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Shingo Matsuda, Suguru Tohyama, Akihiro Mizutani
Fear conditioning and extinction is a useful tool for understanding the pathogenesis of fear-related disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for developing treatments for them. To investigate the role of sub-brain regions or molecular mechanisms in fear conditioning and extinction, neuroscientists have been employing an optogenetic or in vivo recording technique, in which placement of an optical fiber or an electrode into the brain region of a free-moving mouse is essential. These methods require isolation rearing (at least one week) from the brain surgery to the behavioral test...
September 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Manuel Martínez-Lavín
Several groups of investigators have described the presence of small fiber neuropathy in fibromyalgia patients. This writing discusses how this new finding could renovate fibromyalgia concept, diagnosis, and treatment. Predominant rheumatology thinking proposes fibromyalgia as a "centralized pain syndrome." An alternative hypothesis views fibromyalgia as a stress-related dysautonomia with neuropathic pain features. Dorsal root ganglia may be the key autonomic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. The recent recognition of small fiber neuropathy in a large subgroup of fibromyalgia patients reinforces the dysautonomia-neuropathic hypothesis and validates fibromyalgia pain...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Won Yun, Min Ho Song, Ji Hwan Lee, Chang Hee Lee, Seo Young Oh, Woo Gi Kwak, Doo Wan Kim, Hyeun Bum Kim, Jin Ho Cho
The effects of corn particle size on nutrient digestibility and energy utilization in pigs were determined under optimal (experiment 1, 25 ± 1 °C) or heat stress (experiment 2, 37 ± 1 °C) conditions. In Exp. 1 and 2, five experimental diets were tested using a 5 × 5 Latin square design involving five barrows (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, average initial body weight of 30 ± 1 kg and 45.0 ± 1.8 kg, respectively, in individual metabolic cages). Dietary treatments were as follows: 200-, 300-, 400-, 600-, 800-μm corn particle sizes obtained by mesh screens...
September 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Flaminia Chellini, Alessia Tani, Larissa Vallone, Daniele Nosi, Paola Pavan, Franco Bambi, Sandra Zecchi Orlandini, Chiara Sassoli
The antifibrotic potential of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is controversial. This study examined the effects of PRP on in vitro transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, the main drivers of fibrosis, and the involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in mediating PRP-induced responses. The impact of PRP alone on fibroblast differentiation was also assessed. Myofibroblastic phenotype was evaluated by confocal fluorescence microscopy and western blotting analyses of α-smooth muscle actin (sma) and type-1 collagen expression, vinculin-rich focal adhesion clustering, and stress fiber assembly...
September 19, 2018: Cells
Zhipeng Qu, Wei He, Mingyun Lv, Houdi Xiao
This paper reports the biaxial tensile mechanical properties of the envelope material through experimental and constitutive models. First, the biaxial tensile failure tests of the envelope material with different stress ratio in warp and weft directions are carried out. Then, based on fiber-reinforced continuum mechanics theory, an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model on envelope material with different stress ratio is developed. A strain energy function that characterizes the anisotropic behavior of the envelope material is decomposed into three parts: fiber, matrix and fiber⁻fiber interaction...
September 19, 2018: Materials
Shu Tomita, Shinya Yamazaki, Kohei Togami, Hitoshi Tada, Hiroyoshi Kawaai
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts via the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor and is associated with reduced anesthetic requirements, as well as attenuated blood pressure and heart rate in response to stressful events. A previous study reported that cat gingival blood flow was controlled via sympathetic alpha-adrenergic fibers involved in vasoconstriction. In the present study, experiment 1 focused on the relationship between the effects of DEX on alpha adrenoreceptors and vasoconstriction in the tissues of the oral cavity and compared the palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) in rabbits between general anesthesia with sevoflurane and sedation with DEX...
2018: Anesthesia Progress
Tabata M Dos Santos, Renato F Righetti, Leandro do N Camargo, Beatriz M Saraiva-Romanholo, Luciana R C R B Aristoteles, Flávia C R de Souza, Silvia Fukuzaki, Maria I C Alonso-Vale, Maysa M Cruz, Carla M Prado, Edna A Leick, Milton A Martins, Iolanda F L C Tibério
Background: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and Rho-kinase (ROCK) play an important role in regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators, immune cell recruitment, hyper-responsiveness, tissue remodeling, and oxidative stress. Modulation of IL-17 and ROCK proteins may represent a promising approach for the treatment of this disease. Objective: To study the effects of an anti-IL17 neutralizing antibody and ROCK inhibitor treatments, separately and in combination, in a murine model of chronic allergy-induced lung inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Carina Guidi Pinto, Kátia Colombo Marchi, Ailton Amarante Arizza, Ana Paula Silveira Leite, Carlos Renato Tirapelli, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
The chronic use of ethanol causes neuropathy and atrophy of type II fibers and promotes vitamin D decrease. This study evaluated cholecalciferol effects on the deep fibular nerve and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle using an UChB ethanol-preferring rats model. Blood analyses were carried out to measure levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), calcium (Ca2+ ), Phosphorus (P), and parathyroid hormone (PTH). It was used EDL muscle to evaluate oxidative stress. The deep fibular nerve and EDL muscle were used for morphologic and morphometric assessment...
September 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Anandh Sekar, Gunasekaran Kandasamy
Coconut shell concrete is one of the recently established lightweight concretes. This paper discusses the optimization of adding coconut fibers in both coconut shell concrete and conventional concrete. Coconut fibers at different aspect ratios of 16.67, 33.33, 50, 66.67, 83.33, and 100 and volume fractions of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% were tried. The maximum compressive strength was attained at an aspect ratio of 83.33 and volume fraction of 3% for conventional concrete, and aspect ratio 66.67 and volume fraction 3% for coconut shell concrete...
September 14, 2018: Materials
R Gopinath, R Poopathi, M Vasanthavigar, R Arun, M Mahadevan
In recent decades, disposal of hazardous material has become a challenging task especially in case of landfills where leaching out of waste is possible. In such cases, an efficient and economical liner system using locally available material is very essential. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the suitability of red soil stabilized using lime and Prosopis juliflora fibers as liner material for landfills. Prosopis is a woody weed available abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Han Yu, Pedro J Del Nido, Tal Geva, Chun Yang, Alexander Tang, Zheyang Wu, Rahul H Rathod, Xueying Huang, Kristen L Billiar, Dalin Tang
Patient-specific in vivo ventricle material parameter determination is important for cardiovascular investigations. A new cardiac magnetic image (CMR)-based modeling approach with different zero-load diastole and systole geometries was adopted to estimate right ventricle material parameter values for healthy and patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and seeking potential clinical applications. CMR data were obtained from 6 healthy volunteers and 16 TOF patients with consent obtained. CMR-based RV/LV models were constructed using two zero-load geometries (diastole and systole, 2G model)...
September 10, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Martin Kräter, Jiranuwat Sapudom, Nicole Christin Bilz, Tilo Pompe, Jochen Guck, Claudia Claus
The cellular cytoskeleton is central for key cellular functions, and as such is a marker for diseased and infected cell states. Here we analyzed infection with rubella virus (RV) strains with respect to phenotypes in cellular mechanical properties, cell movement, and viral cytopathogenicity. Real-time deformability cytometry (RT-DC), as a high-throughput platform for the assessment of cell mechanics, revealed a correlation of an increase in cortical filamentous-actin (F-actin) with a higher cellular stiffness...
September 13, 2018: Cells
Louis A Saddic, Kimberly Howard-Quijano, Jasmine Kipke, Yukiko Kubo, Erica A Dale, Donald B Hoover, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Mansoureh Eghbali, Aman Mahajan
The pathological consequences of ischemic heart disease involve signaling through the autonomic nervous system (ANS). While early activation may serve to maintain hemodynamic stability, persistent aberrant sympatho-excitation contributes to the development of lethal arrhythmias and heart failure. We hypothesize that as myocardium reacts and remodels to ischemic injury over time, there is an analogous sequence of gene expression changes in the thoracic spinal cord dorsal horn, the processing center for incoming afferent fibers from the heart to the central nervous system...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Sagar Umale, Narayan Yoganandan
STUDY DESIGN: Determination of human cervical spine disc response under cyclic loading. PURPOSE: To explain the potential mechanisms of intervertebral disc injury caused by cyclic loading. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Certain occupational environments in civilian and military populations may affect the cervical spine of individuals by cyclic loading. Research on this mechanism is scarce. METHODS: Here, we developed a finite element model of the human C4-C5 disc...
October 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Norma Patricia López-Acosta, Eduardo Martínez-Hernández
This article contains data on the mechanical properties of individual cubes of caobilla wood ( Swietenia humilis Zucc. ) used as deformable cell of control piles, which are a special foundation system used to regulate both loads and settlements in buildings. The data were obtained from stress-controlled compression tests considering wooden cubes with different volumetric weight, moisture conditions and fiber orientation. In addition, the correlation of yield stress versus volumetric weight of caobilla wood cubes is presented...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Stelios Angeli, Kyrre E Emblem, Paulina Due-Tonnessen, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Previous studies to simulate brain tumor progression, often investigate either temporal changes in cancer cell density or the overall tissue-level growth of the tumor mass. Here, we developed a computational model to bridge these two approaches. The model incorporates the tumor biomechanical response at the tissue level and accounts for cellular events by modeling cancer cell proliferation, infiltration to surrounding tissues, and invasion to distant locations. Moreover, acquisition of high resolution human data from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion imaging was employed within the simulations towards a realistic and patient specific model...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Leyun Yang, Cheng Zheng, Yong Chen, Hanjie Ying
Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization is commonly used for efficient ethanol fuel production in industry due to the relatively higher ethanol stress resistance of S. cerevisiae in biofilms relative to planktonic cells. The mechanisms of biofilm formation and stress resistance, however, remain ambiguous. By analyzing biofilm and planktonic cell transcriptomes, this study observed that MIG1 (encoding a transcription factor) expression in cells increases during the biofilm formation process. To identify the role of MIG1 in yeast biofilm formation and the ethanol resistance of these cells, MIG1 was deleted and complemented in S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shunji Yunoki, Hirosuke Hatayama, Mizue Ebisawa, Eiji Kondo, Kazunori Yasuda
We developed a continuous formation method of cord-like collagen gels comprising fibrils preferentially aligned along the geometrical axes (CCGs). Collagen (2.5%) dissolved in a sodium phosphate buffer containing 280 mM of sodium chloride was introduced into a stainless cylinder (length 52 mm, diameter 2.0 mm) warmed at 38°C at a linear velocity of 2.5 mm/s. This process caused collagen fibril alignments under acute fibril formation in the cylinder, resulting in continuous formation of CCGs. Fibril formation rate, shear rate, and shear duration were substantial factors for successful CCG formation...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Tina Žargi, Matej Drobnič, Klemen Stražar, Alan Kacin
Surgical ACL reconstruction performed with a tourniquet induces compression and ischemic stress of the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle which can accelerate postoperative weakness. Given that low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise is potent in enhancing muscle oxygenation and vascular function, we hypothesized that short-term preconditioning with low-load BFR exercise can attenuate QF muscle endurance deterioration in the postoperative period. Twenty subjects undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction performed 5 exercise sessions in the last 8 days prior to surgery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Seyed Abdolmajid Yousefsani, Farzam Farahmand, Amir Shamloo
This paper presents a three-dimensional micromechanical model of brain white matter tissue as a transversely isotropic soft composite described by the generalized Ogden hyperelastic model. The embedded element technique, with corrected stiffness redundancy in large deformations, was used for the embedment of a histology-informed probabilistic distribution of the axonal fibers in the extracellular matrix. The model was linked to a multi-objective, multi-parametric optimization algorithm, using the response surface methodology, for characterization of material properties of the axonal fibers and extracellular matrix in an inverse finite element analysis...
August 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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