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"income" AND "cardiovascular"

Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastian, Anneli Ivarsson, Per E Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease seem to widen or endure in Sweden. However, research on inequalities in antecedent cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), and particularly what underpins them, is scarce. The present study aimed 1) to estimate income-related inequalities in eight biological cardiovascular risk factors in Swedish middle-aged women and men; and 2) to examine the contribution of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and psychosocial determinants to the observed inequalities...
July 13, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
K Van der Spuy, M Crowther, M Nejthardt, F Roodt, J Davids, J Roos, E Cloete, T Pretorius, G Davies, J Van der Walt, C Van der Westhuizen, M Flint, J Swanevelder, B Biccard
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is common, affecting over one billion people worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, hypertensive disease not only affects the older population but is becoming increasingly prevalent in younger individuals. In South Africa (SA), >30% of the adult population has hypertension, making it the single most common cardiovascular risk factor and the predominant contributor to cardiovascular disease and mortality. Elevated blood pressure is the most common perioperative comorbidity encountered in non-cardiac surgical patients, with an overall prevalence of 20 - 25%, and it remains poorly controlled in low- and middle-income countries...
June 26, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Luis J Mena, Vanessa G Félix, Alberto Ochoa, Rodolfo Ostos, Eduardo González, Javier Aspuru, Pablo Velarde, Gladys E Maestre
Mobile electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an emerging area that has received increasing attention in recent years, but still real-life validation for elderly residing in low and middle-income countries is scarce. We developed a wearable ECG monitor that is integrated with a self-designed wireless sensor for ECG signal acquisition. It is used with a native purposely designed smartphone application, based on machine learning techniques, for automated classification of captured ECG beats from aged people. When tested on 100 older adults, the monitoring system discriminated normal and abnormal ECG signals with a high degree of accuracy (97%), sensitivity (100%), and specificity (96...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Nan Zhang
BACKGROUND: China has seen rapid socio-economic changes and epidemiological transitions in the last few decades. Previous studies often fail to examine how wider macro-level forces contribute to changes in health inequality among its population in China. This study aims to examine urban/rural inequalities in cardiovascular (CVD) risks biomarkers among Chinese adolescents in two decades from 1991 to 2011 during the process of China's rapid urbanisation. METHODS: Data were drawn from a nationwide longitudinal dataset of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (Sweeps 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011)...
July 11, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Apolline Saucy, Martin Röösli, Nino Künzli, Ming-Yi Tsai, Chloé Sieber, Toyib Olaniyan, Roslynn Baatjies, Mohamed Jeebhay, Mark Davey, Benjamin Flückiger, Rajen N Naidoo, Mohammed Aqiel Dalvie, Mahnaz Badpa, Kees de Hoogh
Air pollution can cause many adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Land use regression (LUR) models are frequently used to describe small-scale spatial variation in air pollution levels based on measurements and geographical predictors. They are particularly suitable in resource limited settings and can help to inform communities, industries, and policy makers. Weekly measurements of NO₂ and PM2.5 were performed in three informal areas of the Western Cape in the warm and cold seasons 2015⁻2016...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Denise Burke Aske, Virginia Rall Chomitz, Xiaodong Liu, Lisa Arsenault, Sarita Bhalotra, Dolores Acevedo-Garcia
OBJECTIVES: We examined the longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and academic performance (AP) among students in a diverse public school district. Furthermore, we determined whether the relationship between CRF and AP varied by student sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: This study used data from 2005-2006 to 2008-2009. AP was assessed by Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) math (N = 1224) and English Language Arts (ELA) (N = 1248) z-scores...
August 2018: Journal of School Health
Wenting Huang, Hongfei Long, Jiang Li, Sha Tao, Pinpin Zheng, Shenglan Tang, Abu S Abdullah
Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been widely used in response to the shortage of skilled health workers especially in resource limited areas. China has a long history of involving CHWs in public health intervention project. CHWs in China called village doctors who have both treatment and public health responsibilities. This systematic review aimed to identify the types of public health services provided by CHWs and summarized potential barriers and facilitating factors in the delivery of these services...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
Matthew Gowshall, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally, the majority of these being due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, or diabetes. Mortality from many NCDs continues to increase worldwide, with a disproportionately larger impact in low-middle income countries (LMIs), where almost 75% of global deaths occur from these causes. As a low-income African country that consistently ranks amongst the world's poorest nations, Malawi as a case study demonstrates how transition due to societal change and increasing urbanization is often accompanied by a rise in the rate of NCDs...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Pasmore Malambo, Anniza De Villiers, Estelle V Lambert, Thandi Puoane, Andre P Kengne
BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the relationship between objectively-measured attributes of the built environment with cardio-metabolic risk in populations from lower- and middle-income countries is lacking. In this paper, we describe the association between the objectively-measured built environment with body mass index, blood pressure and physical activity in adult South Africans. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 341 adults aged ≥35 years drawn from the Cape Town arm of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) cohort study...
July 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Natalia Oli, Abhinav Vaidya, Katja Pahkala, Gabriele Eiben, Alexandra Krettek
The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in low and middle-income countries; Nepal's population shows a high prevalence of behavioral risk factors. Our cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS), located near the capital Kathmandu, explored knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of mothers with young children regarding diet and physical activity and mothers' perception of their children's attitude and behavior toward the same issues. The purpose of our study was to assess needs of the mothers concerning cardiovascular health in general and more specifically regarding diet and physical activity, and to establish a baseline for future intervention in the community by comparing two villages of JD-HDSS...
2018: PloS One
Leopold Ndemnge Aminde, Noah Fongwen Takah, Belen Zapata-Diomedi, J Lennert Veerman
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of deaths globally, with greatest premature mortality in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Many of these countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have significant budget constraints. The need for current evidence on which interventions offer good value for money to stem this CVD epidemic motivates this study. Methods: In this systematic review, we included studies reporting full economic evaluations of individual and population-based interventions (pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic), for primary and secondary prevention of CVD among adults in LMIC...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Mahdi Gharasi-Manshadi, M Meskarpour-Amiri, P Mehdizadeh
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with significant productivity loss among all occupational groups. However, the increased occupational requirements of military personnel pose physical and psychological demands that could lead to greater lost productivity of CVD. The aim of this study was to determine the economic cost of lost productivity of military patients with CVD. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken on all military patients attending a specialist CVD clinic in Tehran, Iran...
July 4, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Thomas A Gaziano, Flávia Miquetichuc Nascente, Carolina de Souza Carneiro, Polyana Morais, Vanessa Roriz, Karla Lorena Mendonça, Thaís Inácio Rolim Póvoa, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso, Ana Luiza Lima Sousa, Paulo César Brandão Veiga Jardim
Multiple cardiovascular risk factors are directly related to the severity of atherosclerosis, even in children and adolescents. In this context accurate assessment of risk factors at the individual level play a decisive role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the frequency of their coexistence in individuals, and identify possible determinants associated with this coexistence in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study with 1170 students (12-17 years) from public and private schools of a large city was conducted...
2018: PloS One
Celeste E Naude, Marianne E Visser, Kim A Nguyen, Solange Durao, Anel Schoonees
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to prevent childhood overweight and obesity, we need to understand the relationship between total fat intake and body fatness in generally healthy children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and associations of total fat intake on measures of weight and body fatness in children and young people not aiming to lose weight. SEARCH METHODS: For this update we revised the previous search strategy and ran it over all years in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (PubMed), and Embase (Ovid) (current to 23 May 2017)...
July 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Chun-Lin Liu, Ming-Yen Lin, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Ching-Kuan Liu, Huei-Lan Lee, Ming-Tsang Wu
BACKGROUND: Incidence of dementia is growing rapidly and affects many people worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) might link cognitive decline and dementia, but the reasons for this association remain unclear. Our study explored the factors associated with type 2 DM in patients with dementia. METHODS: Patients (n = 40,404) with vascular dementia were identified in Taiwan's 1997 to 2008 National Health Insurance Research Database and divided into a DM group and non-DM group...
July 4, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Rohan Khera, Javier Valero-Elizondo, Victor Okunrintemi, Anshul Saxena, Sandeep R Das, James A de Lemos, Harlan M Krumholz, Khurram Nasir
Importance: Health insurance is effective in preventing financial hardship from unexpected major health care events. However, it is also essential to assess whether vulnerable patients, particularly those from low-income families, are adequately protected from longitudinal health care costs for common chronic conditions such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Objective: To examine the annual burden of total out-of-pocket health expenses among low-income families that included a member with ASCVD...
July 3, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Sayid Zommorodi, Karin Leander, Joy Roy, Johnny Steuer, Rebecka Hultgren
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic position (SEP) has been demonstrated to negatively influence outcome in several cardiovascular patient groups. The aim of this study was to analyse time trends of incidence of intact abdominal aortic aneurysm (iAAA) and ruptured AAA (rAAA), respectively, and to investigate whether SEP had any influence on the probability to present with rupture and, finally, to determine the impact of SEP on outcome. METHODS: Nationwide population-based study including all individuals with iAAA or rAAA in Sweden during 2001-2015...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Pragna Patel, Charles E Rose, Pamela Y Collins, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe, Emmanuel Peprah, Susan Vorkoper, Sonak D Pastakia, Dianne Rausch, Naomi S Levitt
OBJECTIVE: To appropriately identify and treat noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), it is imperative to understand the burden of NCDs among PLHIV in LMICs and the current management of the diseases. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We examined peer-reviewed literature published between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2016 to assess currently available evidence regarding HIV and four selected NCDs (cardiovascular disease, cervical cancer, depression, and diabetes) in LMICs with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa...
July 1, 2018: AIDS
P Putrik, S Ramiro, A M Chorus, A P Keszei, A Boonen
Socio-economic gradients in occurrence of diseases have been reported for many chronic conditions. However, whether the magnitude of socio-economic gradients differs across diseases and the extent to which lifestyle mediates such relationships are not known. Cross-sectional data from The National Monitor on Musculoskeletal System was used. Respondents (> 18 years) completed a questionnaire including gender, education, social status, lifestyle, and physician-diagnosed diseases. Logistic regressions investigated the relationship between education and the major chronic diseases (musculoskeletal diseases (MSKD), diabetes, cardiovascular (CVD), cancer, mental, respiratory, any disease)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Y T Bazargani, M Ugurlu, A de Boer, H G M Leufkens, A K Mantel-Teeuwisse
BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have been increasing, while access to CVDs medicines is suboptimal. We assessed selection of essential medicines for the prevention and treatment of CVDs on national essential medicines lists (NEMLs) of LMICs and potential determinants for selection. METHODS: Only operational NEMLs were considered eligible for this study. A selection of medicines listed under "cardiovascular medicines" or "blood products and plasma substitutes" in the NEMLs were included if they were present on international guidelines for the prevention and treatment of CVDs (hyperlipidemia, hypertension, platelet inhibition, ischemic stroke, stable ischemic heart disease, acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease and acute limb ischemia)...
June 25, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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