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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811170/zika-virus-research-models
#1
REVIEW
Jessica L Kublin, James B Whitney
The 2015 Brazilian Zika virus outbreak sparked a rapid response to control the spread of the virus. What was first understood to be a mild self-resolving infection is now linked to significant neurological defects in both neonates, and adults. The WHO declared the 2016 Zika epidemic a public health emergency and issued an unprecedented recommendation to women in affected regions to delay pregnancy until the risks surrounding Zika virus could be understood, or the epidemic contained. Since that time, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding Zika transmission and pathogenesis to aid the development of drugs and vaccines...
August 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811141/the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-a-pregnancy-model
#2
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810587/association-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-gestational-diabetes-aggravated-complication-of-pregnancy
#3
Kui Yao, Ce Bian, Xia Zhao
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of the reproductive age women globally. PCOS is diagnosed by the presence of hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, and polycystic morphology of at least one ovary. Insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia and associated metabolic abnormalities including metabolic syndrome play a significant role in the development of PCOS. The chances of developing MS in PCOS women was shown to increase by almost 14-fold in patients with increasing body mass index. Even in the absence of overt obesity, a preferential deposition of intra-abdominal fat is noted in PCOS women and this intra-abdominal fat leads to impaired insulin action and functional IR and hyperandrogenism...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810177/use-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-pregnancy-and-maternal-gestational-diabetes
#4
Alice Panchaud, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Marlene P Freeman, Adele C Viguera, Sarah C MacDonald, Alexandra Z Sosinsky, Lee S Cohen
BACKGROUND: Second generation antipsychotic medications (SGAs) are widely used by reproductive-age women to treat a number of psychiatric illnesses. Some SGAs have been associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes, although information regarding their diabetogenic effect in pregnant women is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) among women treated with SGA. METHOD: The Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics (NPRAA) collects data on drug use, pregnancy outcomes, and other characteristics from pregnant women, ages 18-45 years, using 3 phone interviews conducted at (1) enrollment during pregnancy, (2) 7 months' gestation, and (3) 2-3 months postpartum...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807719/maternal-hypothyroidism-an-overview-of-current-experimental-models
#5
REVIEW
Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Asghar Ghasemi
Maternal hypothyroidism (MH) is the most common cause of transient congenital hypothyroidism. Different animal models are used for assessing developmental effects of MH in offspring. The severity and status of hypothyroidism in animal models must be a reflection of the actual conditions in humans. To obtain comparable results with different clinical conditions, which lead to MH in humans, several factors have been suggested for researchers to consider before designing the experimental models. Regarding development of fetal body systems during pregnancy, interference at different times provides different results and the appropriate time for induction of hypothyroidism should be selected based on accurate time of development of the system under assessment...
August 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807713/opioid-drug-use-and-acute-cardiac-events-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#6
Hamisu M Salihu, Jason L Salemi, Anjali Aggarwal, Beverly F Steele, Ross C Pepper, Mulubrhan F Mogos, Muktar H Aliyu
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of pregnancy-associated deaths in the United States (US). The extent to which increasing opioid use among pregnant women contributes to fatal cardiovascular events is unknown. We examine trends in opioid use among pregnant women over the previous decade, and the association between changes in temporal trends in opioid drug use and the incidence of acute cardiac events among mothers. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of the Healthcare and Cost Utilization Project (HCUP), we utilized a two-stage stratified cluster sampling of all inpatient hospital discharges from non-federal hospitals between 01/01/2002 through 12/31/2014...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807164/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-male-infertility
#7
Dan Jiang, Alberto Coscione, Lily Li, Bai-Yun Zeng
Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility, imbalance in hormone levels, and immune system dysfunction...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806195/antiretroviral-combination-use-during-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-major-congenital-malformations
#8
Anick Bérard, Odile Sheehy, Jin-Ping Zhao, Michal Abrahamowicz, Mona Loutfy, Isabelle Boucoiran, Sasha Bernatsky
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of major congenital malformations associated with gestational combination antiretroviral use. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: Using the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort from 1998-2015, we included women who covered by Quebec Drug Plan and have a singleton livebirth. All antiretroviral use alone or in combination were considered. Major congenital malformations overall and organ-specific malformations in the first year of life were identified...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805911/effects-of-post-weaning-growth-rate-and-puberty-induction-protocol-on-reproductive-performance-of-bos-indicus-influenced-beef-heifers
#9
P Moriel, P Lancaster, G C Lamb, J M B Vendramini, J D Arthington
A 3-yr study evaluated the effectiveness of puberty induction using exogenous reproductive hormones in beef heifers undergoing different post-weaning growth rates. On d 0 of each year, grazing Angus × Brahman heifers (60 heifers/yr) were stratified by initial BW and age (BW = 253 ± 30 kg; age = 310 ± 18 d), and randomly assigned, in a 3 × 2 factorial design, to achieve a low (LOW; 0.45 kg/d), medium (MED; 0.73 kg/d), or high (HIGH; 1.00 kg/d) growth rate from d 0 to 168 (5 heifers/pasture; 4 pastures/growth rate/yr)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804652/use-of-over-the-counter-medication-among-pregnant-women-in-sharjah-united-arab-emirates
#10
Abduelmula R Abduelkarem, Hafsa Mustafa
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter medications are widely available in pharmacies Their safety profile, however, does not extend to pregnant women. Accordingly, there should be educational programs developed for pregnant women to protect them from the harms of the side effects. AIM: This study was planned and designed with the aim of exploring the awareness and assessing the usage of OTC medications among pregnant women in Sharjah, UAE. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire...
2017: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803005/safety-and-feasibility-of-therapeutic-platelet-depletion-with-spectra-optia-in-a-pregnant-woman
#11
Roman Małachowski, Olga Grzybowska-Izydorczyk, Nelly Besson, Anna Szmigielska-Kapłon, Mateusz Nowicki, Agnieszka Wierzbowska
INTRODUCTION: Thrombocytapheresis is an alternative treatment beneficial in rare circumstances, when cytoreductive agents are contraindicated, drug therapy gave no response or the expected response would be too slow. Here we present a case of a pregnant woman who underwent 5 thrombocytaphereses using Spectra Optia device to reduce circulating platelets (PLT) count and prepare for Cesarian section. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMED TREATMENT: A 39-year-old woman with diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was treated with interferon because of too high PLT count...
July 27, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798905/enrofloxacin-and-toltrazuril-are-able-to-reduce-toxoplasma-gondii-growth-in-human-bewo-trophoblastic-cells-and-villous-explants-from-human-third-trimester-pregnancy
#12
Rafaela J da Silva, Angelica O Gomes, Priscila S Franco, Ariane S Pereira, Iliana C B Milian, Mayara Ribeiro, Paolo Fiorenzani, Maria C Dos Santos, José R Mineo, Neide M da Silva, Eloisa A V Ferro, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa
Classical treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis is based on combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine plus folinic acid. Due to teratogenic effects and bone marrow suppression caused by pyrimethamine, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies is indispensable to minimize the side effects and improve the control of infection. Previous studies demonstrated that enrofloxacin and toltrazuril reduced the incidence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in the control of T...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798891/hiv-positive-women-taking-lifelong-antiretroviral-therapy-report-better-adherence-than-women-taking-short-course-prophylaxis-during-and-after-pregnancy-under-pmtct-program-option-a-in-lusaka-zambia
#13
Karen M Hampanda, Lisa L Abuogi, Yusuf Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: HIV-positive women's adherence to antiretrovirals is critical for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We aimed to establish if mothers taking triple lifelong antiretroviral therapy report higher adherence compared to mothers taking short-course prophylaxis under Option A in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: In this clinic-based cross-sectional study, we interviewed 320 HIV-positive mothers at a large public health facility in Lusaka in 2014...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797296/intermittent-preventive-treatment-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-survey-to-assess-uptake-of-the-new-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-five-dose-policy-in-ghana
#14
Ivy Owusu-Boateng, Francis Anto
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy poses a great risk to both mother and fetus. In Ghana, malaria accounts for 3.4% of deaths and 16.8% of all hospital admissions in pregnant women. In 2014, Ghana updated her policy on intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) to reflect the updated policy of the WHO. This study determined the level of uptake of sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) to serve as baseline for monitoring progress and also reviewed stock levels of SP, a key factor in the programme implementation...
August 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794821/comparing-medication-adherence-and-persistence-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-using-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-or-sulfonylureas
#15
Kelly F Bell, Katherine Cappell, Michael Liang, Amanda M Kong
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes treated with pharmacotherapy should be adherent to and persistent with their medications to experience glycemic control and prevent associated complications. OBJECTIVE: To compare medication adherence and persistence among patients with type 2 diabetes who are newly initiating a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor or a sulfonylurea. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study using the MarketScan claims databases...
June 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792382/bedaquiline-and-linezolid-for-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-pregnant-woman
#16
Marie Jaspard, Elisabeth Elefant-Amoura, Isabelle Melonio, Inés De Montgolfier, Nicolas Veziris, Eric Caumes
A woman with extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis treated with a drug regimen including linezolid and bedaquiline during her last 3 weeks of pregnancy gave birth to a child without abnormalities. No fetal toxicities were noted by 2 years after delivery. This drug combination might be safe during the late third trimester of pregnancy.
October 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791290/placental-malaria-a-new-insight-into-the-pathophysiology
#17
REVIEW
Lalita Sharma, Geeta Shukla
Malaria in pregnancy poses a great health risk to mother and her fetus and results into complications, such as abortion, still birth, intra uterine growth retardation, and low birth weight. The heavy infiltration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces of placenta seems to be responsible for all the complications observed. Infected RBCs in the placenta cause an inflammatory environment with increase in inflammatory cells and cytokines which is deleterious to the placenta. Increased inflammatory responses in the infected placenta result into oxidative stress that in turn causes oxidative stress-induced placental cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790788/artemisinin-naphthoquine-combination-a-directly-observed-treatment-option-in-malaria
#18
M S Mustafa, V Rastogi
Resistance to standard antimalarials has led to the need for newer options. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), which require a tedious three-day treatment schedule, have been introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. Of late, the new generation artemisinin-naphthoquine (ANQ) combination has been developed, which requires a single dose treatment. Artemisinin initiates the action through the cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge while naphtoquine maintains the process by getting concentrated in the digestive vacuole of the parasite...
July 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789981/tobacco-and-nicotine-delivery-product-use-in-a-national-sample-of-pregnant-women
#19
Allison N Kurti, Ryan Redner, Alexa A Lopez, Diana R Keith, Andrea C Villanti, Cassandra A Stanton, Diann E Gaalema, Janice Y Bunn, Nathan J Doogan, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Megan E Roberts, Julie Phillips, Stephen T Higgins
Monitoring use of tobacco products among pregnant women is a public health priority, yet few studies in U.S. national samples have been reported on this topic. We examined prevalence and correlates of using cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and other tobacco/nicotine delivery products in a U.S. national sample of pregnant women. Data were obtained from all pregnant women (≥18 years) in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH, 2013-2014) Study (N=388). Prevalence of current and prior use of tobacco/nicotine products was examined overall and among current cigarette smokers...
August 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789705/impact-of-intrapartum-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-upon-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-vaginally-delivered-full-term-neonates
#20
Alicja Nogacka, Nuria Salazar, Marta Suárez, Christian Milani, Silvia Arboleya, Gonzalo Solís, Nuria Fernández, Lidia Alaez, Ana M Hernández-Barranco, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Marco Ventura, Miguel Gueimonde
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the early establishment of the intestinal microbiota may produce important implications for the infant's health and for the risk of disease later on. Different perinatal conditions may be affecting the development of the gut microbiota. Some of them, such as delivery mode or feeding habits, have been extensively assessed whereas others remain to be studied, being critical to identify their impact on the microbiota and, if any, to minimize it. Antibiotics are among the drugs most frequently used in early life, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP), present in over 30% of deliveries, being the most frequent source of exposure...
August 8, 2017: Microbiome
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