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O3 Root

Wei-Wei Zhang, Miao Wang, Ai-Ying Wang, Xiao-Han Yin, Zhao-Zhong Feng, Guang-You Hao
Elevated tropospheric ozone (O3 ) concentration has been shown to affect many aspects of plant performance including detrimental effects on leaf photosynthesis and plant growth. However, it is not known whether such changes are accompanied by concomitant responses in plant hydraulic architecture and water relations, which would have great implications for plant growth and survival in face of unfavorable water conditions. A soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar commonly used in Northeast China was exposed to non-filtered air (NF, averaged 24...
November 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Lauana Pellanda de Souza, Lêda Rita D'Antonino Faroni, Fernanda Fernandes Heleno, Frederico Garcia Pinto, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz, Lucas Henrique Figueiredo Prates
The present study aimed to optimize ozone (O3) treatments, as gas and dissolved in water, to remove difenoconazole and linuron in carrots. We employed a central composite design to study three variables governing the efficacy of treatments: O3 concentration, temperature and treatment time. The temperature did not influence the efficacy of treatments. The removal percentage of pesticides increases with increases in ozone concentration and the time of treatment. O3 application promoted the removal of more than 80% of pesticides when the roots were exposed for approximately 120min at 5 and 10mgL(-1), respectively, in treatments with O3 as gas and dissolved in water...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Peng Wang, Ellen L Marsh, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Andrew D B Leakey, Amy M Sheflin, Daniel P Schachtman
Rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and O3 are key features of global environmental change. To investigate changes in the belowground bacterial community composition in response to elevated CO2 and O3 (eCO2 and eO3) the endosphere, rhizosphere and soil were sampled from soybeans under eCO2 and maize under eO3. The maize rhizosphere and endosphere α-diversity was higher than soybean, which may be due to a high relative abundance of Rhizobiales. Only the rhizosphere microbiome composition of the soybeans changed in response to eCO2, associated with an increased abundance of nitrogen fixing microbes...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Margherita G De Biasi, Rosita Marabottini, Anna Rita Paolacci, Mario Ciaffi, Cristina Nali, Giacomo Lorenzini, Maurizio Badiani
Seedlings of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn] were exposed to zinc nutrition and to ozone (O3) in a factorial combination: adequate (+Zn treatment) or no Zn (-Zn) in the nutrient solution, followed by exposure to either ozone-free air (filtered air, FA) or to 150 nL L(-1) ozone (O3) for 4 h. Although omitting Zn from the nutrient solution failed to impose a genuine Zn deficiency, -Zn*FA durum wheat seedlings showed a typical deficiency behaviour, i.e. Zn mobilisation from root to shoot...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Thuan-Quoc Thach, Hilda Tsang, Peihua Cao, Lai-Ming Ho
BACKGROUND: Air quality indices based on the maximum of sub-indices of pollutants are easy to produce and help quantify the degree of air pollution. However, they discount the additive effects of multiple pollutants and are only sensitive to changes in highest sub-index. OBJECTIVES: We propose a simple and concise method to construct an air quality index that takes into account additive effects of multiple pollutants and evaluate the extent to which this index predicts health effects...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Bing Mao, Yan Wang, Tian-Hong Zhao, Rong-Rong Tian, Wei Wang, Jia-Shu Ye
Enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and elevated tropospheric ozone alone may inhibit the growth of agricultural crops. However, research regarding their combined effects on growth and biochemical properties of roots is still scarce. Using open top chambers, we monitored the response of growth, secondary metabolites, endogenous hormones and enzyme activities of soybean roots to elevated O3 and enhanced UV-B individually and in combination at stages of branching, flowering and podding. Our results indicated that the root biomass decreased by 23...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bo Shang, Zhaozhong Feng, Pin Li, Xiangyang Yuan, Yansen Xu, Vicent Calatayud
Poplar clones 546 (P. deltoides cv. '55/56'×P. deltoides cv. 'Imperial') and 107 (P. euramericana cv. '74/76') were exposed to five ozone concentrations in 15 open-top chambers (OTCs). Both ozone exposure (AOT40, Accumulation Over a Threshold hourly ozone concentration of 40ppb) and flux-based (POD7, Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above an hourly flux threshold of 7nmol O3 m(-2) PLA (projected leaf area) s(-1)) response relationships were established with photosynthesis, leaf morphology and biomass variables. Increases in both metrics showed significant negative relationships with light-saturated photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, leaf mass per area, actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light and root biomass but not with stomatal conductance (gs), leaf and stem biomass...
June 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shuguang Wang, Robert M Augé, Heather D Toler
We quantitatively evaluated the effects of elevated O3 on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formation and on AM role in promoting plant growth in regard to several moderating variables (O3 levels, O3 exposure duration, plant types, AM fungi family, and additional stress) by means of meta-analysis of published data. The analysis consisted of 117 trials representing 20 peer-reviewed articles and 16 unpublished trials. Relative to non-mycorrhizal controls, AM inoculation did not significantly alter plant growth (shoot biomass, root biomass, total biomass and plant height) when O3 concentration was less than 80 ppb, but at concentrations above 80 ppb symbiosis was associated with increases of 68% in shoot biomass and 131% in root biomass...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
Sylvia Toet, Viktoria Oliver, Phil Ineson, Sophie McLoughlin, Thorunn Helgason, Simon Peacock, Andrew W Stott, Jeremy Barnes, Mike Ashmore
The effects of increased tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution levels on methane (CH4) emissions from peatlands, and their underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, we exposed peatland mesocosms from a temperate wet heath dominated by the sedge Schoenus nigricans and Sphagnum papillosum to four O3 treatments in open-top chambers for 2.5years, to investigate the O3 impacts on CH4 emissions and the processes that underpin these responses. Summer CH4 emissions, were significantly reduced, by 27% over the experiment, due to summer daytime (8hday(-1)) O3 exposure to non-filtered air (NFA) plus 35ppb O3, but were not significantly affected by year-round, 24hday(-1), exposure to NFA plus 10ppb or NFA plus 25ppb O3...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Minghao Zhuang, Shu Kee Lam, Yingchun Li, Shuanglin Chen
The increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) affects plant physiology and ecosystem processes, and consequently the cycle of nutrients. While mineral nutrients are critical for plant growth, the effect of elevated tropospheric O3 concentration on the uptake and allocation of mineral nutrients by plants is not well understood. Using open top chambers (OTCs), we investigated the effect of elevated O3 on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) in mature bamboo species Phyllostachys edulis and Oligostachyum lubricum...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
D K L Hewitt, G Mills, F Hayes, W Davies
High sugar ryegrasses (HSG) have been developed to improve the uptake, digestion and nitrogen (N)-utilisation of grazing stock, with the potential to increase production yields and benefit climate by reducing methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock farming. In this study, the effects of tropospheric ozone pollution on the seasonal growth dynamics of HSG pasture mesocosms containing Lolium perenne cv. AberMagic and Trifolium repens cv. Crusader were investigated. Species-specific ozone (O3) dose-response relationships (seasonal means: 35, 41, 47, 51, 59 & 67ppb) based on the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose (PODy) were constructed for above and below ground biomass, injury, N-fixation and forage quality...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Stephane Buteau, Mark S Goldberg
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is one of the postulated pathways linking short-term exposure to air pollution to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A hypothesis is that exposure to air pollution decreases heart rate variability, a recognized independent predictor of poorer cardiovascular prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a structured review of panel studies published between 1946 and July 2015 of the association between ambient air pollution and parameters of heart rate variability reflecting autonomic nervous function...
July 2016: Environmental Research
Meng Wang, Paul D Sampson, Jianlin Hu, Michael Kleeman, Joshua P Keller, Casey Olives, Adam A Szpiro, Sverre Vedal, Joel D Kaufman
Assessments of long-term air pollution exposure in population studies have commonly employed land-use regression (LUR) or chemical transport modeling (CTM) techniques. Attempts to incorporate both approaches in one modeling framework are challenging. We present a novel geostatistical modeling framework, incorporating CTM predictions into a spatiotemporal LUR model with spatial smoothing to estimate spatiotemporal variability of ozone (O3) and particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) from 2000 to 2008 in the Los Angeles Basin...
May 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pasqua Veronico, Costantino Paciolla, Nicola Sasanelli, Silvana De Leonardis, Maria Teresa Melillo
Few studies have been carried out on the effect of ozonated water (O3 wat) on the oxidative stress of root systems and, in particular, in combination with biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether aqueous ozone is effective in the control of root-knot nematode (RKN) infection and to investigate the concomitant changes in the basal defence system. A tomato cultivar susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita was treated with O3 wat as a soil drench. No negative effects were seen following ozone application in comparison with the control under the exposure conditions used...
May 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Oliver Martin, Antonio J Martín, Cecilia Mondelli, Sharon Mitchell, Takuya F Segawa, Roland Hauert, Charlotte Drouilly, Daniel Curulla-Ferré, Javier Pérez-Ramírez
Methanol synthesis by CO2 hydrogenation is attractive in view of avoiding the environmental implications associated with the production of the traditional syngas feedstock and mitigating global warming. However, there still is a lack of efficient catalysts for such alternative processes. Herein, we unveil the high activity, 100 % selectivity, and remarkable stability for 1000 h on stream of In2 O3 supported on ZrO2 under industrially relevant conditions. This strongly contrasts to the benchmark Cu-ZnO-Al2 O3 catalyst, which is unselective and experiences rapid deactivation...
May 17, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
I Michael-Kordatou, R Andreou, M Iacovou, Z Frontistis, E Hapeshi, C Michael, D Fatta-Kassinos
The degradation of erythromycin (ERY) and ethylparaben (EtP) in urban wastewater effluents at low concentration level during ozonation was investigated under different experimental conditions. Both substrates were rapidly eliminated within 2min at low ozone dose of 0.3mgL(-1) and the experimental data were well fitted in the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The ratio of HO- and O3-exposure (Rct) at the inherent pH was found to be 1.9×10(-8). The degradation of ERY and EtP was pronounced at pH 8 compared to acidic pH conditions, while the degradation rate of both substrates was found to be matrix-depended...
February 11, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Meenakshi Sharma, Vandana Mishra, Nupur Rau, Radhey Shyam Sharma
Iron deficiency is common among graminaceous crops. Ecologically successful wild grasses from iron-limiting habitats are likely to harbour bacteria which secrete efficient high-affinity iron-chelating molecules (siderophores) to solubilize and mobilize iron. Such siderophore-producing rhizobacteria may increase the iron-stress resilience of graminaceous crops. Considering this, 51 rhizobacterial isolates of Dichanthium annulatum from iron-limiting abandoned mine (∼84% biologically unavailable iron) were purified and tested for siderophore production; and efficacy of Arthrobacter globiformis inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience of maize and wheat was also evaluated...
July 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ericka C Barnes, George A Petersson, John A Montgomery, Michael J Frisch, Jan M L Martin
Unrestricted coupled cluster spin contamination corrected [UCCSD(T)] and unrestricted Brueckner doubles [UBD(T)] variations of the Weizmann-1 theory (W1), denoted as W1U, W1Usc, and W1BD, respectively, are compared with the restricted open-shell W1 theory [W1(RO)]. The performances of the four W1 variants are assessed with 220 total atomization energies, electron affinities, ionization potentials, and proton affinities in the G2/97 test set, for consistency with the error analysis of the original W1(RO) study...
October 13, 2009: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Gina Mills, Harry Harmens, Serena Wagg, Katrina Sharps, Felicity Hayes, David Fowler, Mark Sutton, Bill Davies
This paper provides a process-oriented perspective on the combined effects of ozone (O3), climate change and/or nitrogen (N) on vegetation. Whereas increasing CO2 in controlled environments or open-top chambers often ameliorates effects of O3 on leaf physiology, growth and C allocation, this is less likely in the field. Combined responses to elevated temperature and O3 have rarely been studied even though some critical growth stages such as seed initiation are sensitive to both. Under O3 exposure, many species have smaller roots, thereby enhancing drought sensitivity...
January 2016: Environmental Pollution
D K L Hewitt, G Mills, F Hayes, D Norris, M Coyle, S Wilkinson, W Davies
The growth, development and functioning of legumes are often significantly affected by exposure to tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution. However, surprisingly little is known about how leguminous Nitrogen (N) fixation responds to ozone, with a scarcity of studies addressing this question in detail. In the last decade, ozone impacts on N-fixation in soybean, cowpea, mung bean, peanut and clover have been shown for concentrations which are now commonly recorded in ambient air or are likely to occur in the near future...
January 2016: Environmental Pollution
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