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stress fibers

Xiaogang Wang, Thomas S E Eriksson, Tim Ricken, David M Pierce
Medical imaging performed in vivo captures geometries under Donnan osmotic loading, even when the articulating joint is otherwise mechanically unloaded. Hence patient-specific finite element (FE) models constructed from such medical images of cartilage represent osmotically induced prestretched/prestressed states. When applying classical modeling approaches to patient-specific simulations of cartilage a theoretical inconsistency arises: the in-vivo imaged geometry (used to construct the model) is not an unloaded, stress-free reference configuration...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Tetsuya Abe, Takahiro Hosoi, Ryosuke Kawai, Norihisa Uemura, Eiji Higaki, Byonggu An, Jiro Kawakami, Takuya Saito, Yasuhiro Shimizu
BACKGROUND: We clarified the effects of perioperative enteral supplementation with glutamine, fiber, and oligosaccharide (GFO) after an esophagectomy on preventing surgical stress. METHODS: Of 326 patients with esophageal cancer, 189 received GFO administration (GFO group) and 137 did not (control group). The propensity score matching method was used to identify 89 well-balanced pairs of patients to compare postoperative laboratory parameters and clinical and postoperative outcomes...
July 20, 2018: Esophagus: Official Journal of the Japan Esophageal Society
Justyna Lisowska, Claudia Jasmin Rödel, Sandra Manet, Yekaterina A Miroshnikova, Cyril Boyault, Emmanuelle Planus, Richard De Mets, Hsiao-Hui Lee, Olivier Destaing, Hichem Mertani, Gwénola Boulday, Elisabeth Tournier-Lasserve, Martial Balland, Salim Abdelilah-Seyfried, Corinne Albiges-Rizo, Eva Faurobert
Endothelial integrity relies on a mechanical crosstalk between intercellular and cell-matrix interactions. This cross-talk is compromised in hemorrhagic vascular lesions of patients carrying loss-of-function mutations in CCM genes. RhoA/ROCK-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling is central to the disease as it causes unbalanced cell adhesion towards increased cell-extracellular matrix adhesions and destabilized cell-cell junctions. Our study reveals that CCM proteins directly orchestrate ROCK1 and ROCK2 complementary roles on the mechanics of the endothelium...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Jamie E Meegan, Xiaoyuan Yang, Richard S Beard, Melanie Jannaway, Victor Chatterjee, Thomas E Taylor-Clark, Sarah Y Yuan
Circulating components of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), especially histones, are associated with tissue injury during inflammatory conditions like sepsis. Commonly used as a NET biomarker, citrullinated histone 3 (H3Cit) may also functionally contribute to the NET-associated inflammatory response. To this end, we sought to examine the role of H3Cit in mediating microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction. Here we show that H3Cit can directly contribute to inflammatory injury by disrupting the microvascular endothelial barrier...
July 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jan P Nicolay, Verena Thorn, Christoph Daniel, Kerstin Amann, Balasaheb Siraskar, Florian Lang, Carina Hillgruber, Tobias Goerge, Stefan Hoffmann, Christian Gorzelanny, Volker Huck, Christian Mess, Tobias Obser, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Ingrid Fleming, Matthias F Schneider, Stefan W Schneider
Microangiopathy with subsequent organ damage represents a major complication in several diseases. The mechanisms leading to microvascular occlusion include von Willebrand factor (VWF), notably the formation of ultra-large von Willebrand factor fibers (ULVWFs) and platelet aggregation. To date, the contribution of erythrocytes to vascular occlusion is incompletely clarified. We investigated the platelet-independent interaction between stressed erythrocytes and ULVWFs and its consequences for microcirculation and organ function under dynamic conditions...
July 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mirzakamol S Ayubov, Mukhammad H Mirzakhmedov, Venkateswara R Sripathi, Zabardast T Buriev, Khurshida A Ubaydullaeva, Dilshod E Usmonov, Risolat B Norboboyeva, Chandrakanth Emani, Siva Prasad Kumpatla, Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short, non-coding, 17-24 nucleotides long RNA molecules that play vital roles in regulating gene expression in every known organism investigated to date including cotton (Gossypium ssp.). These tiny RNA molecules target diverse categories of genes from different bioliogical and metabolic processes and have been reported in the three domains of life. Small RNAs, including miRNAs, are involved in ovule and fiber development, biotic and abiotic stresses, fertility, and other biochemical processes in cotton species...
July 17, 2018: Genomics
Adrienn Kazsoki, P Eacute Ter Szab Oacute, Attila Domján, Attila Balázs, Tamás Bozó, Miklós Kellermayer, Attila Farkas, Diána Balogh-Weiser, Balázs Pinke, András Darcsi, Szabolcs Béni, János Madarász, Lajos Szente, Romana Zelko
The electrospun nanofiber-based orally dissolving webs are promising candidates for rapid drug release, which is due to the high surface area to volume ratio of the fibers and the high amorphization efficacy of the fiber formation process. Although latter is responsible for the physical and/or chemical instability of these systems. The primary aim of the present study was to elucidate how the addition of polysorbate 80 (PS80) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) influenced the electrospinning process, the properties and behavior of the obtained nanofibers...
July 19, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Kazuhiro Shimazu, Masahiro Inoue, Shunsuke Sugiyama, Koji Fukuda, Taichi Yoshida, Daiki Taguchi, Yoshihiko Uehara, Sei Kuriyama, Masamitsu Tanaka, Masatomo Miura, Hiroshi Nanjyo, Yoshiharu Iwabuchi, Hiroyuki Shibata
Tumor angiogenesis inhibition is one of the most potent strategies in cancer chemotherapy. As per past clinical studies, the inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway successfully treats malignant tumors. However, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors alone cannot cure tumors. Moreover, resistance to small molecule inhibitors has also been reported. Here, we have demonstrated the antiangiogenic potential of a newly synthesized curcumin analog, GO-Y078, that acts possibly via the inhibition of actin stress fiber formation, thereby resulting in mobility inhibition; this mechanism is different from that of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition...
July 19, 2018: Cancer Science
Lijuan Hou, Xing Zhang, Paiyz E Mikael, Lei Lin, Wenjun Dong, Yingying Zheng, Trevor John Simmons, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) has increasingly become a desirable biomaterial due to its elastic mechanical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Here, we report microfibrous core-shell mats of polycaprolactone (PCL)-PGS prepared using wet-wet coaxial electrospinning. The anticoagulant heparin was immobilized onto the surface of these electrospun fiber mats, and they were evaluated for their chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. The core-shell structure of PCL-PGS provided tunable degradation and mechanical properties...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Chika Okimura, Atsushi Taniguchi, Shigenori Nonaka, Yoshiaki Iwadate
Crawling migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological phenomena, including development, wound healing, and immune system function. Keratocytes are wound-healing cells in fish skin. Expansion of the leading edge of keratocytes and retraction of the rear are respectively induced by actin polymerization and contraction of stress fibers in the same way as for other cell types. Interestingly, stress fibers in keratocytes align almost perpendicular to the migration-direction. It seems that in order to efficiently retract the rear, it is better that the stress fibers align parallel to it...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Changjian Zhang, Xiaoyu Liu, Fangyan Chen, Yingsong Hu, Zhiqian Li, Yanxi Liu, Xuelin Han, Yansong Sun, Li Han
The destruction of pulmonary epithelium is a major feature of lung diseases caused by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus). Gliotoxin, a major mycotoxin of A. fumigatus, is widely postulated to be associated with the tissue invasion. However, the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we first discovered that cofilin, a regulator of actin dynamics in the pulmonary epithelial cells, existed mainly in the form of oligomer, which kept it unable to depolymerize actin filaments. Gliotoxin could reduce the formation of cofilin oligomer and promote the release of active cofilin monomer by regulating cofilin phosphorylation balance...
July 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Dan Xu, Yu-Bing Guo, Min Zhang, Ye-Qing Sun
PURPOSE: Microgravity is known to cause endothelium dysfunction in astronauts returning from spaceflight. We aimed to reveal the regulatory mechanism in alterations of human endothelial cells after simulated microgravity (SMG). METHODS: We utilized the rotary cell culture system (RCCS-1) to explore the subsequent effects of SMG on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS: SMG-treated HUVECs appeared obvious growth inhibition after return to normal gravity, which might be attributed to a set of responses including alteration of cytoskeleton, decreased cell adhesion capacity and increased apoptosis...
June 28, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Kátia R Weber, Paula Benetti, Álvaro Della Bona, Pedro H Corazza, Juliana A Medeiros, Ediléia Lodi, Márcia Borba
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Variables involving the indication, manufacturing, and clinical use of ceramic restorations make the standardization of in vitro studies a challenge and raise questions as to the clinical validity of the resulting data. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of piston material on the fracture behavior of ceramics tested under compressive load. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two ceramics were evaluated: a lithium disilicate-based glass-ceramic (D) and a feldspathic porcelain (P)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Emily Mihalko, Ke Huang, Erin Sproul, Ke Cheng, Ashley C Brown
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, affects millions of people worldwide and results in significant death and disabilities. A major cause of MI is fibrin-rich thrombus formation that occludes the coronary arteries, blocking blood flow to the heart and causing fibrin deposition. In treating MI, reestablishing blood flow is critical. However, ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury itself can also occur and contributes to cardiac fibrosis. Fibrin-specific poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanogels (FSNs) comprised of a core-shell colloidal hydrogel architecture are utilized in this study to design a dual-delivery system that simultaneously addresses the need to 1) reestablish blood flow and 2) inhibit cardiac fibrosis following I/R injury...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
So-Jin Shin, Jinyoung Kim, Seungmee Lee, Jongwoo Baek, Jin Eui Lee, Chiheum Cho, Eunyoung Ha
Uterine leiomyoma is a benign tumor that grows within the muscle tissue of the uterus. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a pre‑operative drug used to reduce the size of leiomyoma. The aim of the present study was to examine the in vitro mechanistic details of action of UPA on uterine leiomyomas. Primary cultures of leiomyoma cells were isolated from patient myomectomy specimens and incubated in the presence or absence of UPA at various concentrations. The proliferation, cell viability and doubling time properties of the treated cells were analyzed...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Henry W Haslach, Jenna Gipple, Bradley Taylor, Joseph Rabin
BACKGROUND: The mechanical properties of the aorta may provide some guidance to cardiovascular surgeons treating aortic disease. While tensile tests are traditional, recent work suggests that shear is important in aortic dissection. Characterizing the differences or similarities in the mechanical shear stress response of non-pathologic human ascending aortic tissue and of tissue that has remodeled to become aneurysmal contributes to understanding the differences in behavior of the two tissues...
July 6, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Alexia F P Lépine, Nicole de Wit, Els Oosterink, Harry Wichers, Jurriaan Mes, Paul de Vos
Scope: Salmonellosis is a prevalent food-borne illness that causes diarrhea in over 130 million humans yearly and can lead to death. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to antibiotics as many salmonellae are now multidrug resistant. As such, specific beneficial bacteria and dietary fibers can be an alternative as they may prevent Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) infection and spreading by strengthening intestinal barrier function. Methods and Results: We tested whether immune active long-chain inulin-type fructans and/or L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Subhadeep Roy, Takahiro Hatano
We study the dynamical aspects of a statistical-mechanical model for fracture of heterogeneous media: the fiber bundle model with various interaction ranges. Although the model does not include any nontrivial elementary processes such as nonlinear rheology or stochasticity, the system exhibits creeplike behaviors under a constant load being slightly above the critical value. These creeplike behaviors comprise three stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary. In the primary and tertiary stages, the strain rate exhibits power-law behaviors with time, which are well described by the Omori-Utsu and the inverse Omori laws, respectively, although the exponents are larger than those typically observed in experiments...
June 2018: Physical Review. E
Florine Tissier, Firas Farhat, Clothilde Philouze, Jean-Claude Desfontis, Romain Didier, Martine Gilard, M Yassine Mallem, Jacques Mansourati, Christine Moisan, Karine PIchavant-Rafini, Michael Theron, Aline Amérand
Statins are currently used in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in high risk populations, and could be considered in primary prevention. However, few studies are available on the long-term effects of low-doses of statins, especially on mitochondrial function and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) metabolism at cardiac level. This study aimed to determine potential effects of a long-term atorvastatin treatment, at low-dose concentration, on the myocardium mitochondrial respiration. 34 Watanabe rabbits were treated or not with atorvastatin (2...
July 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ru Mu, Luansu Wei, Xiaowei Wang, Hui Li, Longbang Qing, Jian Zhou, Quanming Zhao
The aim of this work is to present an approach, inspired by the way in which a compass needle maintains a consistent orientation under the action of the Earth's magnetic field, for manufacturing a cementitious composite reinforced with aligned steel fibers. Aligned steel fiber reinforced cementitious composites (ASFRC) were prepared by applying a uniform electromagnetic field to fresh mortar containing short steel fibers, whereby the short steel fibers were driven to rotate in alignment with the magnetic field...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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