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Cervical cancer prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677009/cervical-cancer-screening-in-women-with-severe-mental-disorders-an-approach-to-the-spanish-context
#1
Jessica Borrull-Guardeño, Alberto Domínguez, Milton H Merizalde-Torres, Vanessa Sánchez-Martínez
BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive cervical cancer and its mortality have been reduced through primary and secondary prevention. Screening rates tend to be lower in vulnerable groups, such as people with severe mental disorders, who have a later detection of cancer and a higher mortality. The access of these women to cervical cancer screening is uncertain in our context. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the cervical cancer screening rates in women with severe mental disorders...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671553/cervical-cancer-screening
#2
Caitlyn M Rerucha, Rebecca J Caro, Vernon L Wheeler
Screening in women has decreased the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Precancerous cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasias) and cervical carcinomas are strongly associated with sexually-transmitted high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which causes more than 99% of cervical cancers. Screening methods include cytology (Papanicolaou test) and HPV testing, alone or in combination. The American Academy of Family Physicians and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend starting screening in immunocompetent, asymptomatic women at 21 years of age...
April 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671552/cervical-cancer-evaluation-and-management
#3
Jennifer Wipperman, Tara Neil, Tracy Williams
Human papillomavirus infection is the precursor for the development of cervical cancer and is detectable in 99.7% of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Early detection of precancerous lesions with Papanicolaou testing remains the primary mechanism for cancer prevention. Once cervical cancer is diagnosed, treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination. The choice of therapy depends on the stage of disease, lymph node involvement, patient comorbidities, and risk factors for recurrence...
April 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666967/health-maintenance-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
REVIEW
Fazia A Mir, Sunanda V Kane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not receiving preventative care services at the same rate as the general population. IBD patients are at increased risk for infections, osteoporosis, and certain malignancies secondary to their disease and as they are on immunosuppressive therapy. They are a younger population and often times consider their gastroenterologist as their primary care physician. In this review, we discuss up-to-date evidence pertaining to vaccine-preventable illnesses in the immunosuppressed IBD patient, screening for bone health, cervical cancer, skin malignancies, psychological wellbeing, and smoking cessation...
April 17, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665430/awareness-of-cervical-cancer-and-willingness-to-be-vaccinated-against-human-papillomavirus-in-mozambican-adolescent-girls
#5
Azucena Bardají, Carolina Mindu, Orvalho J Augusto, Aina Casellas, Olga Cambaco, Egas Simbine, Graça Matsinhe, Eusébio Macete, Clara Menéndez, Esperança Sevene, Khátia Munguambe
Sub-Saharan Africa concentrates the largest burden of cervical cancer worldwide. The introduction of the HPV vaccination in this region is urgent and strategic to meet global health targets. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Mozambique prior to the first round of the HPV vaccine demonstration programme. It targeted girls aged 10-19 years old identified from schools and households. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted. A total of 1,147 adolescents were enrolled in three selected districts of the country...
April 14, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663879/anti-cancer-effects-of-metformin-recent-evidences-for-its-role-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#6
Masoumeh Kheirandish, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Maryam Yazdanparast, Warda Kamal, Mohammad A Kamal
Metformin is widely used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently growing evidence has shown its anti-cancer effects. The results are mainly obtained from observational studies and thus, little information is available concerning the mechanisms of action. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in the mechanism of action of metformin. The anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin include direct and indirect effects. The direct effects of metformin include AMPK-independent and AMPK-dependent effects, whereas the decrease in glucose level, hyperinsulinemia, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level was considered its indirect effects...
April 16, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663734/new-biological-research-and-understanding-of-papanicolaou-s-test
#7
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Smith, Sophia H George, Erin Kobetz, Xiang-Xi Xu
The development of the Papanicolaou smear test by Dr. George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962) is one of the most significant achievements in screening for disease and cancer prevention in history. The Papanicolaou smear has been used for screening of cervical cancer since the 1950s. The test is technically straightforward and practical and based on a simple scientific observation: malignant cells have an aberrant nuclear morphology that can be distinguished from benign cells. Here, we review the scientific understanding that has been achieved and continues to be made on the causes and consequences of abnormal nuclear morphology, the basis of Dr...
April 16, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659930/automated-cervical-screening-and-triage-based-on-hpv-testing-and-computer-interpreted-cytology
#8
Kai Yu, Noorie Hyun, Barbara Fetterman, Thomas Lorey, Tina R Raine-Bennett, Han Zhang, Robin E Stamps, Nancy E Poitras, William Wheeler, Brian Befano, Julia C Gage, Philip E Castle, Nicolas Wentzensen, Mark Schiffman
Background: State-of-the-art cervical cancer prevention includes human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents and screening/treatment of cervical precancer (CIN3/AIS and, less strictly, CIN2) among adults. HPV testing provides sensitive detection of precancer but, to reduce overtreatment, secondary "triage" is needed to predict women at highest risk. Those with the highest-risk HPV types or abnormal cytology are commonly referred to colposcopy; however, expert cytology services are critically lacking in many regions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656688/sensory-preservation-in-neck-dissection-outcomes-of-a-sub-sternocleidomastoid-approach
#9
Keigo Honda, Ryo Asato, Jun Tsuji, Masakazu Miyazaki, Shinpei Kada, Yukiko Kataoka, Akiko Taura, Mami Morita
OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous anesthesia in early postoperative period is common after neck dissection even if the cervical nerve (CN) rootlets are preserved. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the preservation of the terminal branches of CNs using sub-sternocleidomastoid (SCM) approach combined with medially placed skin incision can prevent early postoperative anesthesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 129 neck dissections in 87 head and neck cancer patients...
April 14, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652958/-hpv-vaccine-implementation-in-chile-an-appraisal-from-the-social-determinants-of-health-model
#10
Loreto Fernández González
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common neoplasm in women worldwide and its incidence is associated with profound social inequities. In Chile, it is the second cause of death in women of reproductive age. The Chilean clinical guideline identifies the vaccine against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the main preventive measure. Since 2014, the Ministry of Health has implemented free immunization against HPV for girls and female adolescents. This article critically analyzes this public policy from the viewpoint of health equity, using as framework the Social Determinants of Health Model...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651669/hpv-screening-and-vaccination-strategies-in-an-unscreened-population-a-mathematical-modeling-study
#11
Rachael M Milwid, Federico Frascoli, Marc Steben, Jane M Heffernan
Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, is the necessary cause of cervical cancer, the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Prevention and control strategies include vaccination, screening, and treatment. While HPV prevention and control efforts are important worldwide, they are especially important in low-income areas with a high infection rate or high rate of cervical cancer. This study uses mathematical modeling to explore various vaccination and treatment strategies to control for HPV and cervical cancer while using Nepal as a case study...
April 12, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650746/comprehensive-preventive-care-assessments-for-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-part-1-how-do-we-know-if-it-is-happening
#12
Glenys Smith, Hélène Ouellette-Kuntz, Michael Green
OBJECTIVE: To determine how best to measure the provision of comprehensive preventive care assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with IDD between 40 and 64 years of age in 2013 and 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health examination was defined using the Ontario Health Insurance Plan billing data fee code A003 (with diagnostic code 917 or 319) or fee code K131, and the Primary Care Quality Composite Score (PCQS), a measure combining 7 different screening maneuvers (lipid, glucose, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, eye, and hemoglobin A1c screening), was identified using administrative health data...
April 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630008/ovarian-cancer-prevention-and-screening
#13
Usha Menon, Chloe Karpinskyj, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj
There has been much progress in ovarian cancer screening and prevention in recent years. Improved tools that combine genetic and epidemiologic factors to predict an individual's ovarian cancer risk are set to become available for tailoring preventive and screening approaches. The increasing evidence on tubal origins of a proportion of ovarian cancer has paved the way to use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy at tubal ligation and hysterectomy in the general population. Clinical trials are in progress to estimate the long-term effects on endocrine function...
April 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629509/awareness-of-hpv-and-cervical-cancer-prevention-among-university-health-sciences-students-in-cyprus
#14
Paraskevi A Farazi, Mohammad Siahpush, Tzeyu L Michaud, Jungyoon Kim, Chenai Muchena
Cervical cancer is preventable; however, despite the existence of primary and secondary means of prevention, its incidence is still higher in certain socioeconomic groups and countries, suggesting gaps in cervical cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of health sciences university students in Cyprus regarding HPV and cervical cancer in order to better guide the future development of educational programs to improve cervical cancer prevention. This was a cross-sectional study of 178 university health sciences students in Cyprus using a validated questionnaire on HPV and cervical cancer prevention...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628765/low-rate-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-among-schoolgirls-in-lebanon-barriers-to-vaccination-with-a-focus-on-mothers-knowledge-about-available-vaccines
#15
Maria J Abou El-Ola, Mariam A Rajab, Dania I Abdallah, Ismail A Fawaz, Lyn S Awad, Hani M Tamim, Ahmad O Ibrahim, Anas M Mugharbil, Rima A Moghnieh
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established predisposing factor of cervical cancer. In this study, we assessed the awareness about genital warts, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine among mothers having girls who are at the age of primary HPV vaccination attending a group of schools in Lebanon. We also assessed the rate of HPV vaccination among these girls and the barriers to vaccination in this community. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional, school-based survey...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627221/fluorescence-microscopy-of-h-e-stained-cervical-biopsies-to-assist-the-diagnosis-and-grading-of-cin
#16
REVIEW
Mario R Castellanos, Vijeyaluxmy Motilal Nehru, Edyta C Pirog, Lynne Optiz
BACKGROUND: Prevention of cervical cancer is based upon the accurate diagnosis and grading of cervical lesions identified during screening. The pathological classification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is problematic, as it relies on subjective criteria and is known to have high interobserver variability and low reproducibility. These limitations can result in either over or under treatment of patients. Biomarkers to improve CIN diagnosis have not overcome all these challenges...
March 26, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624947/the-need-for-societal-investment-to-improve-cervical-cancer-outcomes-in-nigeria-a-commentary
#17
Jonah Musa
Although cervical cancer is a preventable cancer with a well-known natural history, it remains a huge burden in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where organized cervical cancer screening services are lacking. Developed countries that have invested on providing organized screening programs have made substantial progress in reducing both incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. Implementing evidence-based interventions such as human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls, early detection and treatment of premalignant conditions of the cervix through conventional Pap cytology, HPV screening or visual aided inspection with acetic acid could significantly reduce incidence of new cases at population level...
December 2017: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617313/the-relationship-of-health-beliefs-with-information-sources-and-hpv-vaccine-acceptance-among-young-adults-in-korea
#18
Jarim Kim
Despite the HPV vaccine’s efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, its coverage rates among Asians are very low. To increase immunization coverage among these populations, understanding the psychological factors that affect HPV acceptability is critical. To this end, this study examined the relationships between multidimensional health beliefs and HPV vaccine acceptance, and what information sources effectively foster HPV vaccination-related health beliefs. Data were collected using a survey of 323 undergraduate students in Korea...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606692/a-community-based-approach-to-cervical-cancer-prevention-lessons-learned-in-rural-guatemala
#19
Dana D Im, Lindsay Palazuelos, Luyi Xu, Rose Leonard Molina, Daniel Palazuelos, Margaret M Sullivan
BACKGROUND: One international and three local organizations developed the Santa Ana Women's Health Partnership (SAWHP) to address cervical cancer in Santa Ana Huista, Huehuetenango, Guatemala. This paper describes the structure, outcomes, and lessons learned from our community partnership and program. METHODS: The community partnership developed a singlevisit approach (SVA) program that guided medically underserved women through screening and treatment of cervical cancer...
2018: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605053/a-contemporary-framework-of-health-equity-applied-to-gynecologic-cancer-care-a-society-of-gynecologic-oncology-evidenced-based-review
#20
REVIEW
Sarah M Temkin, B J Rimel, Amanda S Bruegl, Camille C Gunderson, Anna L Beavis, Kemi M Doll
Health disparities are defined as the preventable difference in the burden of disease, injury, and violence, or opportunity to achieve optimal health that socially disadvantaged populations experience compared to the population as a whole. Disparities in incidence and cancer outcomes for women with gynecologic malignancies have been well described particularly for American women of Black race. The etiology of these disparities has been tied to socio-economics, cultural, educational and genetic factors. While access to high quality treatment has been primarily linked to survival from cervical and ovarian cancer, innate biologic distinctions have been principally cited as reasons for differences in incidence and mortality in cancers of the uterine corpus...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
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