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Cervical cancer vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161285/hpv-genotypes-co-infections-associated-with-cervical-carcinoma-special-focus-on-phylogenetically-related-and-non-vaccine-targeted-genotypes
#1
Rashmirani Senapati, Bhagyalaxmi Nayak, Shantanu Kumar Kar, Bhagirathi Dwibedi
HPV is the major causative agent for cervical cancer. Study on the risk of cervical cancer associated with different hr-HPV genotypes would be useful for disease management and new vaccine strategy. With limited reports available, the present study aimed to investigate the pattern of HPV genotypes coinfections and risk of cervical carcinoma associated with them in Indian population. 15 HPV genotypes were detected by E6/E7 multiplex nested type-specific PCR in the HPV-positive cervical samples of 172 cervical cancer cases and 174 subjects with normal cytology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159802/adenovirus-vector-based-prime-boost-vaccination-via-heterologous-routes-induces-cervicovaginal-cd8-t-cell-responses-against-hpv16-oncoproteins
#2
Nicolas Çuburu, Selina Khan, Cynthia D Thompson, Rina Kim, Jort Vellinga, Roland Zahn, Douglas R Lowy, Gert Scheper, John T Schiller
Recent advances in immunotherapy against cancer underscore the importance of T lymphocytes and tumor microenvironment, but few vaccines targeting cancer have been approved likely due in part to the dearth of common tumor antigens, insufficient immunogenicity and the evolution of immune evasion mechanisms during the progression to malignancy. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the primary etiologic agents of cervical cancer and progression from persistent HPV-infection to cervical intraepithelial lesions and eventually cancer requires persistent expression of the oncoproteins E6 and E7...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159260/public-health-approach-to-prevent-cervical-cancer-in-hiv-infected-women-in-kenya-issues-to-consider-in-the-design-of-prevention-programs
#3
REVIEW
Sonia Menon, Rodolfo Rossi, Stacy G Harmon, Hillary Mabeya, Steven Callens
Women living with HIV in Africa are at increased risk to be co-infected with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), persistent high risk (HR) HPV infection and bacterial vaginosis (BV), which compounds HPV persistence, thereby increasing the risk for cervical dysplasia. New guidance from WHO in 2014 advocating for a "screen and treat" approach in resource poor settings is becoming a more widely recommended screening tool for cervical cancer prevention programs in such contexts. This review article summarizes the risk factors to be considered when designing a primary and secondary cervical prevention program in a post-vaccination era for HIV-infected women in Kenya...
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157955/development-of-a-goat-model-for-evaluation-of-withaferin-a-cervical-implants-for-the-treatment-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#4
Leslie C Sherwood, Farrukh Aqil, Manicka V Vadhanam, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Radha Munagala, David Hoetker, Sanjay Srivastava, Inder P Singh, Scott Cambron, Martin O'Toole, Wendy Spencer, Lynn P Parker, Ramesh C Gupta
Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease develops over many years through a series of precancerous lesions. Cervical cancer can be prevented by HPV-vaccination, screening and treatment of precancer before development of cervical cancer. The treatment of high-grade cervical dysplasia (CIN(2+)) has traditionally been by cervical conization. Surgical procedures are associated with increased risk of undesirable side effects including bleeding, infection, scarring (stenosis), infertility and complications in later pregnancies...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157596/molecular-epidemiology-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-in-women-with-cervical-lesions-and-cancer-from-the-coastal-region-of-ecuador
#5
Cesar H Bedoya-Pilozo, Lex G Medina Magües, Maylen Espinosa-García, Martha Sánchez, Johanna V Parrales Valdiviezo, Denisse Molina, María A Ibarra, María Quimis-Ponce, Karool España, Karla E Párraga Macias, Nancy V Cajas Flores, Solon A Orlando, Jorge A Robalino Penaherrera, Peter Chedraui, Saul Escobar, Rita D Loja Chango, Cecibel Ramirez-Morán, Jasson Espinoza-Caicedo, Sunny Sánchez-Giler, Celia M Limia, Yoan Alemán, Yudira Soto, Vivian Kouri, Andrés C A Culasso, Inés Badano
The aim of the present study was to gather information regarding the molecular epidemiology of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and related risk factors in a group of women with low- and high-grade cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador. In addition, we studied the evolution of HPV variants from the most prevalent types and provided a temporal framework for their emergence, which may help to trace the source of dissemination within the region. We analyzed 166 samples, including 57 CIN1, 95 CIN2/3 and 14 cancer cases...
November 17, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155666/cdc-activities-for-improving-implementation-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-cervical-cancer-screening-and-surveillance-worldwide
#6
Virginia Senkomago, Denise Duran, Anagha Loharikar, Terri B Hyde, Lauri E Markowitz, Elizabeth R Unger, Mona Saraiya
Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high, particularly in developing countries. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, screening, and timely treatment. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides global technical assistance for implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination pilot projects and programs and laboratory-related HPV activities to assess HPV vaccines. CDC collaborates with global partners to develop global cervical cancer screening recommendations and manuals, implement screening, create standardized evaluation tools, and provide expertise to monitor outcomes...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149907/mapping-evidence-on-the-distribution-of-human-papillomavirus-related-cancers-in-sub-saharan-africa-scoping-review-protocol
#7
Bridget K M Lekoane, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Themba G Ginindza
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck) in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa...
November 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144546/presence-of-infection-and-analysis-of-hpv-subtypes-in-girls-younger-than-9-years-old-attended-at-a-referral-service-in-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#8
Mariana Penha De Nadai Sartori, Lidiane Pignaton Agostini, Thaís Tristão Tovar, Raquel Silva Dos Reis, Raquel Spinassé Dettogni, Eldamária de Vargas Wolfgramm Dos Santos, Antônio Chambô Filho, Iúri Drumond Louro
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus is found in adults and adolescents and is associated with genital warts and cervical cancer. However, it has been detected in girls younger than 10 years old. Currently, there are no prevention methods for this age group, since it is not considered a risk group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infection and HPV subtype in girls under 9 years old attended at a referral service in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-three girls younger than 9 years old had gynecological brush samples collected from vulval and perineal/anal regions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143101/candidate-biomarkers-in-the-cervical-vaginal-fluid-for-the-self-diagnosis-of-cervical-precancer
#9
REVIEW
Xaveer Van Ostade, Martin Dom, Wiebren Tjalma, Geert Van Raemdonck
PURPOSE: Despite improvement in vaccines against human papilloma virus (HPV), the causative agent of cervical cancer, screening women for cervical precancer will remain indispensable in the coming 30-40 years. A simple test that could be performed at home or at a doctor's practice and that informs the woman whether she is at risk would significantly help make a broader group of patients who aware that they need medical treatment. Cervical vaginal fluid (CVF) is a body fluid that is very well suited for such a test...
November 15, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135538/cervical-morbidity-in-alsace-france-results-from-a-regional-organized-cervical-cancer-screening-program
#10
Jean-Jacques Baldauf, Muriel Fender, Christine Bergeron, Emilie Marrer, Michel Velten, Pierre Pradat, Marc Arbyn
In 1994, a pilot program of cervical cancer screening was introduced in the Alsace region, France. Women aged 25-65 years were proposed to have one Pap smear every 3 years. The objective was to assess cervical morbidity in Alsace before the human papillomavirus vaccinated population reaches the age of screening. Data on cervical lesions and cancers were collected by EVE for the period September 2008 to August 2011 from existing medical services and cytopathology laboratories in Alsace. Cytological and histological data were completed with data from the two cancer registries covering the region (Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin)...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128382/bad-news-the-influence-of-news-coverage-and-google-searches-on-gardasil-adverse-event-reporting
#11
Kate Faasse, Jarry T Porsius, Jonathan Faasse, Leslie R Martin
BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus vaccines are a safe and effective tool for reducing HPV infections that can cause cervical cancer. However, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal, with many people holding negative beliefs and misconceptions. Such beliefs have been linked with the experience of unpleasant side effects following medical treatment, and media coverage may heighten such concerns. METHODS: The present study sought to assess the influence of news coverage (number of news articles per month) on adverse event reporting in response to Gardasil vaccination in New Zealand over a 7...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115562/fungal-mannosylation-enhances-human-papillomavirus-16-e7-therapeutic-immunity-against-tc-1-tumors
#12
Zonglin Wang, Cuihua Wei, Yanjun Zhang, Wei Wang, Zheng Zhou, Gengfu Xiao
Cervical cancer, resulting from infection with human papillomavirus (HPV)16, remains the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Recently, three prophylactic HPV vaccines targeting high-risk HPVs (particularly HPV16 and HPV18) have been implemented to protect younger women. However, individuals with pre-existing infections have no benefit from prophylactic vaccines. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic vaccines. HPV16 E7 has been widely utilized as a target for immune therapy of HPV16-associated lesions or cancers, reflecting the sustained existence of this virus in cancerous cells...
November 8, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110027/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-uptake-in-adolescence-and-adherence-to-cervical-cancer-screening-in-switzerland-a-national-cross-sectional-survey
#13
Monica N Wymann, Anne Spaar Zographos, Ekkehardt Altpeter, Virginie Masserey Spicher, Nicola Low, Mirjam Mäusezahl-Feuz
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to measure uptake of and factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination initiation and to determine whether HPV vaccination reduced the uptake of cervical cancer screening. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of Swiss women aged 18-49 years in 2014 (N = 3588). RESULTS: Vaccination initiation was 69.3% and full coverage (three doses) 54.1% for 18-20-year olds, respectively, 42...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109779/serum-immune-profiling-for-early-detection-of-cervical-disease
#14
Radwa Ewaisha, Gitika Panicker, Paul Maranian, Elizabeth R Unger, Karen S Anderson
BACKGROUND: The most recent (2012) worldwide estimates from International Agency for Research on Cancer indicate that approximately 528,000 new cases and 270,000 deaths per year are attributed to cervical cancer worldwide. The disease is preventable with HPV vaccination and with early detection and treatment of pre-invasive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN. Antibodies (Abs) to HPV proteins are under investigation as potential biomarkers for early detection. METHODS: To detect circulating HPV-specific IgG Abs, we developed programmable protein arrays (NAPPA) that display the proteomes of two low-risk HPV types (HPV6 and 11) and ten oncogenic high-risk HPV types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52 and 58)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108943/therapeutic-hpv-vaccines
#15
REVIEW
Gemma Hancock, Karin Hellner, Lucy Dorrell
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to be a necessary factor for cervical and anogenital malignancies. Cervical cancers account for over a quarter of a million deaths annually. Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines, HPV infections remain extremely common worldwide. Furthermore, these vaccines are ineffective at clearing pre-existing infections and associated preinvasive lesions. As cervical dysplasia can regress spontaneously, a therapeutic HPV vaccine that boosts host immunity could have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality associated with HPV...
September 28, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105738/five-year-relative-survival-for-human-papillomavirus-associated-cancer-sites
#16
Hilda Razzaghi, Mona Saraiya, Trevor D Thompson, S Jane Henley, Laura Viens, Reda Wilson
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines can potentially prevent greater than 90% of cervical and anal cancers as well as a substantial proportion of vulvar, vaginal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers caused by certain HPV types. Because more than 38,000 HPV-associated cancers are diagnosed annually in the United States, current studies are needed to understand how relative survival varies for each of these cancers by certain demographic characteristics, such as race and age. METHODS: The authors examined high-quality data from 27 population-based cancer registries covering approximately 59% of the US population...
November 6, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102218/impact-of-an-hpv-education-and-vaccination-campaign-among-canadian-university-students
#17
Sabrina Piedimonte, Annie Leung, Andrew Zakhari, Céline Giordano, Pierre-Paul Tellier, Susie Lau
BACKGROUND: Uptake of HPV vaccination among university students remains low despite risky sexual practices and increased prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The study objective was to determine the level of knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer among university students and to subsequently develop a targeted education and vaccination campaign to increase uptake. METHODS: Phase I was a pilot project in which participants were recruited as part of Cervical Cancer Awareness Week 2015 at two universities, one site immediately offering vaccination and the other not...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099839/catch-up-hpv-vaccination-status-of-adolescents-in-relation-to-socioeconomic-factors-individual-beliefs-and-sexual-behaviour
#18
Maria Grandahl, Margareta Larsson, Tina Dalianis, Christina Stenhammar, Tanja Tydén, Ragnar Westerling, Tryggve Nevéus
In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1) socioeconomic factors, 2) beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3) sexual behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094100/primary-prevention-of-cervical-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-resource-stratified-guideline
#19
Silvina Arrossi, Sarah Temin, Suzanne Garland, Linda O'Neal Eckert, Neerja Bhatla, Xavier Castellsagué, Sharifa Ezat Alkaff, Tamika Felder, Doudja Hammouda, Ryo Konno, Gilberto Lopes, Emmanuel Mugisha, Rául Murillo, Isabel C Scarinci, Margaret Stanley, Vivien Tsu, Cosette M Wheeler, Isaac Folorunso Adewole, Silvia de Sanjosé
Purpose: To provide resource-stratified (four tiers), evidence-based recommendations on the primary prevention of cervical cancer globally. Methods: The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of oncology, obstetrics/gynecology, public health, cancer control, epidemiology/biostatistics, health economics, behavioral/implementation science, and patient advocacy experts. The Expert Panel reviewed existing guidelines and conducted a modified ADAPTE process and a formal consensus-based process with additional experts (consensus ratings group) for one round of formal ratings...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094097/barriers-and-challenges-to-treatment-alternatives-for-early-stage-cervical-cancer-in-lower-resource-settings
#20
REVIEW
Emily S Wu, Jose Jeronimo, Sarah Feldman
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide, and approximately 85% of new diagnoses occur in less-developed regions of the world. Global efforts in cervical cancer to date have focused on primary and secondary prevention strategies of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Cervical cancer screening is effective to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and can result in diagnosis at earlier stages, but it will take time to realize its full impact. With expansion of screening programs, there is now a greater imperative to increase access to treatment for women who have cervical cancer, particularly in earlier stages of disease, when it is still curable...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
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