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Cervical cancer prevention

T M Schisler, A K Bhavsar, B P Whitcomb, J H Freeman, M A Washington, J W Blythe, M A Nahid, C S Dietrich
Objective: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of invasive cervical cancers is widely known. Few HPV studies have targeted geographically isolated regions. The objective of this study was to determine the HPV genotypes in cervical cancer patients from the Pacific Islands referred to Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC). Methods: All cases of invasive cervical cancer treated at TAMC through the Pacific Island Health Care Project between January 2004 and October 2014 were identified through a review of pathology specimens...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Domenico Mattoscio, Alessandro Medda, Susanna Chiocca
Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are a group of double-stranded DNA viruses known to be the primary cause of cervical cancer. In addition, evidence has now established their role in non-melanoma skin cancers, head and neck cancer (HNC), and the development of other anogenital malignancies. The prevalence of HPV-related HNC, in particular oropharyngeal cancers, is rapidly increasing, foreseeing that HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers will outnumber uterine cervical cancers in the next 15⁻20 years. Therefore, despite the successful advent of vaccines originally licensed for cervical cancer prevention, HPV burden is still very high, and a better understanding of HPV biology is urgently needed...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Teris Cheung, Joseph T F Lau, Johnson Z Wang, P K H Mo, Y S Ho
OBJECTIVES: The highly infectious human papillomavirus (HPV) causes both genital warts and cervical cancer in women. In 2009, the prevalence of genital warts in Hong Kong was 203.7 per 100,000 person-years. Cervical cancer, more seriously, was the eight most common cancer among women and girls in Hong Kong, accounting for 2.3% of all new cancer cases in females in 2014. Cervical cancer is a significant global public health problem and HPV is a major risk factor leading to the development of cervical cancer...
2018: PloS One
Kristina Thorsteinsson, Merete Storgaard, Terese L Katzenstein, Steen Ladelund, Frederikke F Rönsholt, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Gitte Pedersen, Anne Gaardsting, Lars Nørregård Nielsen, Jesper Bonde, Anne-Mette Lebech
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) have elevated risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) related cancers. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence, distribution and concordance of cervical, oral, and anal HPV infection, and predictors of oral and anal HPV in WLWH in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN: WLWH followed in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) were enrolled and examined for cervical, oral, and anal HPV infection...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Y T Nejo, D O Olaleye, G N Odaibo
There is a great variation in the prevalence of cervical HPV infection worldwide with some of the highest rates being found in African women. Early onset of sexual activity (≤ 15 age), multiparity and sexual promiscuity have been recognized as some of the significant risk factors for HPV infection. In Nigeria, there is scarcity of data on the degree of relationship between these factors and the prevalence of HPV infection. Thus, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of genital HPV infection with its potential risk factors among women in Southwest Nigeria...
February 2018: Archives of basic and applied medicine
Bingxiu Zhou, Yuanyuan Yu, Lixia Yu, Binfu Que, Rui Qiu
Sipi soup (SPS), the aqueous extract derived from the root bark of Sophora japonical L, Salix babylonica L., Morus alba L., as well as Amygdalus davidiana (Carr.) C. de Vos, is a traditional Chinese medicine frequently used to prevent and treat infection and inflammation. However, the role of SPS in cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) require further investigation. In the present study, the effects of SPS on fibroblast inactivation and the underlying mechanism were investigated. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the mRNA expression levels of fibroblast activation protein (FAP), interleukin (IL)‑6, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4)...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ruchi Arun, Jai Prakash Singh, Shyam Bihari Gupta
Background: It is possible to prevent deaths due to cervical cancer through screening and treatment. Cervical cytology which is a standard screening tool in developed countries fails as a screening method in low-resource countries due to financial and technical constraints. Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix by VIA and Pap smear test among rural married women and to find out association of socio demographic factors with positive screening test results...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Alex K Mezei, Heather N Pedersen, Stephen Sy, Catherine Regan, Sheona M Mitchell-Foster, Josaphat Byamugisha, Musa Sekikubo, Heather Armstrong, Angeli Rawat, Joel Singer, Gina S Ogilvie, Jane J Kim, Nicole G Campos
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Uganda, despite the potential for prevention through organised screening. Community-based self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been proposed to reduce barriers to screening. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Advances in Screening and Prevention of Reproductive Cancers (ASPIRE) trial, conducted in Kisenyi, Uganda in April 2014 (n=500)...
June 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Aleksander Celewicz, Marta Celewicz, Małgorzata Wężowska, Anita Chudecka-Głaz, Janusz Menkiszak, Elzbieta Urasińska
Cervical cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm in women worldwide. HPV infection is the necessary factor for the cancer to develop. HPV DNA can be integrated into the genome of squamous epithelium and cause transcription of the viral oncoproteins and development of invasive cancer within 15-20 years. We assessed ICC co-expression of p16/Ki-67 proteins in smears collected from the uterine cervix and the association between p16/Ki-67 co-expression and cytologic and histologic results. Samples were collected from 93 women using liquid based cytology (LBC)...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Megan Swanson, Stefanie Ueda, Lee-May Chen, Megan J Huchko, Carol Nakisige, Jane Namugga
There is significant disparity in the prevalence of cervical cancer globally, with low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shouldering a disproportionate share of disease incidence and an even greater proportion of morbidity and mortality. Available resources for diagnosis, treatment and palliation of cervical cancer are inversely related to per capita income. While prevention and screening remain public health priorities, given the large number of women affected by cervical cancer, expanding treatment capacity should be included in any evidence-based intervention plan...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Vladimir Gilca, Jorge Salmerón-Castro, Chantal Sauvageau, Gina Ogilvie, Monique Landry, Monica Naus, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were initially licensed based on efficacy after three-dose regimens in women aged 15-26 years, it was recognized early in clinical development that comparable immunogenicity could be obtained after just two doses when administered to younger girls. In both Canada and Mexico, public health authorities made the decision to administer two doses 6 months apart with a planned additional dose at 60 months, while simultaneously doing further study to determine if the third dose would confer meaningful additional benefit...
June 7, 2018: Vaccine
Muhammad Mustafa Memon, Emaan Amin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Lisa Jamieson, Gail Garvey, Joanne Hedges, Amanda Mitchell, Terry Dunbar, Cathy Leane, Isaac Hill, Kate Warren, Alex Brown, Xiangqun Ju, David Roder, Richard Logan, Newell Johnson, Megan Smith, Annika Antonsson, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer is an important, understudied cancer affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Current generation HPV vaccines are effective against the 2 most common types of high-risk HPVs in cancer (hrHPVs 16/18). OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to yield population estimates of oncogenic genotypes of HPV in the mouth and oropharynx of defined Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations; (2) to estimate the proportion of oropharyngeal cancer attributable to HPV among these Australian citizens; (3) to estimate the impact of HPV vaccination as currently implemented on rates of oropharyngeal cancer among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians; and (4) taking into account impact on oropharyngeal as well as cervical cancer, to evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of targeted extended HPV vaccination to older ages, among our study population...
June 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Abebe Dires Nega, Mulat Adefris Woldetsadik, Abebaw Addis Gelagay
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Majority of the cases are found in developing countries. The increasing risk of cervical cancer death and the high prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in Human immuno-deficiency virus(HIV) positive women calls for determining the level of premalignant cervical cancer (Ca) screening uptake. So, this study aimed to assess the uptake of cervical cancer screening and its associated factors...
June 7, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Themba G Ginindza, Benn Sartorius
BACKGROUND: The scarcity of country data (e.g. a cancer registry) for the burden of cervical cancer (CC) in low-income countries (LCIs) such as Swaziland remains a huge challenge. Such data are critical to inform local decision-making regarding resource allocation [1]. We aimed to estimate likely cervical cancer incidence in Swaziland using three different methodologies (triangulation), to help better inform local policy guidance regarding likely higher "true" burden and increased resource allocation required for treatment, cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccine implementation...
June 7, 2018: BMC Cancer
Stella K Kang, Miao Jiang, Richard Duszak, Samantha L Heller, Danny R Hughes, Linda Moy
Purpose To retrospectively assess whether there is an association between screening mammography and the use of a variety of preventive services in women who are enrolled in Medicare. Materials and Methods U.S. Medicare claims from 2010 to 2014 Research Identifiable Files were reviewed to retrospectively identify a group of women who underwent screening mammography and a control group without screening mammography in 2012. The screened group was divided into positive versus negative results at screening, and the positive subgroup was divided into false-positive and true-positive findings...
June 5, 2018: Radiology
Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir, LaTonya J Hickson, Priya Ramar, Megan Reinalda, Nicholas W Krueger, Cynthia S Crowson, Andrew D Rule, Paul Y Takahashi, Rajeev Chaudhry, Sidna M Tulledge-Scheitel, Jon C Tilburt, Amy W Williams, Robert C Albright, Sarah K Meier, Nilay D Shah
Routine preventive cancer screening is not recommended for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to their limited life expectancy. The current extent of cancer screening in this population is unknown. Primary care (PC) reminder systems or performance incentives may encourage indiscriminate cancer screening. We compared rates of cancer screening in patients with ESRD, with and without PC visits. This is a retrospective cohort study using United States Renal Data System (USRDS) billing data and electronic medical record data...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Yasuyuki Seto, Kazuhiko Mori, Susumu Aikou
Since the introduction of robotic systems in esophageal surgery in 2000, the number of robotic esophagectomies has been gradually increasing worldwide, although robot-assisted surgery is not yet regarded as standard treatment for esophageal cancer, because of its high cost and the paucity of high-level evidence. In 2016, more than 1800 cases were operated with robot assistance. Early results with small series demonstrated feasibility and safety in both robotic transhiatal (THE) and transthoracic esophagectomies (TTE)...
September 2017: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Barbara S Ducatman
CONTEXT: - Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPC), particularly those cancers developing in tonsillar tissue. OBJECTIVES: - To review the prevalence, subtypes, and methods of detecting HPV in OPC and to review the epidemiology, histology, staging, management, and prevention of these cancers. DATA SOURCES: - The study comprised a review of the literature. CONCLUSIONS: - The incidence of HPV-OPC is rising globally and in the United States, but rates of HPV-positivity vary with the anatomic site(s) and the population studied, as well as the method of detecting HPV infection...
June 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Ibrahim A Robadi, Majed Pharaon, Barbara S Ducatman
CONTEXT: - Types 16 and 18 are the most widely studied high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). However, other high-risk HPV types (HPV non-16/18) also play a significant role in cervical neoplasia. Currently, screening and management algorithms separate out HPV 16/18 from all other HPV non-16/18 types. In addition, most of the previously vaccinated population has only been vaccinated for these high-risk types, so many women are still vulnerable to HPV non-16/18 infections. OBJECTIVE: - To review the prevalence and role of HPV non-16/18 neoplasia and to review current surveillance, management, and vaccination strategies in view of these findings...
June 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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