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Drugs in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339967/placental-transporter-localization-and-expression-in-the-human-the-importance-of-species-sex-and-gestational-age-differences1
#1
Natasha Walker, Panagiotis Filis, Ugo Soffientini, Michelle Bellingham, Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Paul A Fowler
The placenta is a critical organ during pregnancy, essential for the provision of an optimal intrauterine environment, with fetal survival, growth and development relying on correct placental function. It must allow nutritional compounds and relevant hormones to pass into the fetal bloodstream and metabolic waste products to be cleared. It also acts as a semi-permeable barrier to potentially harmful chemicals both endogenous and exogenous. Transporter proteins allow for bidirectional transport and are found in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta and endothelium of fetal capillaries...
March 7, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339500/detecting-congenital-malformations-lessons-learned-from-the-mpepu-study-botswana
#2
Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Zash, Roger L Shapiro, Oganne Batlang, Kerapetse Botebele, Kara Bennett, Florence Chilisa, Erik von Widenfelt, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Lewis B Holmes, Kathleen M Powis
INTRODUCTION: A large and increasing number of HIV-infected women are conceiving on antiretroviral treatment (ART). While most antiretrovirals are considered safe in pregnancy, monitoring for rare pregnancy and infant adverse outcomes is warranted. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective secondary analysis nested within a clinical trial of infant cotrimoxazole vs. placebo prophylaxis in Botswana (the Mpepu Study). Infants were examined at birth, and at least every 3 months through 18 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339479/mouse-newborn-cells-allow-highly-productive-mouse-cytomegalovirus-replication-constituting-a-novel-convenient-primary-cell-culture-system
#3
Vu Thuy Khanh Le-Trilling, Mirko Trilling
Mammalian cell culture is indispensable for most aspects of current biomedical research. Immortalized cell lines are very convenient, but transforming principles (e.g. oncogenic viruses or their oncogenes) can heavily influence the experimental outcome. Primary cells do not share this apparent disadvantage but are more laborious to generate. Certain viruses (e.g. mouse cytomegalovirus) do not replicate efficiently in most transformed cell lines. In the past, such viruses have been routinely propagated on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) established around day 17 (d17) of gestation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338393/contraception-for-women-with-multiple-sclerosis-guidance-for-healthcare-providers
#4
Maria K Houtchens, Lauren B Zapata, Kathryn M Curtis, Maura K Whiteman
Family planning is essential for any comprehensive treatment plan for women of reproductive age with multiple sclerosis (MS), including counseling on using effective contraception to optimally time desired and prevent unintended pregnancies. This topical review summarizes the first evidence-based recommendations on contraception safety for women with MS. In 2016, evidence-based recommendations for contraceptive use by women with MS were included in US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. They were developed after review of published scientific evidence on contraception safety and consultation with experts...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337823/interest-of-the-trajectory-method-for-the-evaluation-of-outcomes-after-in-utero-drug-exposure-example-of-anxiolytics-and-hypnotics
#5
Caroline Hurault-Delarue, Cécile Chouquet, Nicolas Savy, Isabelle Lacroix, Anna-Belle Beau, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Christine Damase-Michel
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the potential benefit to take into account duration and intensity of drug exposure using the recently published method based on individual drug trajectories. This approach was used to define profiles of exposure to anxiolytics/hypnotics during pregnancy and to evaluate the potential effect on newborn health. METHODS: The study was performed in EFEMERIS database (54 918 mother-children pairs). An estimation of adaptation to extrauterine life was assessed using several criteria especially cardio-respiratory symptoms...
March 24, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337452/teratogenic-effect-of-usnic-acid-from-cladonia-substellata-vainio-during-organogenesis
#6
C R Silva, K S N Marinho, T D S Silva, D K S Ferreira, G M Aguiar, M C B Martins, K R P Santos, F C A Aguiar Júnior, N P S Santos, E C Pereira, N H Silva
Studies about toxicological potential of usnic acid are limited. This way, the vast majority of data available in the literature are related only to biological activities. This is the first study that aimed to evaluate the oral toxicity of usnic acid during the period of organogenesis. Females rats were distributed in the control groups, treated I and II, at doses of 15 and 25 mg/kg, administered by gavage during the 6° to 15° days of pregnancy. After 20 days the fetuses were removed and analyzed. A reduction in weight gain during pregnancy, increased resorption, reduction in the number of viable fetuses, and their body weight were observed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336173/effects-of-artesunate-on-some-biochemical-parameters-in-pregnant-albino-wistar-rats-challenged-with-lethal-strain-plasmodium-berghei-nk65-appreciating-the-activities-of-artemisinin-drugs-on-key-pregnancy-hormone-balance
#7
Chinaka O Nwaehujor, Onyeka V Asuzu, Daniel D Nwibo, Obichukwu C Nwobi, Ihechiluru I Ezeigbo
In humans, malaria in pregnancy can cause serious maternal and foetal morbidity and in extreme untreated cases, foetal mortality occurs. The therapeutic approach to curbing this malaise is the administration of an effective and/or combinations of anti-malaria medicaments. Acute or chronic administration of some of these drugs, however, gives rise to some adverse medical conditions including reproductive dysfunction, especially in pregnancy. Studies aimed at the hormonal interplays following administration of these drugs in pregnancy have been limited due to too few appropriate animal models...
March 20, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333608/morbidity-in-pregnant-women-associated-with-unverified-penicillin-allergies-antibiotic-use-and-group-b-streptococcus-infections
#8
Shilpa H Desai, Michael S Kaplan, Qiaoling Chen, Eric M Macy
CONTEXT: The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. DESIGN: Retrospective...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333552/treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-during-pregnancy-safety-considerations
#9
Jan Thone, Sandra Thiel, Ralf Gold, Kerstin Hellwig
Women with multiple sclerosis (MS) are treated early in the disease course with disease modifying therapies (DMT). Updated information is needed on pregnancy outcomes of DMT-exposed pregnancies and the effect of the drug withdrawal on MS disease activity. Areas covered: In this review, we will cover the most important updated management strategies in planning a pregnancy when having MS. Expert opinion: MS itself does not increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and does not negatively influence the long-term course of the disease...
March 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333271/impact-of-thyroid-autoimmunity-in-euthyroid-women-on-live-birth-rate-after-iui
#10
D Unuane, B Velkeniers, B Bravenboer, P Drakopoulos, H Tournaye, J Parra, M De Brucker
STUDY QUESTION: Does thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) predict live birth rate in euthyroid women after one treatment cycle in IUI patients? SUMMARY ANSWER: TAI as such does not influence pregnancy outcome after IUI treatment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The role of TAI on pregnancy outcome in the case of IVF/ICSI is largely debated in the literature. This is the first study to address this issue in the case of IUI. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a retrospective cohort study...
February 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333207/endometrial-thickness-in-women-undergoing-iui-with-ovarian-stimulation-how-thick-is-too-thin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
N S Weiss, M N van Vliet, J Limpens, P G A Hompes, C B Lambalk, M H Mochtar, F van der Veen, B W J Mol, M van Wely
STUDY QUESTION: Is pre-ovulatory endometrial thickness (EMT) in women with unexplained subfertility undergoing IUI with ovarian stimulation (OS) associated with pregnancy chances? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found no evidence for an association between EMT and pregnancy chances. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It has been suggested that OS with clomiphene citrate (CC) results in a lower EMT than with gonadotrophins or aromatase inhibitors, but the clinical consequences in terms of pregnancy are unclear...
February 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331637/mode-of-delivery-in-drug-dependent-pregnant-women-a-case-control-study
#12
Ana Raquel Neves, Fabiane Neves, Isabel Santos Silva, Maria do Céu Almeida, Pitorra Monteiro
Objective. To determine the contribution of drug use during pregnancy to the route of delivery. Methods. A case-control study was conducted at a hospital in Coimbra, Portugal, between 2001 and 2014. Drug-dependent pregnant women (n = 236) were compared with a control group of low risk women (n = 228) in terms of maternal characteristics, obstetric history, pregnancy complications, and labor details. Factors that influenced the mode of delivery were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v...
2017: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330858/prolactin-up-regulates-female-predominant-cyp-gene-expressions-and-down-regulates-male-predominant-gene-expressions-in-mice-liver
#13
Yuya Sato, Yoshikatsu Kaneko, Takamasa Cho, Kei Goto, Tadashi Otsuka, Suguru Yamamoto, Shin Goto, Hiroki Maruyama, Ichiei Narita
Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone with over 300 separate biological activities and its serum level is increased during pregnancy and lactation. It has been described that pregnancy and lactation affect drug and steroid metabolism in mice and humans. Several studies reported that pregnancy or lactation influences liver cytochrome P450 (Cyp) expression and its activity, affecting the biosynthesis of steroids and xenobiotics through growth hormone or sex hormones; however, the role of prolactin as the regulator of liver Cyp expression has not been elucidated so far...
March 22, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329228/gender-differences-in-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-drugs
#14
J Tamargo, G Rosano, W Thomas, J Duarte, A Niessner, J C Kaski, C Cecconi, H Drexel, K Kjeldsen, G Savarese, C Torp-Pedersen, D Atar, B S Lewis, S Agewall
Although sex-specific differences in cardiovascular medicine are well-known, the exact influences of sex on the effect of cardiovascular drugs remain unclear. Women and men differ in body composition and physiology (hormonal influences during the menstrual cycle, menopause and pregnancy) and they present differences in drug pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and pharmacodynamics, so that is not rare that they may respond differently to cardiovascular drugs. Furthermore, women are also less often treated with evidence-based drugs thereby preventing optimization of therapeutics for women of all ages, experience more relevant adverse drug reactions than men, and remain under-represented in most clinical trials...
February 28, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328548/characterization-of-hiv-seroconverters-in-a-tdf-ftc-prep-study-hptn-067-adapt
#15
Mariya V Sivay, Maoji Li, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Yinfeng Zhang, Sarah E Hudelson, Mark A Marzinke, Rivet K Amico, Andrew Redd, Craig W Hendrix, Peter L Anderson, Kevin Bokoch, Linda Gail-Bekker, Frits van Griensven, Sharon Mannheimer, James P Hughes, Robert Grant, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: HPTN 067/ADAPT evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in women (South Africa) and men who have sex with men (Thailand, US). Participants received once-weekly directly observed TDF/FTC (DOT), and were then randomized to daily, time-driven, or event-driven PrEP. This report describes characterization of 12 HIV seroconversion events in this trial. METHODS: HIV rapid testing was performed at study sites...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327032/newborns-not-at-raised-risk-if-flu-drugs-taken-in-pregnancy
#16
(no author information available yet)
There is no evidence to suggest an increased risk to newborns whose mothers take drugs to prevent or treat influenza during pregnancy, research suggests.
March 22, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326845/the-use-of-biologics-in-pregnant-patients-with-rheumatic-disease
#17
Monika Østensen
An increasing number of female patients with autoimmune diseases are treated with biologic drugs. Concerns in regard to safety of biologics during pregnancy arise in patients who have not completed their families. Areas covered: A review of the literature dealing with child outcomes of pregnancies exposed to biologics shows that TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are the best studied in regard to human pregnancy. In studies comparing exposed pregnancies to disease-matched controls no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, prematurity or congenital malformations has been observed...
March 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326070/antimicrobial-protection-of-marsupial-pouch-young
#18
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Cheng, Katherine Belov
Marsupials diverged from eutherian mammals about 148 million years ago and represent a unique lineage of mammals with distinctive morphological and reproductive characteristics. Marsupials have significantly shorter gestation periods than eutherians. Pregnancy typically ranges from 15 to 35 days, with young being born at a very early developmental stage and lacking differentiated lymphoid tissues and mature effector cells. Recent microbiome studies of the marsupial pouch revealed that marsupial young can face intense microbial challenges after birth, as the pouch contains a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325171/pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-women-in-a-large-italian-teaching-hospital-a-30-year-retrospective-study
#19
S Grignolo, R Agnello, D Gerbaldo, C Gotta, C Alicino, F Del Puente, L Taramasso, B Bruzzone, C Gustavino, S Trasino, A DE Maria, G Icardi, C Viscoli, A DI Biagio
The primary study objective was to investigate three decades from 1985 to 2014 of changes in pregnancies among HIV-infected women. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors associated with preterm delivery and severe small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in HIV-infected women. A retrospective review of deliveries among pregnant HIV-infected women at the University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST in Genoa between 1985 and 2014 was performed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to study the variables associated with neonatal outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322675/update-on-viral-hepatitis-in-pregnancy
#20
REVIEW
Zhili Shao, Mohammad Al Tibi, Jamile Wakim-Fleming
Pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis are at higher risk of morbidity and death than pregnant women with chronic viral hepatitis. The risk of death is highest with acute viral hepatitis E, and the rate of transmission to the baby may be highest with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Managing viral hepatitis in pregnancy requires assessing the risk of transmission to the baby, determining the gestational age at the time of infection and the mother's risk of decompensation, and understanding the side effects of antiviral drugs...
March 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
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