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O3 Root

Sylvia Toet, Viktoria Oliver, Phil Ineson, Sophie McLoughlin, Thorunn Helgason, Simon Peacock, Andrew W Stott, Jeremy Barnes, Mike Ashmore
The effects of increased tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution levels on methane (CH4) emissions from peatlands, and their underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, we exposed peatland mesocosms from a temperate wet heath dominated by the sedge Schoenus nigricans and Sphagnum papillosum to four O3 treatments in open-top chambers for 2.5years, to investigate the O3 impacts on CH4 emissions and the processes that underpin these responses. Summer CH4 emissions, were significantly reduced, by 27% over the experiment, due to summer daytime (8hday(-1)) O3 exposure to non-filtered air (NFA) plus 35ppb O3, but were not significantly affected by year-round, 24hday(-1), exposure to NFA plus 10ppb or NFA plus 25ppb O3...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Minghao Zhuang, Shu Kee Lam, Yingchun Li, Shuanglin Chen
The increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) affects plant physiology and ecosystem processes, and consequently the cycle of nutrients. While mineral nutrients are critical for plant growth, the effect of elevated tropospheric O3 concentration on the uptake and allocation of mineral nutrients by plants is not well understood. Using open top chambers (OTCs), we investigated the effect of elevated O3 on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) in mature bamboo species Phyllostachys edulis and Oligostachyum lubricum...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
D K L Hewitt, G Mills, F Hayes, W Davies
High sugar ryegrasses (HSG) have been developed to improve the uptake, digestion and nitrogen (N)-utilisation of grazing stock, with the potential to increase production yields and benefit climate by reducing methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock farming. In this study, the effects of tropospheric ozone pollution on the seasonal growth dynamics of HSG pasture mesocosms containing Lolium perenne cv. AberMagic and Trifolium repens cv. Crusader were investigated. Species-specific ozone (O3) dose-response relationships (seasonal means: 35, 41, 47, 51, 59 & 67ppb) based on the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose (PODy) were constructed for above and below ground biomass, injury, N-fixation and forage quality...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Stephane Buteau, Mark S Goldberg
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is one of the postulated pathways linking short-term exposure to air pollution to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A hypothesis is that exposure to air pollution decreases heart rate variability, a recognized independent predictor of poorer cardiovascular prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a structured review of panel studies published between 1946 and July 2015 of the association between ambient air pollution and parameters of heart rate variability reflecting autonomic nervous function...
July 2016: Environmental Research
Meng Wang, Paul D Sampson, Jianlin Hu, Michael Kleeman, Joshua P Keller, Casey Olives, Adam A Szpiro, Sverre Vedal, Joel D Kaufman
Assessments of long-term air pollution exposure in population studies have commonly employed land-use regression (LUR) or chemical transport modeling (CTM) techniques. Attempts to incorporate both approaches in one modeling framework are challenging. We present a novel geostatistical modeling framework, incorporating CTM predictions into a spatiotemporal LUR model with spatial smoothing to estimate spatiotemporal variability of ozone (O3) and particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) from 2000 to 2008 in the Los Angeles Basin...
May 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pasqua Veronico, Costantino Paciolla, Nicola Sasanelli, Silvana De Leonardis, Maria Teresa Melillo
Few studies have been carried out on the effect that ozonated water (O3 wat) has on the oxidative stress of root systems and particularly in combination with biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine if aqueous ozone can be effective in the control of root-knot nematode (RKN) infection and to investigate concomitant changes in the basal defence system. A tomato cultivar susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita was treated with O3 wat as a soil drench. No negative effects were seen following ozone application in comparison to the control under the exposure conditions used...
April 12, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Oliver Martin, Antonio J Martín, Cecilia Mondelli, Sharon Mitchell, Takuya F Segawa, Roland Hauert, Charlotte Drouilly, Daniel Curulla-Ferré, Javier Pérez-Ramírez
Methanol synthesis by CO2 hydrogenation is attractive in view of avoiding the environmental implications associated with the production of the traditional syngas feedstock and mitigating global warming. However, there still is a lack of efficient catalysts for such alternative processes. Herein, we unveil the high activity, 100 % selectivity, and remarkable stability for 1000 h on stream of In2 O3 supported on ZrO2 under industrially relevant conditions. This strongly contrasts to the benchmark Cu-ZnO-Al2 O3 catalyst, which is unselective and experiences rapid deactivation...
May 17, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
I Michael-Kordatou, R Andreou, M Iacovou, Z Frontistis, E Hapeshi, C Michael, D Fatta-Kassinos
The degradation of erythromycin (ERY) and ethylparaben (EtP) in urban wastewater effluents at low concentration level during ozonation was investigated under different experimental conditions. Both substrates were rapidly eliminated within 2min at low ozone dose of 0.3mgL(-1) and the experimental data were well fitted in the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The ratio of HO- and O3-exposure (Rct) at the inherent pH was found to be 1.9×10(-8). The degradation of ERY and EtP was pronounced at pH 8 compared to acidic pH conditions, while the degradation rate of both substrates was found to be matrix-depended...
February 11, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Meenakshi Sharma, Vandana Mishra, Nupur Rau, Radhey Shyam Sharma
Iron deficiency is common among graminaceous crops. Ecologically successful wild grasses from iron-limiting habitats are likely to harbour bacteria which secrete efficient high-affinity iron-chelating molecules (siderophores) to solubilize and mobilize iron. Such siderophore-producing rhizobacteria may increase the iron-stress resilience of graminaceous crops. Considering this, 51 rhizobacterial isolates of Dichanthium annulatum from iron-limiting abandoned mine (∼84% biologically unavailable iron) were purified and tested for siderophore production; and efficacy of Arthrobacter globiformis inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience of maize and wheat was also evaluated...
July 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ericka C Barnes, George A Petersson, John A Montgomery, Michael J Frisch, Jan M L Martin
Unrestricted coupled cluster spin contamination corrected [UCCSD(T)] and unrestricted Brueckner doubles [UBD(T)] variations of the Weizmann-1 theory (W1), denoted as W1U, W1Usc, and W1BD, respectively, are compared with the restricted open-shell W1 theory [W1(RO)]. The performances of the four W1 variants are assessed with 220 total atomization energies, electron affinities, ionization potentials, and proton affinities in the G2/97 test set, for consistency with the error analysis of the original W1(RO) study...
October 13, 2009: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Gina Mills, Harry Harmens, Serena Wagg, Katrina Sharps, Felicity Hayes, David Fowler, Mark Sutton, Bill Davies
This paper provides a process-oriented perspective on the combined effects of ozone (O3), climate change and/or nitrogen (N) on vegetation. Whereas increasing CO2 in controlled environments or open-top chambers often ameliorates effects of O3 on leaf physiology, growth and C allocation, this is less likely in the field. Combined responses to elevated temperature and O3 have rarely been studied even though some critical growth stages such as seed initiation are sensitive to both. Under O3 exposure, many species have smaller roots, thereby enhancing drought sensitivity...
January 2016: Environmental Pollution
D K L Hewitt, G Mills, F Hayes, D Norris, M Coyle, S Wilkinson, W Davies
The growth, development and functioning of legumes are often significantly affected by exposure to tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution. However, surprisingly little is known about how leguminous Nitrogen (N) fixation responds to ozone, with a scarcity of studies addressing this question in detail. In the last decade, ozone impacts on N-fixation in soybean, cowpea, mung bean, peanut and clover have been shown for concentrations which are now commonly recorded in ambient air or are likely to occur in the near future...
January 2016: Environmental Pollution
G Carriero, G Emiliani, A Giovannelli, Y Hoshika, W J Manning, M L Traversi, E Paoletti
This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O3). Effects of long-term ambient O3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (-51%) and below-ground biomass (-47%) was reduced by O3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%)...
November 2015: Environmental Pollution
Ö Tuncay, A N Dinçer, A Kuştarcı, Ö Er, G Dinç, S Demirbuga
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of gaseous ozone (O3) and photo-activated disinfection (PAD) methods against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five human mandibular premolars with straight root canals were selected. After root canal preparation, the samples were sterilized and placed into eppendorf tubes with 1 mL brain heart infusion broth containing 1.5×10(8) colony-forming units (CFUs)/mL of E...
November 2015: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Blazej Slazak, Erik Jacobsson, Elżbieta Kuta, Ulf Göransson
Plants from Violaceae produce cyclotides, peptides characterized by a circular peptide backbone and a cystine knot. This signature motif gives stability that can harness a wide spectrum of biological activities, with implications in plant defense and with applications in medicine and biotechnology. In the current work, cyclotide expressing in vitro cultures were established from Viola uliginosa. These cultures are useful models for studying biosynthesis of cyclotides and can also be used in their production...
September 2015: Phytochemistry
Mitsutoshi Kitao, Masabumi Komatsu, Kenichi Yazaki, Satoshi Kitaoka, Hiroyuki Tobita
To assess the effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the growth of two mid-successional oak species native to East Asia, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, we measured gas exchange and biomass allocation in seedlings (initially 1-year-old) grown under combinations of elevated CO2 (550 μmol mol(-1)) and O3 (twice-ambient) for two growing seasons in an open-field experiment in which root growth was not limited. Both the oak species showed a significant growth enhancement under the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 (indicated by total dry mass; over twice of ambient-grown plants, p < ...
November 2015: Environmental Pollution
D A Grantz, R Paudel, H-B Vu, A Shrestha, N Grulke
Plant responses to ozone (O3 ) and water deficit (WD) are commonly observed, although less is known about their interaction. Stomatal conductance (gs ) is both an impact of these stressors and a protective response to them. Stomatal closure reduces inward flux of O3 and outward flux of water. Stomatal measurements are generally obtained at midday when gas exchange is maximal, but these may not be adequate surrogates for stomatal responses observed at other times of day, nor for non-stomatal responses. Here, we find in Pima cotton that stomatal responses to O3 observed at midday do not reflect responses at other times...
January 2016: Plant Biology
Luis O Rivera-González, Zhenzhen Zhang, Brisa N Sánchez, Kai Zhang, Daniel G Brown, Leonora Rojas-Bracho, Alvaro Osornio-Vargas, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Marie S O'Neill
UNLABELLED: Geostatistical interpolation methods to estimate individual exposure to outdoor air pollutants can be used in pregnancy cohorts where personal exposure data are not collected. Our objectives were to a) develop four assessment methods (citywide average (CWA); nearest monitor (NM); inverse distance weighting (IDW); and ordinary Kriging (OK)), and b) compare daily metrics and cross-validations of interpolation models. We obtained 2008 hourly data from Mexico City's outdoor air monitoring network for PM10, PM2...
May 2015: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Pedro I L S Assis, Rocío Alonso, Sérgio T Meirelles, Regina M Moraes
Phytotoxic ozone (O3) levels have been recorded in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP). Flux-based critical levels for O3 through stomata have been adopted for some northern hemisphere species, showing better accuracy than with accumulated ozone exposure above a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40). In Brazil, critical levels for vegetation protection against O3 adverse effects do not exist. The study aimed to investigate the applicability of O3 deposition model (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange (DO3SE)) to an O3-sensitive tropical tree species (Psidium guajava L...
July 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Martina Pollastrini, Nicola Luchi, Marco Michelozzi, Giacomo Gerosa, Riccardo Marzuoli, Filippo Bussotti, Paolo Capretti
The presence of the American root-rot disease fungus Heterobasidion irregulare Garbel. & Otrosina was detected in Italian coastal pine forests (Pinus pinea L.) in addition to the common native species Heterobasidion annosum (Fries) Brefeld. High levels of tropospheric ozone (O3) as an atmospheric pollutant are usually experienced in Mediterranean pine forests. To explore the effect of interaction between the two Heterobasidion species and ozone pollution on P. pinea, an open-top chamber (OTC) experiment was carried out...
March 2015: Tree Physiology
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