanuele Loro, Valentina Debattisti, Tejvir Khurana, Clara Franzini-Armstrong
Mitochondria respond to stress and undergo fusion and fission at variable rates, depending on the cell status. To understand mitochondria behavior during muscle fatigue, we investigated mitochondria ultrastructure and the level of a fission and stress-related protein in fast muscle fibers of mice subjected to fatigue. Mice were forced running at increasing speed till exhaustion at 45'-1 hr. In other mice high-intensity muscle stimulation through the sciatic nerve simulated the forced treadmill exercise. We detect the unusual presence of a rare phenotype characterized by Elongated Mitochondria Constrictions (EMCs) connecting two separate segments of the original organelles...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Jia Liu, Tiantian Xu, Yanming Guan, Xiaohui Yan, Chengwei Ye, Xinyu Wu
Various kinds of helical swimmers inspired by E. coli bacteria have been developed continually in many types of researches, but most of them are proposed by the rigid bodies. For the targeted drug delivery, the rigid body may hurt soft tissues of the working region with organs. Due to this problem, the biomedical applications of helical swimmers may be restricted. However, the helical microswimmers with the soft and deformable body are appropriate and highly adaptive in a confined environment. Thus, this paper presents a lotus-root-based helical microswimmer, which is fabricated by the fibers of lotus-root coated with magnetic nanoparticles to active under the magnetic fields...
November 30, 2017: Micromachines
Steven Kornguth, Neal Rutledge
Objectives: To assemble an algorithm that will describe a "Signature" predictive of an individual's vulnerability to persistent traumatic brain injury (TBI). Subjects and Methods: Studies of athletes and warriors who are subjected to repeated head impacts with rapid acceleration/deceleration forces are used to assist in the diagnosis and management of TBI-affected individuals. Data from multiple areas, including clinical, anatomical, magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive function, and biochemical analyses, are integrated to provide a Signature of persistent TBI...
2018: Biomarker Insights
Navideh Mirzakhani, Amir Abbas Farshid, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Mehdi Imani, Amir Erfanparast, Farahnaz Noroozinia
AIMS: Peripheral nerve injury represents a substantial clinical problem with insufficient or unsatisfactory treatment options. Current researches have extensively focused on the new approaches for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. Carnosine is a naturally occurring pleotropic dipeptide and has many biological functions such as antioxidant property. In the present study, we examined the regenerative ability of carnosine after sciatic nerve crush injury using behavioral, biochemical, histological and ultrastructural evaluations...
October 31, 2018: Life Sciences
R Pramanik, B Ganivada, Farsa Ram, Kadhiravan Shanmuganathan, A Arockiarajan
Xerogels are porous networks of crosslinked polymers that are useful for biomedical applications such as drug delivery, scaffold engineering, tissue regeneration, cell culture and wound dressing. However, inferior mechanical properties curtail their applications to a considerable extent. Nanocellulose fibers and crystals are often added into the polymer matrix to improve their mechanical strength. Here, nanocellulose in the mass ratios of 7%, 13% and 18% are loaded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix followed by thermo-morpho-mechanical characterization...
October 19, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Nikolaos Karathanasopoulos, Georgios Arampatzis, J-Francois Ganghoffer
We investigate the capacity of tendons to bear substantial loads by exploiting their hierarchical structure and the viscous nature of their subunits. We model and analyze two successive tendon scales: the fibril and fiber subunits. We present a novel method for bridging intra-scale experimental observations by combining a homogenization analysis technique with a Bayesian inference method. This allows us to infer elastic and viscoelastic moduli at the embedded fibril scale that are mechanically compatible with the experimental data observed at the fiber scale...
October 19, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Kazunari Yoshizawa, Hiroyuki Murata, Hiromasa Tanaka
Adhesion is one of the most interesting subjects in interface phenomena from the viewpoint of wide-range applications as well as basic science. Interfacial water has significant effects on coatings, adhesives, and fiber-reinforced polymer composites, often causing adhesion loss. The way of thinking based on quantum mechanics is essential for a better understanding of physical and chemical properties of adhesive interfaces. In this work, the molecular mechanism of the adhesion interaction between epoxy resin and hydroxylated alumina surface in the presence of interfacial water molecules is investigated by using density-functional tight-binding calculations...
November 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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