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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647758/a-meta-analysis-of-quantitative-trait-loci-for-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-resistance-in-tetraploid-cotton
#1
Abdelraheem Abdelraheem, Feng Liu, Mingzhou Song, Jinfa F Zhang
The number and location of mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) depend on genetic populations and testing environments. The identification of consistent QTL across genetic backgrounds and environments is a pre-requisite to marker-assisted selection. This study analyzed a total of 661 abiotic and biotic stress resistance QTL based on our previous work and other publications using the meta-analysis software Biomercator. It identified chromosomal regions containing QTL clusters for different resistance traits and hotspots for a particular resistance trait in cotton from 98 QTL for drought tolerance under greenhouse (DT) and 150 QTL in field conditions (FDT), 80 QTL for salt tolerance in the greenhouse conditions (ST), 201 QTL for resistance to Verticillium wilt (VW, Verticillium dahliae), 47 QTL for resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW, Fusarium oxysporum f...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646754/free-energy-analysis-of-cell-spreading
#2
Eóin McEvoy, Vikram S Deshpande, Patrick McGarry
In this study we present a steady-state adaptation of the thermodynamically motivated stress fiber (SF) model of Vigliotti et al. (2015). We implement this steady-state formulation in a non-local finite element setting where we also consider global conservation of the total number of cytoskeletal proteins within the cell, global conservation of the number of binding integrins on the cell membrane, and adhesion limiting ligand density on the substrate surface. We present a number of simulations of cell spreading in which we consider a limited subset of the possible deformed spread-states assumed by the cell in order to examine the hypothesis that free energy minimization drives the process of cell spreading...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645379/dna-fiber-analysis-mind-the-gap
#3
Annabel Quinet, Denisse Carvajal-Maldonado, Delphine Lemacon, Alessandro Vindigni
Understanding the mechanisms of replication stress response following genotoxic stress induction is rapidly emerging as a central theme in cell survival and human disease. The DNA fiber assay is one of the most powerful tools to study alterations in replication fork dynamics genome-wide at single-molecule resolution. This approach relies on the ability of many organisms to incorporate thymidine analogs into replicating DNA and is widely used to study how genotoxic agents perturb DNA replication. Here, we review different approaches available to prepare DNA fibers and discuss important limitations of each approach...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645333/sac-1004-a-vascular-leakage-blocker-reduces-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-suppressing-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-inflammation
#4
Haiying Zhang, Joon Ha Park, Sony Maharjan, Jeong Ae Park, Kyu-Sung Choi, Hyojin Park, Yoonjeong Jeong, Ji Hyeon Ahn, In Hye Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, In-Kyu Lee, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Moo-Ho Won, Young-Guen Kwon
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and inflammation are critical events in ischemic stroke, contributing to aggravated brain damage. The BBB mainly consists of microvascular endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions to protect the brain from blood-borne substances. Thus, the maintenance of BBB integrity may be a potential target for neuroprotection. Sac-1004, a pseudo-sugar derivative of cholesterol, enhances the endothelial barrier by the stabilization of the cortical actin ring...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644070/particulate-matter-disrupts-human-lung-endothelial-cell-barrier-integrity-via-rho-dependent-pathways
#5
Ting Wang, Yuka Shimizu, Xiaomin Wu, Gabriel T Kelly, Xiaoyan Xu, Lichun Wang, Zhongqing Qian, Yin Chen, Joe G N Garcia
Increased exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases and cancer. We and others have shown that PM induces lung microvascular barrier dysfunction which potentially enhances the systemic toxicity of PM. However, the mechanisms by which PM disrupts vascular endothelial integrity remain incompletely explored. We hypothesize that PM induces endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton rearrangement via Rho GTPase-dependent pathways to facilitate vascular hyperpermeability...
June 23, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642549/focal-adhesion-kinase-regulates-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-and-liver-fibrosis
#6
Xue-Ke Zhao, Lei Yu, Ming-Liang Cheng, Pulin Che, Yin-Ying Lu, Quan Zhang, Mao Mu, Hong Li, Li-Li Zhu, Juan-Juan Zhu, Meng Hu, Po Li, Yue-Dong Liang, Xin-Hua Luo, Yi-Ju Cheng, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Qiang Ding
Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis is important to develop effective therapy. Herein, we show that focal-adhesion-kinse (FAK) plays a key role in promoting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation in vitro and liver fibrosis progression in vivo. FAK activation is associated with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen in fibrotic live tissues. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) induces FAK activation in a time and dose dependent manner. FAK activation precedes the α-SMA expression in HSCs...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642348/confined-in-fiber-solidification-and-structural-control-of-silicon-and-silicon-germanium-microparticles
#7
Alexander Gumennik, Etgar C Levy, Benjamin Grena, Chong Hou, Michael Rein, Ayman F Abouraddy, John D Joannopoulos, Yoel Fink
Crystallization of microdroplets of molten alloys could, in principle, present a number of possible morphological outcomes, depending on the symmetry of the propagating solidification front and its velocity, such as axial or spherically symmetric species segregation. However, because of thermal or constitutional supercooling, resulting droplets often only display dendritic morphologies. Here we report on the crystallization of alloyed droplets of controlled micrometer dimensions comprising silicon and germanium, leading to a number of surprising outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640482/organogelator-cellulose-composite-for-practical-and-eco-friendly-marine-oil-spill-recovery
#8
Kana M Sureshan, Annamalai Prathap
Marine oil-spills pose serious threats to the ecosystem and economy. There is much interest in developing sorbents that can tackle such spills. We have developed a novel sorbent by impregnating cellulose pulp with a sugar-derived oleogelator, 1,2:5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-mannitol. The gelator molecules mask the surface-exposed hydroxyl groups of cellulose fibrils by engaging them in H-bonding and expose their hydrophobic parts making the fibers temporarily hydrophobic (water contact-angle 110°). This sorbent absorbs oil effectively, selectively and instantly from oil-water mixtures due to its hydrophobicity...
June 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637823/titin-force-enhancement-following-active-stretch-of-skinned-skeletal-muscle-fibres
#9
Krysta Powers, Venus Joumaa, Azim Jinha, Eng Kuan Moo, Ian Curtis Smith, Kiisa Nishikawa, Walter Herzog
In actively stretched skeletal muscle sarcomeres, titin-based force is enhanced, increasing the stiffness of active sarcomeres. Titin force enhancement in sarcomeres is vastly reduced in mdm, a genetic mutation with a deletion in titin. Whether loss of titin force enhancement is associated with compensatory mechanisms at higher structural levels of organization, such as single fibres or entire muscles, is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether mechanical deficiencies in titin force enhancement are also observed at the fibre level, and whether mechanisms compensate for the loss of titin force enhancement...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635615/topography-on-a-subcellular-scale-modulates-cellular-adhesions-and-actin-stress-fiber-dynamics-in-tumor-associated-fibroblasts
#10
Mikheil Azatov, Xiaoyu Sun, Alexandra Suberi, John T Fourkas, Arpita Upadhyaya
Cells can sense and adapt to mechanical properties of their environment. The local geometry of the extracellular matrix, such as its topography, has been shown to modulate cell morphology, migration, and proliferation. Here we investigate the effect of micro/nanotopography on the morphology and cytoskeletal dynamics of human pancreatic tumor-associated fibroblast cells (TAFs). We use arrays of parallel nanoridges with variable spacings on a subcellular scale to investigate the response of TAFs to the topography of their environment...
June 21, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629739/twisting-cracks-in-bouligand-structures
#11
Nobphadon Suksangpanya, Nicholas A Yaraghi, David Kisailus, Pablo Zavattieri
The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of natural and biomimetic Bouligand structures. One particular species that utilizes the Bouligand structure to achieve outstanding mechanical performance is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus (or stomatopod). The mantis shrimp generates high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys...
June 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627670/intermedin-improves-cardiac-function-and-sympathetic-neural-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure
#12
Bin Xu, Hao Xu, Heng Cao, Xiaoxiao Liu, Chunhuan Qin, Yanzhou Zhao, Xiaolin Han, Hongli Li
Emerging evidence has suggested that intermedin (IMD), a novel member of the calcitonin gene‑related peptide (CGRP) family, has a wide range of cardioprotective effects. The present study investigated the effects of long‑term administration of IMD on cardiac function and sympathetic neural remodeling in heart failure (HF) rats, and studied potential underlying mechanism. HF was induced in rats by myocardial infarction (MI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either saline or IMD (0.6 µg/kg/h) treatment groups for 4 weeks post‑MI...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625916/er-stress-disturbs-sr-er-mitochondria-ca-2-transfer-implications-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#13
Marion Pauly, Claire Angebault-Prouteau, Haikel Dridi, Cécile Notarnicola, Valérie Scheuermann, Alain Lacampagne, Stefan Matecki, Jérémy Fauconnier
Besides its role in calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis, the sarco-endoplamic reticulum (SR/ER) controls protein folding and is tethered to mitochondria.Under pathophysiological conditions the unfolded protein response (UPR) is associated with disturbance in SR/ER-mitochondria crosstalk. Here, we investigated whether ER stress altered SR/ER-mitochondria links, Ca(2+) handling and muscle damage in WT (Wild Type) and mdx mice, the murine model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). In WT mice, the SR/ER-mitochondria links were decreased in isolated FDB muscle fibers after injection of ER stress activator tunicamycin (TM)...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625538/a-strong-contractile-actin-fence-and-large-adhesions-direct-human-pluripotent-colony-morphology-and-adhesion
#14
Elisa Närvä, Aki Stubb, Camilo Guzmán, Matias Blomqvist, Diego Balboa, Martina Lerche, Markku Saari, Timo Otonkoski, Johanna Ivaska
Cell-type-specific functions and identity are tightly regulated by interactions between the cell cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have ultimate differentiation capacity and exceptionally low-strength ECM contact, yet the organization and function of adhesion sites and associated actin cytoskeleton remain poorly defined. We imaged hPSCs at the cell-ECM interface with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and discovered that adhesions at the colony edge were exceptionally large and connected by thick ventral stress fibers...
June 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624802/heparin-based-coacervate-of-bfgf-facilitates-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-following-sciatic-nerve-injury
#15
Rui Li, Shuang Zou, Yanqing Wu, Yiyang Li, Sinan Khor, Yuqin Mao, Huacheng He, Ke Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Jian Wang, Huai Jiang, Qike Jin, Qingsong Ye, Zhouguang Wang, Jian Xiao
Creating a microenvironment at the injury site that favors axonal regrowth and remyelinationis pivotal to the success of therapeutic reinnervation. The mature myelin sheath of the peripheral nervous system depends on active participation of Schwann cells to form new cytoskeletal components and tremendous amounts of relevant neurotrophic factors. In this study, we utilized a new biomaterial for growth factor delivery consisting of a biocompatible polycation, poly(ethylene argininylaspartatediglyceride) and heparin...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620814/oil-palm-fiber-biodegradation-physico-chemical-and-structural-relationships
#16
Farah Nadia Omar, Halimatun Saadiah Hafid, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Mohd Afandi P Mohammed, Jaafar Abdullah
X-ray microtomography results revealed that delignification process damaged the oil palm fibers, which correlated well with reduction of lignin components and increase of the phenolic content. Biodegradation investigation of natural fibers normally focuses on physico-chemical analysis, with less emphasis on physical aspect like fiber structures affect from microbial activity. In this work, the performance of Pycnoporus sanguineus to delignify oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers through solid-state fermentation utilizing various ratio of POME sludge was reported...
June 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620580/the-human-nadph-oxidase-nox4-regulates-cytoskeletal-organization-in-two-cancer-cell-lines-hepg2-and-sh-sy5y
#17
Simon Auer, Mark Rinnerthaler, Johannes Bischof, Maria Karolin Streubel, Hannelore Breitenbach-Koller, Roland Geisberger, Elmar Aigner, Janne Cadamuro, Klaus Richter, Mentor Sopjani, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Thomas Klaus Felder, Michael Breitenbach
NADPH oxidases of human cells are not only functional in defense against invading microorganisms and for oxidative reactions needed for specialized biosynthetic pathways but also during the past few years have been established as signaling modules. It has been shown that human Nox4 is expressed in most somatic cell types and produces hydrogen peroxide, which signals to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. This correlates well with the function of Yno1, the only NADPH oxidase of yeast cells. Using two established tumor cell lines, which are derived from hepatic and neuroblastoma tumors, respectively, we are showing here that in both tumor models Nox4 is expressed in the ER (like the yeast NADPH oxidase), where according to published literature, it produces hydrogen peroxide...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619708/arhgap18-downregulation-by-mir-200b-suppresses-metastasis-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-by-enhancing-activation-of-rhoa
#18
Brock Humphries, Zhishan Wang, Yunfei Li, Jing-Ru Jhan, Yiguo Jiang, Chengfeng Yang
Rho GTPases activated in cancer cells drive proliferation, migration and metastasis. Thus, RhoGAP proteins which negatively regulate Rho GTPases are generally thought to function as tumor suppressors. Here this expectation was challenged by characterization of ARHGAP18, a RhoGAP family member that is selectively overexpressed in highly migratory triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. In human breast tumors, higher ARHGAP18 levels associated with worse overall survival, recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619070/genome-and-transcriptome-sequence-of-finger-millet-eleusine-coracana-l-gaertn-provides-insights-into-drought-tolerance-and-nutraceutical-properties
#19
Shailaja Hittalmani, H B Mahesh, Meghana Deepak Shirke, Hanamareddy Biradar, Govindareddy Uday, Y R Aruna, H C Lohithaswa, A Mohanrao
BACKGROUND: Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) is an important staple food crop widely grown in Africa and South Asia. Among the millets, finger millet has high amount of calcium, methionine, tryptophan, fiber, and sulphur containing amino acids. In addition, it has C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation mechanism, which helps to utilize water and nitrogen efficiently under hot and arid conditions without severely affecting yield. Therefore, development and utilization of genomic resources for genetic improvement of this crop is immensely useful...
June 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618530/time-dependent-breakdown-of-fiber-networks-uncertainty-of-lifetime
#20
Amanda Mattsson, Tetsu Uesaka
Materials often fail when subjected to stresses over a prolonged period. The time to failure, also called the lifetime, is known to exhibit large variability of many materials, particularly brittle and quasibrittle materials. For example, a coefficient of variation reaches 100% or even more. Its distribution shape is highly skewed toward zero lifetime, implying a large number of premature failures. This behavior contrasts with that of normal strength, which shows a variation of only 4%-10% and a nearly bell-shaped distribution...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
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