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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629398/anaplastic-astrocytoma-mimicking-progressive-multifocal-leucoencephalopathy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-overlapping-syndromes
#1
Ema Kantorová, Michal Bittšanský, Štefan Sivák, Eva Baranovičová, Petra Hnilicová, Vladimír Nosáľ, Daniel Čierny, Kamil Zeleňák, Wolfgang Brück, Egon Kurča
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and glial tumours (GT) is uncommon although occasionally reported in medical literature. Interpreting the overlapping radiologic and clinical characteristics of glial tumours, MS lesions, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) can be a significant diagnostic challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of anaplastic astrocytoma mimicking PML in a 27-year-old patient with a 15-year history of MS...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626124/two-cases-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-suggestive-of-complicating-multifocal-micronodular-pneumocyte-hyperplasia-a-case-report
#2
Chinatsu Nishida, Kazuhiro Yatera, Takashi Kido, Shingo Noguchi, Kentaro Akata, Minako Hanaka, Kei Yamasaki, Teppei Hoshino, Masayuki Shimono, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Noriho Sakamoto, Hiroshi Mukae
Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) is pathologically characterized by multifocal nodular hyperplasia of type Ⅱ pneumocyte-like cells. MMPH is usually complicated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). MMPH patients tend to be asymptomatic or only slightly symptomatic. MMPH tends to progress slowly and needs no treatment. We herein describe two cases of MMPH with its characteristic radiological features and clinical manifestations of TSC. Case 1: a 20-year-old female with definitive TSC in infancy...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624334/seasonality-and-autoimmune-diseases-the-contribution-of-the-four-seasons-to-the-mosaic-of-autoimmunity
#3
REVIEW
Abdulla Watad, Shir Azrielant, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Kassem Sharif, Paula David, Itay Katz, Gali Aljadeff, Mariana Quaresma, Galya Tanay, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a heterogeneous groups of diseases that occur as a results of loss of tolerance to self antigens. While the etiopathogeneis remain obscure, different environmental factors were suggested to have a role in the development of autoimmunity, including infections, low vitamin D levels, UV radiation, and melatonin. Interestingly, such factors possess seasonal variation patterns that could influence disease development, severity and progression. Vitamin D levels which reach a nadir during late winter and early spring is correlated with increased disease activity, clinical severity as well as relapse rates in several disease entities including multiple sclerosis (MS), non-cutaneous flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622533/intrathecal-igm-index-correlates-with-a-severe-disease-course-in-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-and-mri-results
#4
Serkan Ozakbas, Bilge Piri Cinar, Pinar Özcelik, Hatice Baser, Gorkem Kosehasanoğullari
OBJECTIVES: Intrathecally synthesized IgM can be seen not only in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, but also in that of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Intrathecal IgM synthesis in MS seems to be correlated with an unfavorable disease course. In one cross-sectional study, intrathecal synthesis of IgM (IgM index) was found to be correlated with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationship between the IgM index and MRI and clinical parameters...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620346/primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-putting-together-the-puzzle
#5
REVIEW
Ahmed Abdelhak, Martin S Weber, Hayrettin Tumani
The focus of multiple sclerosis research has recently turned to the relatively rare and clearly more challenging condition of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Many risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, age, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may interdepend on various levels, causing a complex pathophysiological cascade. Variable pathological mechanisms drive disease progression, including inflammation-associated axonal loss, continuous activation of central nervous system resident cells, such as astrocytes and microglia as well as mitochondrial dysfunction and iron accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611640/visual-loss-from-choroidal-melanoma-mimicking-neurological-syndromes
#6
Karim Hammamji, Ehud Reich, Amit Arora, Victoria M L Cohen, Mandeep S Sagoo
Melanoma of the eye is rare, but can mimic a range of disorders. This report highlights 2 cases of choroidal melanoma with vision loss mimicking neurological diagnoses. The first patient is a 41-year-old white male with a known history of multiple sclerosis and a previous episode of optic neuritis in the right eye, who presented with a 6-month history of decreased vision in the same eye, and occasional photopsiae. He was treated with 2 courses of oral steroids for presumed recurrent optic neuritis. After a temporary improvement in his symptoms, his vision worsened, following which he had a head MRI, which revealed a solid intraocular mass...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610655/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#7
Ana-Luisa Stefanski, Christian Tomiak, Uwe Pleyer, Thomas Dietrich, Gerd Rüdiger Burmester, Thomas Dörner
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome is one of the more common inflammatory rheumatological diseases, with a prevalence of at least 0.4% in Germany. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. Special attention is drawn to updated classification criteria and current treatment recommendations. RESULTS: Sjögren's syndrome has a wide variety of presentations, ranging from the local involvement of exocrine glands with keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia (the leading signs of the disease) to the systemic, extraglandular involvement of multiple organs...
May 26, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608697/perspectives-of-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-cb2r-ligands-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-structure-affinity-relationship-safir-and-structure-activity-relationship-sar-studies
#8
Francesco Spinelli, Elena Capparelli, Carmen Abate, Nicola A Colabufo, Marialessandra Contino
Up-regulation of CB2R on activated microglial cells, the first step in neurodegeneration, has been widely demonstrated, and this finding makes the receptor a promising target in the early diagnosis and treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The development of CB2R PET ligands could help demonstrate the neurodegenerative pathogenesis, thus providing useful tools for characterizing the role of neuroinflammation in the progression of these disorders...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607754/lymphocyte-reconstitution-following-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-progressive-ms
#9
G Cull, D Hall, M J Fabis-Pedrini, W M Carroll, L Forster, F Robins, R Ghassemifar, C Crosbie, S Walters, I James, B Augustson, A K Kermode
BACKGROUND: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) may reset the immune repertoire. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to analyse lymphocyte recovery in patients with progressive MS treated with ASCT. METHODS: Patients with progressive MS not responding to conventional treatment underwent ASCT following conditioning with high-dose cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin. Lymphocyte subset analysis was performed before ASCT and for two years following ASCT...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607751/assessment-of-treatment-patterns-associated-with-injectable-disease-modifying-therapy-among-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#10
J Nicholas, J J Ko, Y Park, P Navaratnam, H S Friedman, F R Ernst, V Herrera
BACKGROUND: Availability of oral disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) may affect injectable DMT (iDMT) treatment patterns. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to evaluate iDMT persistency, reasons for persistency lapses, and outcomes among newly diagnosed RRMS patients. METHODS: Medical records of 300 RRMS patients initiated on iDMT between 2008 and 2013 were abstracted from 18 US-based neurology clinics...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607577/mri-in-the-assessment-and-monitoring-of-multiple-sclerosis-an-update-on-best-practice
#11
REVIEW
Ulrike W Kaunzner, Susan A Gauthier
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed into the most important tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). Its high sensitivity for the evaluation of inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes in the brain and spinal cord has made it the most commonly used technique for the evaluation of patients with MS. Moreover, MRI has become a powerful tool for treatment monitoring, safety assessment as well as for the prognostication of disease progression. Clinically, the use of MRI has increased in the past couple decades as a result of improved technology and increased availability that now extends well beyond academic centers...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603464/reliability-and-validity-of-the-computerized-dynamic-posturography-sensory-organization-test-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Jeffrey R Hebert, Mark M Manago
BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently have impaired postural control (balance). Psychometric properties of clinical tests of balance for individuals with MS, including the computerized dynamic posturography sensory organization test (CDP-SOT), are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the reliability and discriminant validity of the CDP-SOT in people with MS. METHODS: The CDP-SOT was performed on 30 participants with MS. A 2-week-interval, repeated-measures (sessions 1 and 2) design was implemented to investigate test-retest reliability of the CDP-SOT and the ability of the CDP-SOT to discriminate between participants with lower versus higher disability...
May 2017: International Journal of MS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601287/cd4-cd8-ratio-during-natalizumab-treatment-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#13
Antonio Carotenuto, Giulia Scalia, Francesco Ausiello, Marcello Moccia, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Francesco Saccà, Anna De Rosa, Chiara Criscuolo, Luigi Del Vecchio, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Roberta Lanzillo
Although improved, the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a constant threat for patient affected by multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab. We performed a 24months longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the total WBC and lymphocytes subsets modifications and their correlations with anti-JCV antibody index after 1 and 2years of natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab induced an increase of WBC, total and C19+ lymphocytes together with a decrease of CD3+, CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4/CD8 ratio, which was positively related to anti-JCV antibodies index at month 0, 12 and 24...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600189/effect-of-high-dose-simvastatin-on-cognitive-neuropsychiatric-and-health-related-quality-of-life-measures-in-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-secondary-analyses-from-the-ms-stat-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Dennis Chan, Sophie Binks, Jennifer M Nicholas, Chris Frost, M Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, David Wilkie, Richard Nicholas, Jeremy Chataway
BACKGROUND: In the 24-month MS-STAT phase 2 trial, we showed that high-dose simvastatin significantly reduced the annualised rate of whole brain atrophy in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We now describe the results of the MS-STAT cognitive substudy, in which we investigated the treatment effect on cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) outcome measures. METHODS: We did a secondary analysis of MS-STAT, a 24-month, double-blind, controlled trial of patients with SPMS done at three neuroscience centres in the UK between Jan 28, 2008, and Nov 4, 2011...
June 6, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593439/clinical-and-histopathological-amelioration-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-aav-vectors-expressing-a-soluble-interleukin-23-receptor
#15
Marta Miralles, Herena Eixarch, Marcos Tejero, Carme Costa, Keiji Hirota, A Raul Castaño, Meritxell Puig, Gitta Stockinger, Xavier Montalban, Assumpció Bosch, Carmen Espejo, Miguel Chillon
The role of the T helper (Th)17 pathway has been clearly demonstrated in the onset and progression of autoimmune diseases, where interleukin (IL)-23 is a key molecule in maintaining the response mediated by Th17 cells. As a consequence, recent strategies based on blocking the interaction between IL-23 and its receptor (IL-23R), for example the anti-p19 antibody tildrakizumab, have been developed to regulate the Th17 pathway from the initial stages of the disease. Here, a soluble (s)IL-23R cDNA was cloned in expression plasmids and viral vectors...
June 7, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588765/evidence-of-disease-control-a-realistic-concept-beyond-neda-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Ana C Londoño, Carlos A Mora
Although no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) permits evaluation of response to treatment in the systematic follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), its ability to accomplish detection of surreptitious activity of disease is limited, thus being unable to prevent patients from falling into a non-reversible progressive phase of disease. A protocol of evaluation based on the use of validated biomarkers that is conducted at an early stage of disease would permit the capture of abnormal neuroimmunological phenomena and lead towards intervention with modifying therapy before tissue damage has been reached...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584696/redefining-acute-relapses-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-phase-3-clinical-trials-and-treatment-algorithms
#17
EDITORIAL
Jagannadha Avasarala
Relapses in multiple sclerosis are defined as periods of clinical worsening and radiological progression. Magnetic resonance imaging data, however, are not always supportive of "clinical worsening," and clinical symptoms of worsening may not always be present in cases of acute relapse. In the pharmaceutical domain, this discordance between "clinical worsening" and "radiological progression" has never been fully elucidated, and no Phase 3 clinical study has addressed this conundrum. Thus, the true number of acute relapse cases enrolled in Phase 3 clinical studies remains unclear...
March 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578105/aberrant-expression-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-cd4-t-cells-isolated-from-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#18
Sabrina Giacoppo, Oxana Bereshchenko, Stefano Bruscoli, Carlo Riccardi, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) is a less common progressive form of MS in approximately 10% of patients that manifest increasingly neurological disability from disease onset. To date, there are no approved treatments for the progressive stage. Therefore, identifying new therapeutic targets could open a new opportunity for PP-MS management. Several lines of evidence suggest the critical role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in immune-mediated diseases, like MS. This study was aimed to investigate whether aberrant expression of β-catenin is involved in PP-MS progression...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576902/application-of-pharmacogenomics-to-investigate-adverse-drug-reactions-to-the-disease-modifying-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-control-study-protocol-for-dimethyl-fumarate-induced-lymphopenia
#19
Kaarina Kowalec, Elaine Kingwell, Robert Carruthers, Ruth Ann Marrie, Sasha Bernatsky, Anthony Traboulsee, Colin J D Ross, Bruce Carleton, Helen Tremlett
INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global public health issue. The potential for pharmacogenomic biomarkers has been demonstrated in several therapeutical areas, including HIV infection and oncology. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a licensed disease-modifying therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of DMF in MS has been associated with a severe reduction in lymphocyte counts and reports of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Here, we outline the protocol for a case-control study designed to discover genomic variants associated with DMF-induced lymphopenia...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575206/heterozygote-galactocerebrosidase-galc-mutants-have-reduced-remyelination-and-impaired-myelin-debris-clearance-following-demyelinating-injury
#20
Nicole J Scott-Hewitt, Christopher J Folts, Jessica M Hogestyn, Gavin Piester, Margot Mayer-Pröschel, Mark D Noble
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are identifying multiple genetic risk factors for several diseases, but the functional role of these changes remains mostly unknown. Variants in the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene, for example, were identified as a risk factor for Multiple Sclerosis (MS); however, potential biological relevance of GALC variants to MS remains elusive. We found that heterozygote GALC mutant mice have reduced myelin debris clearance and diminished remyelination after a demyelinating insult...
May 31, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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