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O3 Root

Wei Qin Yin, Hao Qi Jing, Ya Bo Wang, Si Yu Wei, Yue Sun, Sheng Sen Wang, Xuai Zhi Wang
The elevated concentration of tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is an important global climate change driver, with adverse impacts on soil ecological environment and crop growth. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out in an open top chamber (OTC), to investigate the effects of elevated ozone concentration on soil enzyme activities (catalase, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and invertase), organic acids contents (oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid) at different growth stages (tillering, jointing, heading and ripening stages) of wheat, and combined with the rhizospheric soil physicochemical properties and plant root characteristics to analyze the underlying reasons...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Sergio Luiz Pinheiro, Caio Cesar da Silva, Lucas Augusto da Silva, Marina P Cicotti, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo Fontana, Letícia R Pagrion, Natália P Dalmora, Thaís T Daque, Francisco Uf de Campos
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, and ozonated water on biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , and Candida albicans in mesiobuccal root canals with severe curvature of mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental ex vivo study in microbiologic laboratory. Sixty mesiobuccal root canals with severe curvature of mandibular molars were contaminated with standard strains of E...
January 2018: European Journal of Dentistry
Ashutosh K Pandey, Annesha Ghosh, Madhoolika Agrawal, S B Agrawal
Tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is a phytotoxic air pollutant causing a substantial damage to plants and agriculture worldwide. Plant productivity is affected by several environmental factors, which interact with each other. Studies related to interactions involving O3 and different levels of nitrogen (N) are still rare and elusive. In the present study we grew two wheat cultivars (HD2967 and Sonalika) in open top chambers (OTC) under ambient (AO) and elevated O3 (EO) (ambient + 20 ppb O3 ) and provided two levels of N fertilization; (a) recommended nitrogen (RN), (b) 1...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
C J Kuijpers, H P Huinink, N Tomozeiu, S J F Erich, O C G Adan
Due to the increased use of nanoparticles in everyday applications, there is a need for theoretical descriptions of particle transport and attachment in porous media. It should be possible to develop a one dimensional model to describe nanoparticle retention during capillary transport of liquid mixtures in porous media. Water-glycerol-nanoparticle mixtures were prepared and the penetration process in porous Al2 O3 samples of varying pore size is measured using NMR imaging. The liquid and particle front can be measured by utilizing T2 relaxation effects from the paramagnetic nanoparticles...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Banu Öter, Nursen Topçuog Lu, Mehmet K Tank, Sevi Burçak Çehreli
BACKGROUND: A successful primary root canal treatment depends on effective shaping and cleaning the root canal system and finally filling it with a hermetic sealer. Clinically, roots of primary teeth are difficult to shape and the irrigation/disinfection protocol has great importance on prognosis. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the antibacterial efficiency of Endosafe (Orangedental GmbH & Co. KG), photo-activated disinfection (PAD; Orangedental GmbH & Co...
February 26, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Eduardo González-Valdez, Alejandro Alarcón, Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato, Héctor René Vega-Carrillo, María Maldonado-Vega, Miguel Ángel Salas-Luévano, Rosalba Argumedo-Delira
This study evaluated the ability of Brassica napus for extracting gold (Au), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) from a mine tailings, with the inoculation of two Aspergillus niger strains, and the application of ammonium thiocyanate (NH4 SCN) or ammonium thiosulfate [(NH4 )2 S2 O3 ]. After seven weeks of growth inoculated or non-inoculated plants were applied with 1 or 2 g kg-1 of either NH4 SCN or (NH4 )2 S2 O3 , respectively. Eight days after the application of the chemical compounds, plants were harvested for determining the total dry biomass, and the content of Au, Ag, and Cu in plant organs...
February 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Miriam Ezbiri, Michael Takacs, Boris Stolz, Jeffrey Lungthok, Aldo Steinfeld, Ronald Michalsky
Perovskites are attractive redox materials for thermo/electrochemical fuel synthesis. To design perovskites with balanced redox energetics for thermochemically splitting CO2 , the activity of lattice oxygen vacancies and stability against crystal phase changes and detrimental carbonate formation are predicted for a representative range of perovskites by electronic structure computations. Systematic trends in these materials properties when doping with selected metal cations are described in the free energy range defined for isothermal and temperature-swing redox cycles...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Wei-Wei Zhang, Miao Wang, Ai-Ying Wang, Xiao-Han Yin, Zhao-Zhong Feng, Guang-You Hao
Elevated tropospheric ozone (O3 ) concentration has been shown to affect many aspects of plant performance including detrimental effects on leaf photosynthesis and plant growth. However, it is not known whether such changes are accompanied by concomitant responses in plant hydraulic architecture and water relations, which would have great implications for plant growth and survival in face of unfavorable water conditions. A soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar commonly used in Northeast China was exposed to non-filtered air (NF, averaged 24...
November 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Lauana Pellanda de Souza, Lêda Rita D'Antonino Faroni, Fernanda Fernandes Heleno, Frederico Garcia Pinto, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz, Lucas Henrique Figueiredo Prates
The present study aimed to optimize ozone (O3) treatments, as gas and dissolved in water, to remove difenoconazole and linuron in carrots. We employed a central composite design to study three variables governing the efficacy of treatments: O3 concentration, temperature and treatment time. The temperature did not influence the efficacy of treatments. The removal percentage of pesticides increases with increases in ozone concentration and the time of treatment. O3 application promoted the removal of more than 80% of pesticides when the roots were exposed for approximately 120min at 5 and 10mgL(-1), respectively, in treatments with O3 as gas and dissolved in water...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Peng Wang, Ellen L Marsh, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Andrew D B Leakey, Amy M Sheflin, Daniel P Schachtman
Rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and O3 are key features of global environmental change. To investigate changes in the belowground bacterial community composition in response to elevated CO2 and O3 (eCO2 and eO3 ) the endosphere, rhizosphere and soil were sampled from soybeans under eCO2 and maize under eO3 . The maize rhizosphere and endosphere α-diversity was higher than soybean, which may be due to a high relative abundance of Rhizobiales. Only the rhizosphere microbiome composition of the soybeans changed in response to eCO2 , associated with an increased abundance of nitrogen fixing microbes...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Margherita G De Biasi, Rosita Marabottini, Anna Rita Paolacci, Mario Ciaffi, Cristina Nali, Giacomo Lorenzini, Maurizio Badiani
Seedlings of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn] were exposed to zinc nutrition and to ozone (O3) in a factorial combination: adequate (+Zn treatment) or no Zn (-Zn) in the nutrient solution, followed by exposure to either ozone-free air (filtered air, FA) or to 150 nL L(-1) ozone (O3) for 4 h. Although omitting Zn from the nutrient solution failed to impose a genuine Zn deficiency, -Zn*FA durum wheat seedlings showed a typical deficiency behaviour, i.e. Zn mobilisation from root to shoot...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Thuan-Quoc Thach, Hilda Tsang, Peihua Cao, Lai-Ming Ho
BACKGROUND: Air quality indices based on the maximum of sub-indices of pollutants are easy to produce and help quantify the degree of air pollution. However, they discount the additive effects of multiple pollutants and are only sensitive to changes in highest sub-index. OBJECTIVES: We propose a simple and concise method to construct an air quality index that takes into account additive effects of multiple pollutants and evaluate the extent to which this index predicts health effects...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Bing Mao, Yan Wang, Tian-Hong Zhao, Rong-Rong Tian, Wei Wang, Jia-Shu Ye
Enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and elevated tropospheric ozone alone may inhibit the growth of agricultural crops. However, research regarding their combined effects on growth and biochemical properties of roots is still scarce. Using open top chambers, we monitored the response of growth, secondary metabolites, endogenous hormones and enzyme activities of soybean roots to elevated O3 and enhanced UV-B individually and in combination at stages of branching, flowering and podding. Our results indicated that the root biomass decreased by 23...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bo Shang, Zhaozhong Feng, Pin Li, Xiangyang Yuan, Yansen Xu, Vicent Calatayud
Poplar clones 546 (P. deltoides cv. '55/56'×P. deltoides cv. 'Imperial') and 107 (P. euramericana cv. '74/76') were exposed to five ozone concentrations in 15 open-top chambers (OTCs). Both ozone exposure (AOT40, Accumulation Over a Threshold hourly ozone concentration of 40ppb) and flux-based (POD7 , Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above an hourly flux threshold of 7nmol O3 m-2 PLA (projected leaf area) s-1 ) response relationships were established with photosynthesis, leaf morphology and biomass variables. Increases in both metrics showed significant negative relationships with light-saturated photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, leaf mass per area, actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light and root biomass but not with stomatal conductance (gs ), leaf and stem biomass...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shuguang Wang, Robert M Augé, Heather D Toler
We quantitatively evaluated the effects of elevated O3 on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formation and on AM role in promoting plant growth in regard to several moderating variables (O3 levels, O3 exposure duration, plant types, AM fungi family, and additional stress) by means of meta-analysis of published data. The analysis consisted of 117 trials representing 20 peer-reviewed articles and 16 unpublished trials. Relative to non-mycorrhizal controls, AM inoculation did not significantly alter plant growth (shoot biomass, root biomass, total biomass and plant height) when O3 concentration was less than 80 ppb, but at concentrations above 80 ppb symbiosis was associated with increases of 68% in shoot biomass and 131% in root biomass...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
Sylvia Toet, Viktoria Oliver, Phil Ineson, Sophie McLoughlin, Thorunn Helgason, Simon Peacock, Andrew W Stott, Jeremy Barnes, Mike Ashmore
The effects of increased tropospheric ozone (O3 ) pollution levels on methane (CH4 ) emissions from peatlands, and their underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, we exposed peatland mesocosms from a temperate wet heath dominated by the sedge Schoenus nigricans and Sphagnum papillosum to four O3 treatments in open-top chambers for 2.5years, to investigate the O3 impacts on CH4 emissions and the processes that underpin these responses. Summer CH4 emissions, were significantly reduced, by 27% over the experiment, due to summer daytime (8hday-1 ) O3 exposure to non-filtered air (NFA) plus 35ppb O3 , but were not significantly affected by year-round, 24hday-1 , exposure to NFA plus 10ppb or NFA plus 25ppb O3 ...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Minghao Zhuang, Shu Kee Lam, Yingchun Li, Shuanglin Chen
The increase in tropospheric ozone (O3 ) affects plant physiology and ecosystem processes, and consequently the cycle of nutrients. While mineral nutrients are critical for plant growth, the effect of elevated tropospheric O3 concentration on the uptake and allocation of mineral nutrients by plants is not well understood. Using open top chambers (OTCs), we investigated the effect of elevated O3 on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) in mature bamboo species Phyllostachys edulis and Oligostachyum lubricum...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
D K L Hewitt, G Mills, F Hayes, W Davies
High sugar ryegrasses (HSG) have been developed to improve the uptake, digestion and nitrogen (N)-utilisation of grazing stock, with the potential to increase production yields and benefit climate by reducing methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock farming. In this study, the effects of tropospheric ozone pollution on the seasonal growth dynamics of HSG pasture mesocosms containing Lolium perenne cv. AberMagic and Trifolium repens cv. Crusader were investigated. Species-specific ozone (O3) dose-response relationships (seasonal means: 35, 41, 47, 51, 59 & 67ppb) based on the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose (PODy) were constructed for above and below ground biomass, injury, N-fixation and forage quality...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Stephane Buteau, Mark S Goldberg
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is one of the postulated pathways linking short-term exposure to air pollution to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A hypothesis is that exposure to air pollution decreases heart rate variability, a recognized independent predictor of poorer cardiovascular prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a structured review of panel studies published between 1946 and July 2015 of the association between ambient air pollution and parameters of heart rate variability reflecting autonomic nervous function...
July 2016: Environmental Research
Meng Wang, Paul D Sampson, Jianlin Hu, Michael Kleeman, Joshua P Keller, Casey Olives, Adam A Szpiro, Sverre Vedal, Joel D Kaufman
Assessments of long-term air pollution exposure in population studies have commonly employed land-use regression (LUR) or chemical transport modeling (CTM) techniques. Attempts to incorporate both approaches in one modeling framework are challenging. We present a novel geostatistical modeling framework, incorporating CTM predictions into a spatiotemporal LUR model with spatial smoothing to estimate spatiotemporal variability of ozone (O3) and particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) from 2000 to 2008 in the Los Angeles Basin...
May 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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