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Cervical cancer vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632949/potential-impact-of-nonavalent-hpv-vaccine-in-the-prevention-of-high-grade-cervical-lesions-and-cervical-cancer-in-portugal
#1
Angela Pista, Carlos Freire de Oliveira, Carlos Lopes, Maria J Cunha
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential impact of the nonavalent HPV vaccine for high-grade cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Portugal. METHODS: The present secondary analysis used data collected in the CLEOPATRE II study on the prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 among female patients aged 20-88 years. The prevalence of HPV types in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 and ICC was examined. RESULTS: Data were included from 582 patients...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629588/human-papillomavirus-and-its-testing-assays-cervical-cancer-screening-and-vaccination
#2
Yusheng Zhu, Yun Wang, Julie Hirschhorn, Kerry J Welsh, Zhen Zhao, Michelle R Davis, Sarah Feldman
Human papillomavirus (HPV) was found to be the causative agent for cervical cancer in the 1980s with almost 100% of cervical cancer cases testing positive for HPV. Since then, many studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of HPV, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of the virus, and the risk factors for HPV infection. Traditionally, the Papanicolaou test was the primary screening method for cervical cancer. Because of the discovery and evolving understanding of the role of HPV in cervical dysplasia, HPV testing has been recommended as a new method for cervical cancer screening by major professional organizations including the American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620555/a-discussion-of-high-risk-hpv-in-a-6-year-old-female-survivor-of-child-sexual-abuse
#3
Connie D Cao, Lena Merjanian, Joelle Pierre, Adrian Balica
BACKGROUND: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) cause a variety of clinical manifestations in children including skin warts, laryngeal papillomas, and condyloma acuminatum. Whereas the mode of transmission is well understood and management of HPV infection is clearly defined by guidelines in adults, less is known about the mode of transmission, natural history of disease, and appropriate management of high-risk anogenital HPV infections in children. CASE: The patient is a previously healthy 6-year-old female who presented with multiple vaginal lesions causing pain and discomfort and was diagnosed with HPV 18 positive CIN I...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610408/knowledge-and-awareness-about-cervical-cancer-vaccine-hpv-among-parents-in-sharjah
#4
Ahmad Saqer, Shaymaa Ghazal, Hiba Barqawi, Juman Adnan Babi, Ranya AlKhafaji, Mohamed Mohsen Elmekresh
Background and aim: Cervical cancer (CC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 4th most common cancer in females causing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of CC and other diseases worldwide. Despite several measures taken to reduce the risk of infection with HPV, the most effective method remains the HPV vaccine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents in Sharjah towards HPV and whether or not they would vaccinate their daughters...
May 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608796/the-natural-history-of-oral-human-papillomavirus-in-young-costa-rican-women
#5
Daniel C Beachler, Krystle A Lang Kuhs, Linda Struijk, John Schussler, Rolando Herrero, Carolina Porras, Allan Hildesheim, Bernal Cortes, Joshua Sampson, Wim Quint, Paula Gonzalez, Aimée R Kreimer
BACKGROUND: Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related oropharyngeal cancer are uncommon in lower-income countries, particularly compared to HPV-associated cervical cancer. However, little is known about the natural history of oral HPV in less-developed settings and how it compares to the natural history of cervical HPV. METHODS: Three hundred fifty women aged 22 to 33 years from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided exfoliated cells from the cervical and oral regions at 2 visits 2 years apart...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607602/cervical-cancers-manifest-a-high-rate-of-infection-by-a-high-risk-human-papilloma-virus-subtype-but-a-very-low-rate-of-infection-by-a-low-risk-subtype-in-the-guiyang-district-of-china
#6
Juan Peng, Yan Yuan, Feng Shen, Yan Wang, Lichan Chen, D Joshua Liao, Yujie Tan
The prevalence of infection by different genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) varies among different geographic areas. We studied the prevalence of infection by 21 HPV genotypes in cervical tissue specimens from 4213 women in the Guiyang district, that is located in the southwest of China and is dominated by minor ethnicities of Chinese, and 2074 cases in our cohort had pathological diagnosis available. The overall infection rate was 36.98%. Most (72.08%) infectors were positive for only one HPV subtype, with the remaining being cases infected by two or more subtypes...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607581/pembrolizumab-in-cervical-cancer-latest-evidence-and-clinical-usefulness
#7
REVIEW
Edith Borcoman, Christophe Le Tourneau
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. With the development of detection of precancerous lesions and preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program, a survival improvement has been observed in these patients in developed countries, although disparities in accessibility to treatments exist across countries. While early-stage cervical cancer can be curable with surgery, prognosis of patients who recur remains poor, with limited treatment options...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604258/relationship-between-maternal-experiences-and-adolescent-hpv-vaccination
#8
Abbey B Berenson, V Gnaukita Brown, Erika L Fuchs, Jacqueline M Hirth, Mihyun Chang
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been available for over a decade but its uptake rate is still low. To explore the relationship between the HPV vaccination status of a child and their mother's beliefs, behaviors and knowledge, we surveyed 1497 women with at least one child aged 9-17 years between September 2011 and November 2015. Physician recommendation was the most important factor associated with reported child vaccination status. Mothers who reported receiving a provider recommendation for the HPV vaccine were 32 times more likely to have a child who had been vaccinated compared to mothers who did not report provider recommendation (aOR) = 32...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601819/prevalence-characteristics-of-cervical-human-papillomavirus-hpv-genotypes-in-the-taizhou-area-china-a-cross-sectional-study-of-37%C3%A2-967-women-from-the-general-population
#9
Hui Hui Xu, Aifen Lin, Ya Hong Chen, Shan Shan Dong, Wei Wu Shi, Jia Zheng Yu, Wei Hua Yan
OBJECTIVES: High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) are highly prevalent worldwide, and HPV genotypes differ between geographical regions; however, sexually transmitted HPV may lead to cervical carcinogenesis. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence characteristics of cervical HPV genotypes in Taizhou, Southeast China. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A population-based sample of 37 967 eligible women (median age: 41.6; range: 15-90 years) visiting the Taizhou ENZE Medical Center in Taizhou (2012-2016) was analysed...
June 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599791/characterization-of-hpv18-e6-specific-t-cell-responses-and-establishment-of-hpv18-e6-expressing-tumor-model
#10
Ying Ma, Andrew Yang, Shiwen Peng, Jin Qiu, Emily Farmer, Chien-Fu Hung, T-C Wu
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the primary etiologic factor of cervical cancer, and subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV18 is the second most prevalent high-risk HPV type after HPV16. Furthermore, HPV18 is responsible for approximately 12% of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and 37% of cervical adenocarcinoma cases worldwide. In this study, we aimed to characterize the HPV18-E6-specific epitope and establish an HPV18 animal tumor model to evaluate the E6-specific immune response induced by our DNA vaccine...
June 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596091/human-papillomavirus-vaccines-who-position-paper-may-2017-recommendations
#11
(no author information available yet)
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, May 2017, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper replaces the 2014 WHO position paper on HPV vaccines [2]. The position paper focuses primarily on the prevention of cervical cancer, but also considers the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595454/predictors-of-adults-knowledge-and-awareness-of-hpv-hpv-associated-cancers-and-the-hpv-vaccine-implications-for-health-education
#12
Kimberly R McBride, Shipra Singh
High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and low HPV vaccine uptake are significant public health concerns. Disparities in HPV-associated cancers and HPV vaccine uptake rates suggest the need for additional research examining factors associated with vaccine acceptance. This study assessed HPV awareness and knowledge and identified sociodemographic characteristics associated with HPV knowledge at the population level. Data from adult men ( n = 1,197) and women ( n = 1,906) who participated in the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed...
June 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589649/cervical-cancer-screening-in-the-era-of-hpv-vaccination-a-review-of-shifting-paradigms-in-cytopathology
#13
REVIEW
Julieta E Barroeta, Deepti Adhikari-Guragain, Carolyn E Grotkowski
Significant changes in cervical cancer screening practice, guidelines, and prevention of cervical cancer have taken place in recent years including the raising of initial cervical cancer screening age, changes in frequency of cytology screening, and the adoption of high risk HPV and cytology co-testing for some patients; the introduction of the bivalent, quadrivalent, and 9-valent HPV vaccines; and the recent approval of high risk HPV testing as primary screening with the use of cytology as triage in positive cases...
June 6, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588899/mechanistic-insights-into-adxs11-001-human-papillomavirus-associated-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Brett A Miles, Bradley J Monk, Howard P Safran
Immune responses to the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) are robust and well characterized. Utilized for decades as a model of host-disease immunology, Lm is well suited for use as an immunotherapeutic bacterial vector for the delivery of foreign antigen. Genetic modification of Lm has been undertaken to create an attenuated organism that is deficient in its master transcriptional regulator, protein-related factor A, and incorporates a truncated, nonhemolytic version of the listeriolysin O (LLO) molecule to ensure its adjuvant properties while also preventing escape of the live organism from the phagolysosome...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584449/epitope-design-of-l1-protein-for-vaccine-production-against-human-papilloma-virus-types-16-and-18
#15
Sunanda Baidya, Rasel Das, Md Golam Kabir, Md Arifuzzaman
Cervical cancer accounts for about two-thirds of all cancer cases linked etiologically to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). 15 oncogenic HPV types can cause cervical cancer, of which HPV16 and HPV18 combinedly account for about 70% of it. So, effective epitope design for the clinically relevant HPV types 16 and 18 would be of major medical benefit. Here, a comprehensive analysis is carried out to predict the epitopes against HPV types 16 and 18 through "reverse vaccinology" approach. We attempted to identify the evolutionarily conserved regions of major capsid protein (L1) as well as minor capsid protein (L2) of HPV and designed epitopes within these regions...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576143/cervical-cancer-risk-perceptions-sexual-risk-behaviors-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-bivalent-human-papillomavirus-vaccinated-and-non-vaccinated-young-women-in-uganda-5%C3%A2-year-follow-up-study
#16
Edward Kumakech, Sören Andersson, Henry Wabinga, Caroline Musubika, Samuel Kirimunda, Vanja Berggren
BACKGROUND: Previous studies were conflicting regarding the associations between HPV vaccination, cervical cancer risk perceptions, high-risk sexual behaviors and STIs. This study compared the HPV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda regarding cervical cancer risk perceptions, high-risk sexual behaviors, syphilis and HIV infections 5 years after vaccine implementation. METHODS: This was a population-based comparative cross-sectional survey conducted in Uganda...
June 2, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559000/concordant-testing-results-between-various-human-papillomavirus-assays-in-primary-cervical-cancer-screening-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Lena de Thurah, Jesper Bonde, Janni Uyen Hoa Lam, Matejka Rebolj
OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553758/hpv-vaccine-acceptance-among-african-american-mothers-and-their-daughters-an-inquiry-grounded-in-culture
#18
Kayoll V Galbraith-Gyan, Julia Lechuga, Coretta M Jenerette, Mary H Palmer, Angelo D Moore, Jill B Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance...
May 29, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549940/-human-papillomavirus-nonavalent-vaccine-update-2017
#19
F X Bosch, D Moreno, E Redondo, A Torné
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of 5% of human cancers. HPV infection is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and is responsible of a variable percentage of cancers of anus, vulva, vagina, penis, and oropharynx. Since 2007, 2 vaccines against HPV have been commercially available in Spain: bivalent (HPV types 16/18), and tetravalent (HPV types 6/11/16/18). In order to extend the protection afforded by HPV vaccines, a clinical program was launched in 2006 for the new nonavalent vaccine, including 9 HPV types (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58)...
May 23, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549522/pathobiology-of-human-papillomaviruses-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons
#20
REVIEW
Uma Krishnamurti, Elizabeth R Unger
There is a complex interrelationship between human papillomaviruses (HPV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) that has been recognized from the start of the HIV epidemic. Cervical cancer was used as a surveillance indicator for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) before definitive identification of the viral etiology of either condition were known. Careful epidemiologic studies combined with clinical and laboratory measures of HPV, HPV-associated disease, and HIV have helped us understand many aspects of the relationship between these two virus groups; however, questions remain...
April 6, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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