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Claudia Kruger, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Trang-Tiffany Nguyen, J Michael Salbaum, Krisztian Stadler
Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes...
March 6, 2018: Redox Biology
Ines Marek, Robert Becker, Fabian B Fahlbusch, Carlos Menendez-Castro, Wolfgang Rascher, Christoph Daniel, Gudrun Volkert, Andrea Hartner
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Healing of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis involves degradation of excess extracellular matrix, resolution of hypercellularity by apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrin receptors participate in the regulation of phagocytosis. In mice deficient for alpha8 integrin (Itga8-/-) healing of glomerulonephritis is delayed. As Itga8 is abundant in mesangial cells (MC) which are non-professional phagocytes, we hypothesized that Itga8 facilitates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and matrix components by MC...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Secondary alveolar septa are mostly generated after birth in humans and in mice this is completely accomplished postnatally, when mechanical stresses vary as airspace pressure oscillates. Alveolar mesenchymal cells deposit elastic fibers which limit cellular strain, but while the elastic fiber network is incomplete, this function is also served by the intracellular cytoskeleton. Intermediate filament proteins support deformation during cellular division and migration, which occur during septal elongation. Because platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFRα) signaling is essential for alveolar septation, we hypothesized that neuropilin-1 (NRP1) may link PDGFRα to cytoskeletal deformation...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Sopita Wongin, Saranatra Waikakul, Pojchong Chotiyarnwong, Wanwipa Siriwatwechakul, Masahiro Kino-Oka, Mee-Hae Kim, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat
BACKGROUND: Dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during cell expansion is one of the barriers in tissue construction for cartilage repair. To understand chondrocyte behavior and improve cell expansion in monolayer culture, this study investigated the effects of morphological changes and cellular aggregation on the maintenance of chondrogenic capacity by observing the expression patterns of chondrogenic (collagen type II and aggrecan) and dedifferentiation (collagen type I) markers. Primary human chondrocytes were cultured on either a polystyrene surface (PS) or a polyamidoamine dendrimer surface with a fifth-generation (G5) dendron structure to create a one-step process of cell expansion and the maintenance of chondrogenic activities prior to the construction of cell sheets...
March 14, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Katarzyna A Cieslik, Rajagopal V Sekhar, Alejandro Granillo, Anilkumar Reddy, Guillermo Medrano, Celia Pena Heredia, Mark L Entman, Dale J Hamilton, Shumin Li, Erin Reineke, Anisha A Gupte, Aijun Zhang, George E Taffet
Metabolic, inflammatory and functional changes occur in cardiovascular aging which may stem from oxidative stress and be remediable with antioxidants. Glutathione, an intracellular antioxidant, declines with aging, and supplementation with glutathione precursors, N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and Glycine (Gly), increases tissue glutathione. Thirty month-old mice were fed diets supplemented with NAC or NAC+Gly and, after seven weeks, cardiac function and molecular studies were performed.The NAC+Gly supplementation improved diastolic function, increasing peak early filling velocity, and reducing relaxation time, left atrial volume, and left ventricle end diastolic pressure...
March 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Chunlei Zhu, Suphannee Pongkitwitoon, Jichuan Qiu, Stavros Thomopoulos, Younan Xia
A hierarchically structured scaffold is designed and fabricated for facilitating tendon-to-bone repair. The scaffold is composed of three regions with distinct functions: (i) an array of channels to guide the in-growth of cells and aligned deposition of collagen fibers, as well as integration of the scaffold with the tendon side, (ii) a region with a gradient in mineral composition to facilitate stress transfer between tendon and bone, and (iii) a mineralized inverse opal region to promote the integration of the scaffold with the underlying bone...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Krishnendu Haldar, Chinmoy Pal
This study aims constitutive modeling of rate dependent anisotropic viscoelastic brain tissue that experiences large deformation during accidental impact. Many experimental studies confirm that brain parenchyma mechanisms are strongly influenced by anisotropy, nonlinear viscoelasticity, rate dependent loading/unloading and tension-compression asymmetry of the soft brain tissues. We present a rigorous thermodynamically consistent phenomenological approach to capture these mechanisms in a single model. Model parameters are calibrated from the experiments, and mechanical responses are predicted for different loading conditions...
December 24, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Nannan Guo, Marta E Soden, Charlotte Herber, Michael TaeWoo Kim, Antoine Besnard, Paoyan Lin, Xiang Ma, Constance L Cepko, Larry S Zweifel, Amar Sahay
Memories become less precise and generalized over time as memory traces reorganize in hippocampal-cortical networks. Increased time-dependent loss of memory precision is characterized by an overgeneralization of fear in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or age-related cognitive impairments. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), memories are thought to be encoded by so-called 'engram-bearing' dentate granule cells (eDGCs). Here we show, using rodents, that contextual fear conditioning increases connectivity between eDGCs and inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the downstream hippocampal CA3 region...
March 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
Yu Bin Lee, Eun Mi Kim, Hayeon Byun, Hyung-Kwan Chang, Kwanghee Jeong, Zachary M Aman, Yu Suk Choi, Jungyul Park, Heungsoo Shin
Numerous methods have been reported for the fabrication of 3D multi-cellular spheroids and their use in stem cell culture. Current methods typically relying on the self-assembly of trypsinized, suspended stem cells, however, show limitations with respect to cell viability, throughput, and accurate recapitulation of the natural microenvironment. In this study, we developed a new system for engineering cell spheroids by self-assembly of micro-scale monolayer of stem cells. We prepared synthetic hydrogels with the surface of chemically formed micropatterns (squares/circles with width/diameter of 200 μm) on which mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human nasal turbinate tissue (hTMSCs) were selectively attached and formed a monolayer...
March 1, 2018: Biomaterials
Michael Gold, Anneke Andriessen, Alexandros Bader, Red Alinsod, Elizabeth Shane French, Nathan Guerette, Yegor Kolodchenko, Michael Krychman, Susan Murrmann, Julene Samuels
INTRODUCTION: The use of energy-based devices for the treatment of vaginal laxity, orgasmic dysfunction, and stress incontinence, such as minimally ablative fractional laser and radiofrequency, is gaining momentum. This review aims to answer clinical questions on the application of energy-based devices for feminine genital rejuvenation. METHODS: The target group includes physicians involved in esthetic medicine and feminine genital rejuvenation. A literature review was conducted on technologies in use for feminine rejuvenation to explore their safety, efficacy, tolerability, patient satisfaction, and clinical usability...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Sangkyu Lee, Gyuyong Kim, Hongseop Kim, Minjae Son, Gyeongcheol Choe, Jeongsoo Nam
This study evaluates the fracture properties and rear-face strain distribution of nonreinforced and hooked steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels penetrated by projectiles of three different nose shapes: sharp, hemispherical, and flat. The sharp projectile nose resulted in a deeper penetration because of the concentration of the impact force. Conversely, the flat projectile nose resulted in shallower penetrations. The penetration based on different projectile nose shapes is directly related to the impact force transmitted to the rear face...
March 9, 2018: Materials
Klaske J Schippers, Scott A Nichols
β-catenin acts as a transcriptional co-activator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and a cytoplasmic effector in cadherin-based cell adhesion. These functions are ancient within animals, but the earliest steps in β-catenin evolution remain unresolved due to limited data from key lineages - sponges, ctenophores and placozoans. Previous studies in sponges have characterized β-catenin expression dynamics and used GSK3B antagonists to ectopically activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway; both approaches rely upon untested assumptions about the conservation of β-catenin function and regulation in sponges...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Trisha L Andrew, Lushuai Zhang, Nongyi Cheng, Morgan Baima, Jae Joon Kim, Linden Allison, Steven Hoxie
Body-mountable electronics and electronically active garments are the future of portable, interactive devices. However, wearable devices and electronic garments are demanding technology platforms because of the large, varied mechanical stresses to which they are routinely subjected, which can easily abrade or damage microelectronic components and electronic interconnects. Furthermore, aesthetics and tactile perception (or feel) can make or break a nascent wearable technology, irrespective of device metrics...
March 9, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Henrik Finsberg, Ce Xi, Ju Le Tan, Liang Zhong, Martin Genet, Joakim Sundnes, Lik Chuan Lee, Samuel T Wall
Individually personalized computational models of heart mechanics can be used to estimate important physiological and clinically-relevant quantities that are difficult, if not impossible, to directly measure in the beating heart. Here we present a novel and efficient framework for creating patient-specific biventricular models using a gradient-based data assimilation method for evaluating regional myocardial contractility and estimating myofiber stress. These simulations can be performed on a regular laptop in less than two hours and produce excellent fit between measured and simulated volume and strain data through the entire cardiac cycle...
March 9, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Hyun-Kyung Kim, Purevjargal Naidansuren, Seung Woo Lee, Rae-Kwon Kim, Su-Jae Lee, Suk Keun Lee, Yong-Kil Hong, Young Ae Joe
The recombinant kringle domain of urokinase (UK1) has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and brain tumor growth in vivo . To avoid limitations in application due to mass production of recombinant protein, we attempted to develop a novel peptide inhibitor from UK1 sequence consisting of 83 amino acids that contains α-helices, loops and β-sheets. We dissected UK1 sequence to seven peptides based on structure and amino acid characteristics, and examined the anti-angiogenic activities for the constructed peptides...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Takayoshi Ubuka, Ishwar S Parhar, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is an inhibitor of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. GnIH is also called RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) as GnIH peptides have a characteristic C-terminal LPXRFiamide (X = L or Q) sequence. GnIH is thought to be the mediator of stress by negatively regulating the HPG axis as various stressors increase GnIH mRNA, GnIH peptide or GnIH neuronal activity. On the other hand, GnIH may also mediate behavioral stress responses as GnIH neuronal fibers and GnIH receptors are widely located in the limbic system of telencephalon, diencephalon and midbrain area...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
F Zhou, Y Tan, X-H Chen, F-L Wu, D-J Yang, X-W Zhang, X-M Wu, Y-Q Deng
OBJECTIVE: To study the improving effect of atorvastatin on plaque stability in diabetes mellitus (DM) mice complicated with atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice were used to establish the DM mouse model. Half of the mice received atorvastatin after successful modeling. ApoE-/- and C57BL/6J mice were used as controls. Oil red O staining and Masson staining were performed to detect the lipid and collagen components in mice. Immunohistochemical assay was used to observe the expressions of smooth muscle cell (SMC) and Ly-6c...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Pilvi Laurikka, Katri Lindfors, Mikko Oittinen, Heini Huhtala, Teea Salmi, Marja-Leena Lähdeaho, Tuire Ilus, Markku Mäki, Katri Kaukinen, Kalle Kurppa
GOALS: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dietary factors, distinct small-bowel mucosal immune cell types, and epithelial integrity in the perpetuation of gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients. BACKGROUND: For unexplained reasons, many celiac disease patients suffer from persistent symptoms, despite a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) and recovered intestinal mucosa. STUDY: We compared clinical and serological data and mucosal recovery in 22 asymptomatic and 25 symptomatic celiac patients on a long-term GFD...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Shanshan Wei, Gang Qu, Guanyi Luo, Yuxing Huang, Huisheng Zhang, Xuechang Zhou, Liqiu Wang, Zhou Liu, Tiantian Kong
Creating complex three-dimensional structures from soft yet durable materials enables advances in fields, such as flexible electronics, regenerating tissue engineering and soft robotics. The tough-hydrogels that mimic the human skin can bear enormous mechanical loads. By employing a spider-inspired biomimetic microfluidic-nozzle, we successfully achieve the continuous-printing of tough-hydrogels into fibers, 2D networks and even 3D structures without compromising its extreme mechanical properties. The resultant thin fibers demonstrate a stretch up to 21 at a water content of 52%, and are intrinsically transparent, biocompatible, and conductive at high stretches...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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