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Cervical cancer prevention

E E Jedy-Agba, E O Dareng, S N Adebamowo, M Odutola, E A Oga, F Igbinoba, T Otu, E Ezeome, F Bray, R Hassan, C A Adebamowo
INTRODUCTION: HPV attributable cancers are the second most common infection-related cancers worldwide, with much higher burden in less developed regions. There are currently no country-specific estimates of the burden of these cancers in Nigeria just like many other low and middle income countries. METHODS: In this study, we quantified the proportion of the cancer burden in Nigeria that is attributable to HPV infection from 2012 to 2014 using HPV prevalence estimated from previous studies and data from two population based cancer registries (PBCR) in Nigeria...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Alain Luxembourg, Susanne K Kjaer, Mari Nygard, Misoo C Ellison, Thomas Group, J Brooke Marshall, David Radley, Alfred Saah
The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) (9vHPV) vaccine targets four HPV types (6/11/16/18) also covered by the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine and five additional types (31/33/45/52/58). Vaccine efficacy to prevent HPV infection and disease was established in a Phase III clinical study in women 16-26years of age. A long-term follow-up (LTFU) study has been initiated as an extension of the Phase III clinical study to assess effectiveness of the 9vHPV vaccine up to at least 14years after the start of vaccination...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Karen D Hidalgo, Grégore I Mielke, Diana C Parra, Felipe Lobelo, Eduardo J Simões, Grace O Gomes, Alex A Florindo, Mário Bracco, Lenildo Moura, Ross C Brownson, Michael Pratt, Luiz R Ramos, Pedro C Hallal
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to examine the lifestyle behaviors and health promoting practices of physicians, nurses, and community health workers in Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of primary health care units in Brazil was selected, and a pretested questionnaire was administered via phone interviews, in 2011, to 182 physicians, 347 nurses, and 269 community health workers, totaling 798 health professionals. The total initial sample included 1600 eligible health professionals...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Sarikapan Wilailak, Nuttapong Lertchaipattanakul
Between the years of 2010-2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Dong Hoon Suh, Miseon Kim, Hak Jae Kim, Kyung Hun Lee, Jae Weon Kim
In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Raj Kumar Koninti, Sandeep Palvai, Sagar Satpathi, Sudipta Basu, Partha Hazra
Mesoporous silica nano-channel (MCM-41) based molecular switching of a biologically important anticancer drug, namely, ellipticine (EPT) has been utilized to probe its efficient loading onto MCM-41, and its subsequent release to intra-cellular biomolecules, like DNA. By exploiting various spectroscopic techniques (like, steady state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism), it has been shown that EPT can be easily translocated from MCM-41 to DNA without using any external stimulant. Blue emission of EPT in a polar aprotic solvent, i...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of the genitourinary system secondary to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and the genitourinary system...
October 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Julia S Seay, Morgan Mandigo, Jonathan Kish, Janelle Menard, Sarah Marsh, Erin Kobetz
OBJECTIVE: Haitian women have the highest incidence of cervical cancer within the Western hemisphere. Intravaginal hygiene practices have been linked with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical dysplasia. These practices, known as 'twalet deba' in Haitian Creole, are common among Haitian women and are performed with various natural and synthetic agents. As part of a community-based participatory research initiative aimed at reducing cervical cancer disparities in rural Haiti, we explored the use of intravaginal agents and their associations with high-risk HPV infection...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Peter V Chin-Hong
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection in kidney transplant recipients. HPV causes cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and head and neck cancers. Kidney transplant recipients have a disproportionate burden of disease given prolonged immunosuppression. Given the long pre-invasive state of precancer lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) most HPV-cancers are preventable with screening and targeted treatment of disease. Pre-transplant vaccination of age-eligible kidney transplant recipients is otherwise ideal...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Sonia Menon, Aibibula Wusiman, Marie Claude Boily, Mbabazi Kariisa, Hillary Mabeya, Stanley Luchters, Frode Forland, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention...
2016: PloS One
M Jentschke, P Hillemanns
Introduction: Cervical cancer screening programs all over the world are being radically revised; preventive screening is increasingly based on detecting infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). This change was driven by large international studies (comparing cytological and HPV-based screening), which were then summarized in systematic reviews or HTA reports. We carried out a systematic comparison of these meta-analyses, comparing their contents, quality, results and recommendations. Material and Methods: A systematic search in MEDLINE identified eight meta-analyses...
October 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
M G Grunberg, M Chan, M R Adhin
Suriname is ranked as high-risk country for cervical cancer, but recent national data of HPV prevalence and distribution in cervical cancer is scarce. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, cervical cancer incidence, HPV prevalence and HPV-type-specific distribution were investigated in all cervical cancer cases (n = 111), diagnosed in two consecutive years. HPV presence and type-specific prevalence were determined in paraffin-embedded biopsies utilizing master-nested multiplex PCR assays, targeting 14 HPV types...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Katharina D Hauck, Shaolin Wang, Charles Vincent, Peter C Smith
BACKGROUND: There is little satisfactory evidence on the harm of safety incidents to patients, in terms of lost potential health and life-years. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the healthy life-years (HLYs) lost due to 6 incidents in English hospitals between the years 2005/2006 and 2009/2010, to compare burden across incidents, and estimate excess bed-days. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study used cross-sectional analysis of the medical records of all inpatients treated in 273 English hospitals...
October 6, 2016: Medical Care
Lydia S Murdiyarso, Melissa Kartawinata, Iffat Jenie, Grace Widjajahakim, Heriawaty Hidajat, Ruth Sembiring, I Made Nasar, Santoso Cornain, Farid Sastranagara, Ahmad Rusdan Handoyo Utomo
PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate prevalence, age-adjusted distribution, and impact of single and multiple high- and low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes and their associations with cervical lesions. METHODS: Data were extracted from 11,224 women who underwent routine screening of HPV genotyping and liquid-based cytology co-testing. Fifteen high-risk (HR) and six low-risk (LR) HPV types were genotyped. RESULTS: Overall HPV prevalence was 10...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Juliana Lasmar Ayres do Amaral, Marizeli Viana de Aragão Araújo, George Alberto da Silva Dias, Esther Iris Christina Freifrau von Ledebur, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma, Hellen Thais Fuzii
Cervical cancer, the second most common cancer affecting women in Northern Brazil, is strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Diseases affecting the immune state of a patient, including autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), can lead to persistent HPV infection and cancer. We evaluated cervical HPV prevalence and the associated risk factors in 70 women with SLE in the city of Belém, located in Brazilian Amazon. HPV DNA was detected by PCR using primers MY9 and MY11...
August 17, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Lila J Finney Rutten, Victoria Findley, Debra J Jacobson, Patrick M Wilson, Monica Albertie, Robert M Jacobson, Gerardo Colón-Otero
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines offer primary prevention of cervical cancer and protection against other HPV-associated cancers. HPV vaccine coverage in the United States (U.S.) remains low, particularly among older adolescents/young adults, and the uninsured. We assessed awareness and knowledge of HPV disease, HPV-related cancers, and HPV vaccines among working, uninsured adults. Data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 4) were used as a benchmark. Patients were surveyed in late 2014 at the Volunteers in Medicine free clinic in Duval County, Florida...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Nobuyoshi Ozawa, Kiyoshi Ito, Toru Tase, Hirohito Metoki, Nobuo Yaegashi
Prevention of cervical cancer has been unsuccessful in Japan because of low rates of cancer screening and vaccination. The Vaccine Adverse Review Committee of the Japanese Government investigated 2,475 adverse events and reported 617 (6.9/100,000) severe cases and 176 (2.0/100,000) cases with chronic pain. The proactive recommendation for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been suspended since June 2013. In this study, we examined vaccination rate and incidence of abnormal cervical cytology in women aged 20 to 24 years attending cancer screening in Miyagi...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Chun Chao, Michael J Silverberg, Tracy A Becerra, Douglas A Corley, Christopher D Jensen, Qiaoling Chen, Virginia P Quinn
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus vaccination may result in lowered intention to be screened for cervical cancer, potentially leading to gaps in screening coverage and avoidable cervical cancer diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between human papillomavirus vaccination and subsequent cervical cancer screening initiation and adherence to recommended screening intervals to detect gaps in screening coverage and inform future prevention efforts. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in two distinct cohorts of female members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California, a large integrated healthcare delivery system...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Farah Benyettou, Jaen Alonso Ocadiz Flores, Florent Ravaux, Rachid Rezgui, Mustapha Jouiad, Samer I Nehme, Rajesh Kumar Parsapur, John-Carl Olsen, Parasuraman Selvam, Ali Trabolsi
Mesoporous iron-oxide nanoparticles (mNPs) were prepared by using a modified nanocasting approach with mesoporous carbon as a hard template. mNPs were first loaded with doxorubicin (Dox), an anticancer drug, and then coated with the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F108 to prevent the leakage of Dox molecules from the pores that would otherwise occur under physiological conditions. The Dox-loaded, Pluronic F108-coated system (Dox@F108-mNPs) was stable at room temperature and physiological pH and released its Dox cargo slowly under acidic conditions or in a sudden burst with magnetic heating...
October 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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