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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137794/monitoring-the-effect-of-sonoporation-on-the-cells-using-electrochemical-approach
#1
Mohammad Ali Khayamian, Majid Baniassadi, Mohammad Abdolahad
Sonoporation is applied to enhance the permeability of the cell to bioactive materials by employing the acoustic cavitation of microbubbles. This phenomena would be helpful in molecular biology, delivery of large molecules into the cells and gene therapy. Many methods have been applied to monitor the biological effects and trace of sonoporation on the cells such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy, confocal imaging and flow cytometry. Here, we monitored the effect of sonoporation on the cells using electrochemical method with an integrated three electrode system...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135136/-structural-morphological-changes-of-the-connective-tissue-of-the-vaginal-mucosa-and-perineal-skin-in-women-with-stress-urinary-incontinence
#2
V N Pavlov, A G Yashchuk, A A Kazikhinurov, I I Musin, R M Zauinullina, V A Kulavskii, A A Kazikhinurova
AIM: To investigate the morphological and structural changes in the connective tissue of the vaginal mucosa and perineal skin in women with stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2013, 71 patients of reproductive age with stress incontinence were observed. The control group comprised 80 women, who also underwent biopsy of the vaginal mucosa and perineal skin. The sections of specimens were stained by Van Gieson, Mallory and Weigert. In immunohistochemical studies, rabbit antibodies specific for collagen types I, III, and IV were placed on each section...
October 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132536/effects-of-acute-hyperinsulinemia-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-metabolism-in-premenopausal-women
#3
Jonathan L Warren, Sule Bulur, Fernando Ovalle, Samuel T Windham, Barbara A Gower, Gordon Fisher
BACKGROUND: Acute metabolic demands that promote excessive and/or prolonged reactive oxygen species production may stimulate changes in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. PURPOSE: To assess changes in skeletal muscle H2O2 production, mitochondrial function, and expression of genes at the mRNA and protein levels regulating energy metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics following a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a cohort of 11 healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were taken at baseline and immediately following the conclusion of a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
December 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132046/stress-relaxing-hyaluronic-acid-collagen-hydrogels-promote-cell-spreading-fiber-remodeling-and-focal-adhesion-formation-in-3d-cell-culture
#4
Junzhe Lou, Ryan Stowers, Sungmin Nam, Yan Xia, Ovijit Chaudhuri
The physical and architectural cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a critical role in regulating important cellular functions such as spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Natural ECM is a complex viscoelastic scaffold composed of various distinct components that are often organized into a fibrillar microstructure. Hydrogels are frequently used as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture, but are typically elastic, due to covalent crosslinking, and non-fibrillar. Recent work has revealed the importance of stress relaxation in viscoelastic hydrogels in regulating biological processes such as spreading and differentiation, but these studies all utilize synthetic ECM hydrogels that are non-fibrillar...
November 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131889/poisson-contraction-and-fiber-kinematics-in-tissue-insight-from-collagen-network-simulations
#5
Catalin Picu, Sai Deogekar, Mohammad Islam
Connective tissue mechanics is highly non-linear, exhibits a strong Poisson effect and is associated with significant collagen fiber re-arrangement. Although the general features of the stress-strain behavior in tension and compression and under uniaxial, biaxial and shear loading have been discussed extensively, especially from the macroscopic perspective, the Poisson effect and the kinematics of filaments have received less attention. In general, the relationship between the microscopic fiber network mechanics and the macroscopic experimental observations remains poorly defined...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131053/an-experimental-study-to-measure-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-human-liver
#6
Alireza Karimi, Ahmad Shojaei
BACKGROUND: Since the liver is one of the most important organs of the body that can be injured during trauma, that is, during accidents like car crashes, understanding its mechanical properties is of great interest. Experimental data is needed to address the mechanical properties of the liver to be used for a variety of applications, such as the numerical simulations for medical purposes, including the virtual reality simulators, trauma research, diagnosis objectives, as well as injury biomechanics...
October 31, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130663/-capsaicin-alleviate-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-attenuating-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#7
Juan-Xia Zhu, Ling-Heng Kong, Chao-Feng Zhang, Na Sun, Jin-Rui Chang, Yan Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of capsaicin (CAP) in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Twentyfour adult male SD rats were randomized into 4 groups,namely the control group,ischemia reperfusion group,ischemia reperfusion with CAP group,and ischemia reperfusion with CAPZ and CAP group. Isolated rat hearts underwent Langendorff perfusion. Left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP) andleft ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) was calculated to evaluate myocardial performance at 30 min of reperfusion...
September 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128981/what-to-eat-in-a-warming-world-do-increased-temperatures-necessitate-hazardous-duty-pay
#8
L Embere Hall, Anna D Chalfoun
Contemporary climate change affects nearly all biomes, causing shifts in animal distributions and resource availability. Changes in resource selection may allow individuals to offset climatic stress, thereby providing a mechanism for persistence amidst warming conditions. Whereas the role of predation risk in food choice has been studied broadly, the extent to which individuals respond to thermoregulatory risk by changing resource preferences is unclear. We addressed whether individuals compensated for temperature-related reductions in foraging time by altering forage preferences, using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as a model species...
November 11, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128675/regionally-variant-collagen-alignment-correlates-with-viscoelastic-properties-of-the-disc-of-the-human-temporomandibular-joint
#9
Shawn Gutman, Daniel Kim, Solaiman Tarafder, Sergio Velez, Julia Jeong, Chang H Lee
OBJECTIVE: To determine the regionally variant quality of collagen alignment in human TMJ discs and its statistical correlation with viscoelastic properties. DESIGN: For quantitative analysis of the quality of collagen alignment, horizontal sections of human TMJ discs with Pricrosirius Red staining were imaged under circularly polarized microscopy. Mean angle and angular deviation of collagen fibers in each region were analyzed using a well-established automated image-processing for angular gradient...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128210/short-communication-the-effects-of-morning-compared-with-evening-feed-delivery-in-lactating-dairy-cows-during-the-summer
#10
M Niu, K J Harvatine
Delivering fresh feed in the evening is a management strategy sometimes used during periods of heat stress, but previous experiments have observed that night feeding increased feed intake during the 2 h after feeding and did not change intake during the overnight period. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of night feeding on daily rhythms of the dairy cow during the summer season. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126633/mechanical-behavior-of-endodontically-restored-canine-teeth-effects-of-ferrule-post-material-and-shape
#11
Pietro Ausiello, Stefano Ciaramella, Massimo Martorelli, Antonio Lanzotti, Fernando Zarone, David C Watts, Antonio Gloria
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a ferrule design with specific post material-shape combinations on the mechanical behavior of post-restored canine teeth. METHODS: Micro-CT scan images of an intact canine were used to create a 3-D tessellated CAD model, from which the shapes of dentin, pulp and enamel were obtained and geometric models of post-endodontically restored teeth were created. Two types of 15mm post were evaluated: a quartz fiber post with conical-tapered shape, and a carbon (C) fiber post with conical-cylindrical shape...
November 7, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123542/effects-of-diet-and-genetics-on-growth-performance-of-pigs-in-response-to-repeated-exposure-to-heat-stress
#12
Wendy M Rauw, E Johana Mayorga, Soi Meng Lei, Jack C M Dekkers, John F Patience, Nicholas K Gabler, Steven M Lonergan, Lance H Baumgard
Heat stress (HS) is one of the costliest issues in the U.S. pork industry. Aims of the present study were to determine the consequences of repeated exposure to HS on growth performance, and the effects of a high fiber diet, the genetic potential for high lean tissue accretion, and the genetic potential for residual feed intake (RFI) on resilience to HS. Barrows (n = 97) from three genetic lines (commercial, high RFI, low RFI) where subjected three times to a 4-day HS treatment (HS1, HS2, and HS3) which was preceded by a 9-day neutral (TN) adaptation period (TN1) and alternated by 7-day periods of neutral temperatures (TN2, TN3, and TN4)...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118694/implications-of-schwann-cells-biomechanics-and-mechanosensitivity-for-peripheral-nervous-system-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#13
REVIEW
Gonzalo Rosso, Peter Young, Victor Shahin
The presence of bones around the central nervous system (CNS) provides it with highly effective physiologically crucial mechanical protection. The peripheral nervous system (PNS), in contrast, lacks this barrier. Consequently, the long held belief is that the PNS is mechanically vulnerable. On the other hand, the PNS is exposed to a variety of physiological mechanical stresses during regular daily activities. This fact prompts us to question the dogma of PNS mechanical vulnerability. As a matter of fact, impaired mechanics of PNS nerves is associated with neuropathies with the liability to mechanical stresses paralleled by significant impairment of PNS physiological functions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118105/neuropeptide-s-activates-paraventricular-oxytocin-neurons-to-induce-anxiolysis
#14
Thomas Grund, Stephanie Goyon, Yuting Li, Marina Eliava, Haikun Liu, Alexandre Charlet, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide S (NPS) and oxytocin (OXT) represent potential options for the treatment of anxiety disorders due to their potent anxiolytic profile. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the behavioral action of NPS, and present a chain of evidence that the effects of NPS within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are mediated via actions on local OXT neurons in male Wistar rats. First, retrograde studies identified NPS fibers originating in the brainstem locus coeruleus and projecting to the PVN...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117995/the-role-of-mitochondria-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-in-microvascular-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Danielle L Kirkman, Bryce J Muth, Meghan G Ramick, Raymond R Townsend, David G Edwards
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to CKD is a potential source of oxidative stress that may impair vascular function. This study sought to determine if mitochondria derived reactive oxygen species contribute to microvascular dysfunction in Stage 3-5 CKD. Cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating was assessed in 20 CKD patients (60±13 years; eGFR 46±13ml/kg/1.73m2) and eleven matched healthy participants (58±2 years; eGFR>90ml/kg/1...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117500/development-and-ultrastructure-of-the-rigid-dorsal-and-flexible-ventral-cuticles-of-the-elytron-of-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#16
Mi Young Noh, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Karl J Kramer, Yasuyuki Arakane
Insect exoskeletons are composed of the cuticle, a biomaterial primarily formed from the linear and relatively rigid polysaccharide, chitin, and structural proteins. This extracellular material serves both as a skin and skeleton, protecting insects from environmental stresses and mechanical damage. Despite its rather limited compositional palette, cuticles in different anatomical regions or developmental stages exhibit remarkably diverse physicochemical and mechanical properties because of differences in chemical composition, molecular interactions and morphological architecture of the various layers and sublayers throughout the cuticle including the envelope, epicuticle and procuticle (exocuticle and endocuticle)...
November 5, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113035/room-temperature-pressure-induced-optically-actuated-fabry-perot-nanomechanical-resonator-with-multilayer-graphene-diaphragm-in-air
#17
Cheng Li, Tian Lan, Xiyu Yu, Nan Bo, Jingyu Dong, Shangchun Fan
We demonstrated a miniature and in situ ~13-layer graphene nanomechanical resonator by utilizing a simple optical fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometric excitation and detection scheme. The graphene film was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule with a 125-μm inner diameter. In contrast to the pre-tension induced in membrane that increased quality (Q) factor to ~18.5 from ~3.23 at room temperature and normal pressure, the limited effects of air damping on resonance behaviors at 10(-2) and 10⁵ Pa were demonstrated by characterizing graphene F-P resonators with open and micro-air-gap cavities...
November 4, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111771/staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxin-induces-actin-filament-remodeling-in-human-airway-epithelial-model-cells
#18
Sabine Ziesemer, Ina Eiffler, Alfrun Schönberg, Christian Müller, Falko Hochgräfe, Achim G Beule, Jan-Peter Hildebrandt
Exposure of cultured human airway epithelial model cells (16HBE14o-, S9) to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla) induces changes in cell morphology and cell layer integrity which are due to the inability of the cells to maintain stable cell-cell or focal contacts and to properly organize their actin cytoskeleton. The aim of this study was to identify Hla-activated signaling pathways involved in regulating the phosphorylation level of the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. We used recombinant wild-type Hla (rHla) as well as a variant of Hla (rHla-H35L) that is unable to form functional transmembrane pores to treat immortalized human airway epithelial cells (16HBE14o-, S9) as well as freshly isolated human nasal tissue...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109804/effects-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-on-morphology-and-mechanical-properties-of-hct116-human-colon-cancer-cells-investigated-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#19
Huiqing Liu, Nan Wang, Zhe Zhang, Hongda Wang, Jun Du, Jilin Tang
Chronic inflammation orchestrates the tumor microenvironment and is strongly associated with cancer. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). This process is defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal traits. The mechanisms of TNFα-induced EMT in cancer cells have been well studied. However, mechanical properties have not yet been probed. In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to investigate the morphology and mechanical properties of EMT in HCT116 human colon cancer cells...
2017: Scanning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109388/electrical-and-self-sensing-properties-of-ultra-high-performance-fiber-reinforced-concrete-with-carbon-nanotubes
#20
Ilhwan You, Doo-Yeol Yoo, Sooho Kim, Min-Jae Kim, Goangseup Zi
This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher steel fiber content, better fiber orientation, and higher amount of pore water led to higher electrical conductivity of UHPFRC...
October 29, 2017: Sensors
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