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Cervical cancer vaccines

Winnie Wing Yan Yuen, Albert Lee, Paul K S Chan, Lynn Tran, Erica Sayko
The present study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of delivering the HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine to girls through a school-based program in Hong Kong, as well as to examine the facilitators and barriers associated with their participation. We approached 1,229 eligible girls aged 9 to 14 at eight schools in Hong Kong to join the program and then delivered the bivalent HPV vaccine at 0 and 6 months over the course of one school year. The students and their parents completed separate questionnaires to indicate their decision on whether or not to participate, and to assess their knowledge of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine...
2018: PloS One
Katherine E Gallagher, Tusajigwe Erio, Kathy Baisley, Shelley Lees, Deborah Watson-Jones
BACKGROUND: The burden of cervical cancer and shortage of screening services in Tanzania confers an urgent need for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. However, the sustainability and impact of another new vaccine campaign in an under-resourced health system requires consideration. We aimed to determine the impact of the government's school-based HPV vaccine campaign in Kilimanjaro region on the provision of routine primary health services and staff workload. METHODS: Data on daily numbers of consultations were collected from health facility register books in 63 dispensaries and health centres in North-West Tanzania for 20 weeks in 2014...
March 12, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Wenwen Dai, Yu Wu, Jinpeng Bi, Shuai Wang, Fang Li, Wei Kong, Julien Barbier, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Feng Gao, Daniel Gillet, Weiheng Su, Chunlai Jiang
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the causative pathogen of genital herpes and is closely associated with the occurrence of cervical cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The absence of an effective vaccine and the emergence of drug resistance to commonly used nucleoside analogs emphasize the urgent need for alternative antivirals against HSV-2. Recently, ABMA [1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine] has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of several pathogens exploiting host-vesicle transport, which also participates in the HSV-2 lifecycle...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Sasidharanpillai Sabeena, Parvati V Bhat, Veena Kamath, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections continue to be one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The oncogenic potential of this virus was well established in anogenital malignancies and oropharyngeal cancers. Even though a fall in cervical cancer rates has been reported worldwide, the subsequent rise in HPV-associated head and neck cancers among men and women have been reported from developed countries, necessitating the vaccination of adolescent boys as well. The objective of this narrative review is to provide an update on the current status of HPV vaccination worldwide...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Garth Funston, Helena O'Flynn, Neil A J Ryan, Willie Hamilton, Emma J Crosbie
Early diagnosis of symptomatic gynecological cancer is likely to improve patient outcomes, including survival. The primary care practitioner has a key role to play in this-they must recognize the symptoms and signs of gynecological cancer and make prompt evidence-based decisions regarding further investigation and referral. However, this is often difficult as many of the symptoms of gynecological cancers are nonspecific and are more likely to be caused by benign rather than malignant disease. As primary care is generally the first point of patient contact, those working in this setting usually encounter cancer patients at an earlier, and possibly less symptomatic, stage than practitioners in secondary care...
March 7, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Grace Cole, Ahlam A Ali, Cian M McCrudden, John W McBride, Joanne McCaffrey, Tracy Robson, Vicky L Kett, Nicholas J Dunne, Ryan F Donnelly, Helen O McCarthy
Dissolvable microneedles can be employed to deliver DNA to antigen presenting cells within the skin. However, this technology faces two main challenges: the poor transfection efficacy of pDNA following release from the microneedle matrix, and the limited loading capacity of the micron-scale devices. Two-tier delivery systems combining microneedle platforms and DNA delivery vectors have increased efficacy but the challenge of increasing the loading capacity remains. This study utilised lyophilisation to increase the loading of RALA/pDNA nanoparticles within dissolvable PVA microneedles...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Suzanne Audrey, Harriet Batista Ferrer, Joanne Ferrie, Karen Evans, Michael Bell, Julie Yates, Marion Roderick, John MacLeod, Matthew Hickman
INTRODUCTION: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, administered in early adolescence, can substantially reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. However, lack of written parental consent is a key reason why some young women do not receive the vaccine. The national legal framework allows girls to be vaccinated without parental consent provided they are deemed Gillick competent, but there is some reticence about vaccinating without written parental consent. Self-consent procedures are being implemented in Bristol and South Gloucestershire...
March 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Priya Ramanathan, Hemavathi Dhandapani, Hascitha Jayakumar, Abirami Seetharaman, Rajkumar Thangarajan
Cervical cancer, although preventable, is still the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries like India, where screening for cervical cancer is virtually absent, most women seek treatment only at advanced stages of the disease. Although standard treatment is curative in more than 90% of women during the early stages, for stage IIIb and above this rate drops to 50% or less. Hence, novel therapeutic adjuvants are required to improve survival at advanced stages. Lung cancer has shown the way forward with the use of Immunotherapeutic interventions as standard line of treatment in advanced stages...
January 6, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Kelly J Mrklas, Shannon MacDonald, Melissa A Shea-Budgell, Nancy Bedingfield, Heather Ganshorn, Sarah Glaze, Lea Bill, Bonnie Healy, Chyloe Healy, Juliet Guichon, Amy Colquhoun, Christopher Bell, Ruth Richardson, Rita Henderson, James Kellner, Cheryl Barnabe, Robert A Bednarczyk, Angeline Letendre, Gregg S Nelson
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines with demonstrated safety and effectiveness and funded HPV vaccination programs, coverage rates are persistently lower and cervical cancer burden higher among Canadian Indigenous peoples. Barriers and supports to HPV vaccination in Indigenous peoples have not been systematically documented, nor have interventions to increase uptake in this population. This protocol aims to appraise the literature in Canadian and global Indigenous peoples, relating to documented barriers and supports to vaccination and interventions to increase acceptability/uptake or reduce hesitancy of vaccination...
March 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Erin E Cook, Susan T Gershman, Jane J Kim, Rulla M Tamimi, R Monina Klevens, Michelle D Holmes
PURPOSE: To understand trends in the incidence and mortality of two human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, cervical and oropharyngeal cancer, in Massachusetts. METHODS: From 2004 to 2014, the Massachusetts Cancer Registry recorded 3,996 incident cases of oropharyngeal cancer and 2,193 incident cases of cervical cancer. Mortality data were obtained from the Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records and Statistics from 2008 to 2014. Rates were age-standardized to the 2000 U...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Richard B S Roden, Peter L Stern
The discovery of genotype 16 as the prototype oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) initiated a quarter century of laboratory and epidemiological studies that demonstrated their necessary, but not sufficient, aetiological role in cervical and several other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Early virus-induced immune deviation can lead to persistent subclinical infection that brings the risk of progression to cancer. Effective secondary prevention of cervical cancer through cytological and/or HPV screening depends on regular and widespread use in the general population, but coverage is inadequate in low-resource settings...
March 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Shing Cheng Tan, Mohd Pazudin Ismail, Daniel Roza Duski, Nor Hayati Othman, Ravindran Ankathil
Information on the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among Malaysian women is currently limited. This study therefore aimed to provide an updated estimate on the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among Malaysian women with and without cervical cancer. Total DNA was isolated from the cervical cell specimens of 185 histopathologically-confirmed cervical cancer patients and 209 cancer-free healthy females who were tested negative in a recent Pap test. Viral-specific DNA was subsequently amplified with biotinylated primers and hybridized to HPV type-specific probes via a proprietary "flow-through hybridization" process for determination of HPV genotype...
February 27, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Edward M Scolnick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Thanthima Suwanthawornkul, Naiyana Praditsitthikorn, Wantanee Kulpeng, Manuel Alexander Haasis, Anna Melissa Guerrero, Yot Teerawattananon
Background: Many economic evaluations ignore economies of scale in their cost estimation, which means that cost parameters are assumed to have a linear relationship with the level of production. Economies of scale is the situation when the average total cost of producing a product decreases with increasing volume caused by reducing the variable costs due to more efficient operation. This study investigates the significance of applying the economies of scale concept: the saving in costs gained by an increased level of production in economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Diviya Santhanes, Che Pui Yong, Yan Ye Yap, Pui San Saw, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Tahir Mehmood Khan
Since licensing in 2006, there has been poor uptake of the HPV vaccine among the targeted population in the South East Asia Region (SEAR) and Western Pacific Region (WPR). A systematic review was conducted to identify the studies exploring the relationship between factors and intention for HPV vaccination among women in SEAR and WPR countries. Nineteen studies were identified as suitable for qualitative synthesis, and three as suitable for meta-analysis. Most women had a positive intention to have an HPV vaccine (range 57%-85%)...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kaan Z Apaydin, Holly B Fontenot, Derri L Shtasel, Kenneth H Mayer, Alex S Keuroghlian
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and anal cancer screening are valuable, yet underutilized, tools in prevention of HPV-related cancers among sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. The aim of this study was to characterize primary care providers' (PCPs) practices and perceptions pertaining to HPV vaccination and anal cancer screening. A survey assessing self-reported practice characteristics related to HPV vaccination and anal cancer screening, as well as perceived barriers to vaccination and anal cancer screening at the patient-, provider-, and system-level was distributed to PCPs at a Federally-Qualified Health Center that specializes in care for SGM populations in the greater Boston area...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Nirupama Bonthala, Sunanda Kane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory bowel disease affects approximately 800,000 women in the USA with the peak incidence between ages 15 to 40. Thus for many females, IBD can impact nearly every stage of their life from menarche to pregnancy, menopause, and beyond. This paper will review the most recent updates on the topics of sexual health, cervical cancer screening, menstruation, fertility, contraception, and menopause. RECENT FINDINGS: Menarche can be delayed in females especially those who are underweight, malnourished, or with active inflammatory bowel disease...
February 26, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Hong-Lu Zhou, Wei Zhang, Can-Jing Zhang, Song-Mei Wang, Ya-Chen Duan, Jin-Xia Wang, Huan Yang, Xuan-Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers and ranked as the eighth most common killer for Chinese women. A dozen of HPV vaccines are being developed in China without a solid China-specific distribution of carcinogenic HPV types, thus, we performed this systematic review to explore the China-specific spectrum of high-risk types causing cancer. METHODS: Studies on HPV infection among Chinese women were searched...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection
Bo T Hansen, Suzanne Campbell, Mari Nygård
OBJECTIVES: Examine long-term incidence trends of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer in Norway, and estimate the number of cancer cases preventable by vaccines against HPV 16/18 or HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58. DESIGN: Observational registry-based study. We extracted incident cases of HPV-related cancer during 1953-2015 from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Tumour HPV prevalence estimates from large international meta-analyses or from Norway were used to estimate the protective potential of HPV vaccines...
February 23, 2018: BMJ Open
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