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Dermatology and stem cells

Animesh Pardanani
: Disease overview:Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in one or more extra-cutaneous organs. DIAGNOSIS: The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of morphologically abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC expression of CD25 and/or CD2, and presence of KITD816V. Risk stratification: The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of SM has been shown to be prognostically relevant...
November 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Christina Bergqvist, Paul Ramia, Ossama Abbas, Mazen Kurban
The nail is a unique epithelial skin appendage made up of a fully keratinized nail plate. The nail can be affected in several systemic illnesses, dermatological diseases, and inherited nail disorders. Nail dystrophies can present as isolated disorders or as a part of syndromes. Substantial progress has been achieved in the management and diagnosis of nail diseases; however, not much is known about the underlying molecular controls of nail growth. The homeostasis and development of the nail appendage depends on the intricate interactions between the epidermis and underlying mesenchyme, and comprises different signaling pathways such as the WNT signaling pathway...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Ursula Wiedermann, Harald H Sitte, Heinz Burgmann, Alexander Eser, Petra Falb, Heidemarie Holzmann, Maria Kitchen, Marcus Köller, Herwig Kollaritsch, Michael Kundi, Hans Lassmann, Ingomar Mutz, Winfried F Pickl, Elisabeth Riedl, Maria Sibilia, Florian Thalhammer, Barbara Tucek, Werner Zenz, Karl Zwiauer
Immunosuppression of various origins is associated with an increased risk of infection; therefore the prevention of infectious diseases by vaccination is especially important in immunocompromised patients. However, the response to vaccinations is often reduced in these risk groups and the application of live vaccines is contraindicated during immunosuppression.In the following expert statement, recommendations for vaccination were created on the basis of current evidence and theoretical/immunological considerations...
August 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Pablo Fonda-Pascual, Oscar M Moreno-Arrones, Adrian Alegre-Sanchez, David Saceda-Corralo, Diego Buendia-Castaño, Cristina Pindado-Ortega, Pablo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Kyra Velazquez-Kennedy, María I Calvo-Sánchez, Antonio Harto-Castaño, Bibiana Perez-Garcia, Lorea Bagazgoitia, Sergio Vaño-Galvan, Jesus Espada, Pedro Jaen-Olasolo
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality of photochemotherapy based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells and subsequent irradiation of the tissue with light of adequate wavelength promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell death. PDT is used in several medical specialties as an organ-specific therapy for different entities. In this review we focus on the current dermatological procedure of PDT. In the most widely used PDT protocol in dermatology, ROS production occurs by accumulation of the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX after treatment with the metabolic precursors 5-methylaminolevulinic acid (MAL) or 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)...
July 12, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Talita Stessuk, Maria Beatriz Puzzi, Elinton Adami Chaim, Paulo César Martins Alves, Erich Vinicius de Paula, Andresa Forte, Juliana Massae Izumizawa, Carolina Caliári Oliveira, Fernando Frei, João Tadeu Ribeiro-Paes
The clinical use of tissue engineering associated with cell therapy is considered a new alternative therapy for the repair of chronic lesions with potential application in different medical areas, mostly in orthopedic and dermatological diseases. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a rich source of growth factors and cytokines important for wound healing. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have shown potential to accelerate the resolution of ulcers, to stimulate cell proliferation, and to benefit the quality of skin repair...
September 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
Pan-xi Yu, Jing-long Cai
Regenerative medicine is an emerging discipline. Adipose tissue is a rich source of fat cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and autologous fat grafting has increasingly been applied in plastic surgeries and dermatological treatments. This paper reviews the latest advances in autologous fat grafting in scar revision.
April 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Antonia Reimer, Maren Fliesser, Peter H Hoeger
BACKGROUND: From 18% to 30% of infantile hemangiomas (IH) are located on the extremities (IHE). They can be divided into localized, segmental, and minimal or arrested growth (IH-MAG) subtypes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to correlate localization of IHE with the anatomy of the arterial vascular supply. METHODS: All children with segmental IHE and IH-MAG presenting to our department of pediatric dermatology from 2002 to 2015 were evaluated. Hemangiomas were mapped and their patterns were analyzed...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Shiva Alavi, Ehsan Abolhasani, Mohammadali Nilforoushzadeh
The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014...
April 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Rehan Khan, Sridevi Nair, Tullika Seth, Pravas Mishra, Manoranjan Mahapatra, Tushar Agarwal, Radhika Tandon, Murugesan Vanathi
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to report the occurrence of ocular graft versus host disease (oGVHD) in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) patients in a tertiary care hospital setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of ocular surface of allo-HSCT patients was done. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, symptom score, tear meniscus height, fluorescein tear break-up time, Schirmer's test I, ocular surface staining, dry eye severity, ocular surface disease index score were done...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Rui Xu, Mu-Yan Cai, Rong-Zhen Luo, Xin Tian, Jian-de Han, Mu-Kai Chen
IMPORTANCE: The CD133 protein has been considered a key biomarker of cancer stem cells in various cancers. However, the expression status and prognostic significance of CD133 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of cancer stem cell biomarker CD133 in cSCC tissue and its effect on clinicopathological features and outcomes in patients with cSCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue microarray to investigate the expression levels of CD133 in cSCC tissue...
March 2016: JAMA Dermatology
John P Sundberg, Soheil S Dadras, Kathleen A Silva, Victoria E Kennedy, Stephen A Murray, James M Denegre, Paul N Schofield, Lloyd E King, Michael V Wiles, C Herbert Pratt
Technology now exists for rapid screening of mutated laboratory mice to identify phenotypes associated with specific genetic mutations. Large repositories exist for spontaneous mutants and those induced by chemical mutagenesis, many of which have never been fully studied or comprehensively evaluated. To supplement these resources, a variety of techniques have been consolidated in an international effort to create mutations in all known protein coding genes in the mouse. With targeted embryonic stem cell lines now available for almost all protein coding genes and more recently CRISPR/Cas9 technology, large-scale efforts are underway to create further novel mutant mouse strains and to characterize their phenotypes...
November 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Tuba Sevimoglu, Kazim Yalcin Arga
Computational biology and 'omics' systems sciences are greatly impacting research on common diseases such as cancer. By contrast, dermatology covering an array of skin diseases with high prevalence in society, has received relatively less attention from 'omics' and computational biosciences. We are focusing on psoriasis, a common and debilitating autoimmune disease involving skin and joints. Using computational systems biology and reconstruction, topological, modular, and a novel correlational analyses (based on fold changes) of biological and transcriptional regulatory networks, we analyzed and integrated data from a total of twelve studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus (sample size = 534)...
November 2015: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Ali Khodadadi, Vahid Bayati, Sadegh Saremy, Maryam Farasat, Layasadat Khorsandi
OBJECTIVE: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are increasingly used in sunscreens, bio- sensors, food additives, pigments, manufacture of rubber products, and electronic materi- als. There are several studies about the effects of NPs on dermal fibroblast or keratino- cytes, but very little attention has been directed towards adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). A previous study has revealed that ZnO-NPs restricted the migration capability of ASCs. However, the potential toxicity of these NPs on ASCs is not well un- derstood...
2015: Cell Journal
Silje Haukali Omland, Robert Gniadecki, Merete Hædersdal, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Lars Haukali Omland
IMPORTANCE: While a high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer is well recognized in solid-organ transplant recipients, the risk of skin cancer in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of cutaneous cancer in HSCT recipients and compare it with the risk in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and individuals who have not received any transplant. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationwide population-based cohort study from the Danish National Hospital Register including 3302 patients who underwent HSCT (1007 allogeneic, 2295 autologous) from 1999 through 2014, 4789 RTRs from 1976 through 2014, and 10 age- and sex-matched nontransplanted individuals for each of the groups from the background population...
February 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Jack T Seki, Naoko Sakurai, Vishal Kukreti
Limited therapeutic options are available to amyloid patients treated with many lines of therapy. Although combination therapy using lenalidomide and dexamethasone is an effective sequential regimen for systemic amyloidosis (AL), dexamethasone is often poorly tolerated in patients with cardiac involvement. Lenalidomide as single agent has modest activity, but when used in combination with dexamethasone, careful titration is needed. Dermatological adverse reactions can be problematic to patients on lenalidomide-based therapy...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Yuya Sato, Hidemitsu Kurosawa, Setsu Sakamoto, Shigeko Kuwashima, Teisuke Hashimoto, Kentaro Okamoto, Takashi Tsuchioka, Keitaro Fukushima, Osamu Arisaka
13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) treatment is used as a second-line treatment for residual or recurrent neuroblastoma. However, determining the duration of 13-cis-RA treatment for residual and recurrent neuroblastoma can be a problem because it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.We performed 13-cis-RA treatment to remove residual active neuroblastoma cells in an 8-year-old boy with stage 4 neuroblastoma that developed from a left sympathetic ganglion and had been treated with chemotherapy, surgery, autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, and radiotherapy...
August 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
I Pastushenko, L Prieto-Torres, Y Gilaberte, C Blanpain
Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the different cell lineages of their tissue of origin. The discovery of stem cells in adult tissues, together with the description of specific markers for their isolation, has opened up new lines of investigation, expanding the horizons of biomedical research and raising new hope in the treatment of many diseases. In this article, we review in detail the main characteristics of the stem cells that produce the specialized cells of the skin (epidermal, mesenchymal, and melanocyte stem cells) and their potential implications and applications in diseases affecting the skin...
November 2015: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
R Ballester-Sánchez, M Á Navarro-Mira, B de Unamuno-Bustos, C Pujol-Marco, J Sanz-Caballer, R Botella-Estrada
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cutaneous chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Phototherapy is a therapeutic option for patients with skin involvement and for those who require high doses of corticosteroids. We analyze the cases treated in our department and review the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients with GVHD treated with phototherapy in the dermatology department of Hospital Universitario y Politécnico la Fe in Valencia, Spain between March 2011 and October 2014 were identified...
October 2015: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Isaura Araceli González-Ramos, Ana Rebeca Jaloma-Cruz
Artificial skin offers important advantages in gene therapy tor its biosafety and simple monitoring. An easy access of keratinocytes through small biopsies and their in vitro expansion enriched with epithelial stem cells, make them an ideal target for long-term therapeutic transgene expression. Corrective cutaneous gene therapy has been recently applied in clinical trials on dermatological genetic diseases. In systemic monogenic diseases such as hemophilia B, the graft of genetically modified skin in murine experimental models has achieved a modest increase of clotting factor IX in plasma that may attenuate severe symptoms of the disease...
March 2015: Gaceta Médica de México
Chitra Clive Ganta, Soumya Chatterjee, Brad Pohlman, Mehrnaz Hojjati
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is one of the main late complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity in surviving recipients. Skin is the most common involved organ in cGVHD and may mimic a wide spectrum of dermatological conditions in its clinical and histopathologic manifestations. Some of the commonly simulated diseases are scleroderma, morphea, and lichen sclerosus. Chronic GVHD simulating eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is relatively rare, frequently presenting with skin induration, a typical "peau d'orange" appearance, peripheral blood eosinophilia, myalgia, arthralgia, and arthritis leading to joint contractures in severe cases...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
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