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transcranial neuromodulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929795/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-depression-and-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#1
Yuma Yokoi, Zui Narita, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Transcranial direct current stimulation, one of the neuromodulation paradigms, is attracting interest as a novel method to treat various central nervous system disorders. It is safe, portable, and cost-effective, and has been applied experimentally for patients with various neuropsychiatric conditions. For the clinical importance and preliminary positive results, growing number of randomized controlled trials to patients with depression or schizophrenia are reported, followed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses...
September 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928634/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-mechanisms-and-protocols
#2
REVIEW
Amir V Tavakoli, Kyongsik Yun
Perception, cognition and consciousness can be modulated as a function of oscillating neural activity, while ongoing neuronal dynamics are influenced by synaptic activity and membrane potential. Consequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) may be used for neurological intervention. The advantageous features of tACS include the biphasic and sinusoidal tACS currents, the ability to entrain large neuronal populations, and subtle control over somatic effects. Through neuromodulation of phasic, neural activity, tACS is a powerful tool to investigate the neural correlates of cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928582/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-chronic-pain-a-meta-analysis
#3
Basavana Goudra, Dipal Shah, Ganesh Balu, Gowri Gouda, Alan Balu, Anuradha Borle, Preet Mohinder Singh
BACKGROUND: In this meta-analysis, we explore the role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a noninvasive neuromodulation technique in the treatment of chronic pain. METHODS: Studies comparing rTMS and conventional treatment for chronic pain were searched. The comparison was made for decrease in the pain scores with and without (sham) the use of rTMS after a follow-up interval of 4-8 weeks. All reported pain scores were converted into a common scale ranging from "0" (no pain) to "10" (worst pain)...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906341/the-neurophysiology-of-paediatric-movement-disorders
#4
Verity M McClelland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To demonstrate how neurophysiological tools have advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of paediatric movement disorders, and of neuroplasticity in the developing brain. RECENT FINDINGS: Delineation of corticospinal tract connectivity using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is being investigated as a potential biomarker for response to therapy. TMS measures of cortical excitability and neuroplasticity are also being used to investigate the effects of therapy, demonstrating neuroplastic changes that relate to functional improvements...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905370/neuromodulation-and-devices-in-trigeminal-neuralgia
#5
Kevin Weber
PREMISE: Trigeminal neuralgia is a severe facial pain disorder that has been studied for decades. Classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is either idiopathic or caused by neurovascular compression. The related painful trigeminal neuropathies are often secondary to other causes, such as multiple sclerosis or trauma. PROBLEM: Therapies for trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy have often been pharmacologic or surgical. Pharmacologic therapies are not effective in some cases and often cause side effects, some substantial...
September 14, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885757/frequency-specific-neuromodulation-of-local-and-distant-connectivity-in-aging-and-episodic-memory-function
#6
Simon W Davis, Bruce Luber, David L K Murphy, Sarah H Lisanby, Roberto Cabeza
A growing literature has focused on the brain's ability to augment processing in local regions by recruiting distant communities of neurons in response to neural decline or insult. In particular, both younger and older adult populations recruit bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a means of compensating for increasing neural effort to maintain successful cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how local changes in neural activity affect the recruitment of this adaptive mechanism. To address this problem, we combined graph theoretical measures from functional MRI with diffusion weighted imaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to resolve a central hypothesis: how do aged brains flexibly adapt to local changes in cortical activity? Specifically, we applied neuromodulation to increase or decrease local activity in a cortical region supporting successful memory encoding (left dorsolateral PFC or DLPFC) using 5 or 1 Hz rTMS, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877142/adding-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-before-occipital-nerve-stimulation-in-fibromyalgia
#7
Hye Bin Yoo, Jan Ost, Wim Joos, Tony Van Havenbergh, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia is a type of chronic musculoskeletal pain without a clear peripheral origin of nociception, often associated with depression. The underlying pathophysiology involves changes in a functional network that is related to pain and emotional processing in the central nervous system. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the occipital nerve (ON) are non-invasive neuromodulation techniques capable of improving fibromyalgia symptoms...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858781/epidermal-electrode-technology-for-detecting-ultrasonic-perturbation-of-sensory-brain-activity
#8
Stanley Huang, Jonathan A N Fisher, Meijun Ye, Yun-Soung Kim, Rui Ma, Marjan Nabili, Victor Krauthamer, Matthew R Myers, Todd P Coleman, Cristin G Welle
OBJECTIVE: We aim to demonstrate the in vivo capability of a wearable sensor technology to detect localized perturbations of sensory-evoked brain activity. METHODS: Cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were recorded in mice via wearable, flexible epidermal electrode arrays. We then utilized the sensors to explore the effects of transcranial focused ultrasound, which noninvasively induced neural perturbation. SSEPs recorded with flexible epidermal sensors were quantified and benchmarked against those recorded with invasive epidural electrodes...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855877/sex-and-electrode-configuration-in-transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#9
Michael J Russell, Theodore A Goodman, Joseph M Visse, Laurel Beckett, Naomi Saito, Bruce G Lyeth, Gregg H Recanzone
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) can be an effective non-invasive neuromodulation procedure. Unfortunately, the considerable variation in reported treatment outcomes, both within and between studies, has made the procedure unreliable for many applications. To determine if individual differences in cranium morphology and tissue conductivity can account for some of this variation, the electrical density at two cortical locations (temporal and frontal) directly under scalp electrodes was modeled using a validated MRI modeling procedure in 23 subjects (12 males and 11 females)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789857/transcranial-ultrasonic-stimulation-modulates-single-neuron-discharge-in-macaques-performing-an-antisaccade-task
#10
Nicolas Wattiez, Charlotte Constans, Thomas Deffieux, Pierre M Daye, Mickael Tanter, Jean-François Aubry, Pierre Pouget
BACKGROUND: Low intensity transcranial ultrasonic stimulation (TUS) has been demonstrated to non-invasively and transiently stimulate the nervous system. Although US neuromodulation has appeared robust in rodent studies, the effects of US in large mammals and humans have been modest at best. In addition, there is a lack of direct recordings from the stimulated neurons in response to US. Our study investigates the magnitude of the US effects on neuronal discharge in awake behaving monkeys and thus fills the void on both fronts...
July 26, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778012/polarity-specific-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-effects-on-object-selective-neural-responses-in-the-inferior-parietal-lobe
#11
Jorge Almeida, Ana R Martins, Fredrik Bergström, Lénia Amaral, Andreia Freixo, Ana Ganho-Ávila, Stephanie Kristensen, Dongha Lee, Joana Nogueira, Michaela Ruttorf
Neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are routinely used for treating neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and for enhancement of cognitive abilities. Recently, their effectiveness in modulating behavioral and neural responses has been questioned. Here we use excitatory and inhibitory tDCS prior to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to show that neural responses for an area's preferred stimuli depend on the polarity of stimulation. This is an important, yet overlooked, data point in demonstrating the effectiveness of these stimulation techniques...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777075/numerical-evaluation-of-the-skull-for-human-neuromodulation-with-transcranial-focused-ultrasound
#12
Jerel K Mueller, Leo Ai, Priya Bansal, Wynn Legon
OBJECTIVE: Transcranial focused ultrasound is an emerging field for human non-invasive neuromodulation, but its dosing in humans is difficult to know due to the skull. The objective of the present study was to establish modeling methods based on medical images to assess skull differences between individuals on the wave propagation of ultrasound. APPROACH: Computational models of transcranial focused ultrasound were constructed using CT and MR scans to solve for intracranial pressure...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769869/impact-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-functional-movement-disorders-cortical-modulation-or-a-behavioral-effect
#13
Béatrice Garcin, Francine Mesrati, Cécile Hubsch, Thomas Mauras, Iulia Iliescu, Lionel Naccache, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Bertrand Degos
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) improves functional movement disorders (FMDs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The objective was to determine whether the beneficial action of TMS in patients with FMDs is due to cortical neuromodulation or rather to a cognitive-behavioral effect. METHOD: Consecutive patients with FMDs underwent repeated low-frequency (0.25 Hz) magnetic stimulation over the cortex contralateral to the symptoms or over the spinal roots [root magnetic stimulation (RMS)] homolateral to the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756744/personalized-bilateral-whole-body-somatosensory-cortex-stimulation-to-relieve-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Andrea Cancelli, Carlo Cottone, Alessandro Giordani, Simone Migliore, Domenico Lupoi, Camillo Porcaro, Massimiliano Mirabella, Paolo Maria Rossini, Maria Maddalena Filippi, Franca Tecchio
BACKGROUND: The patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) often consider fatigue the most debilitating symptom they experience, but conventional medicine currently offers poorly efficacious therapies. OBJECTIVE: We executed a replication study of an innovative approach for relieving MS fatigue. METHODS: According to the sample size estimate, we recruited 10 fatigued MS patients who received 5-day transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a randomized, double-blind, Sham-controlled, crossover study, with modified Fatigue Impact Scale (mFIS) score reduction at the end of the treatment as primary outcome...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751226/bdnf-val66met-but-not-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-affects-motor-learning-after-stroke
#15
Rick van der Vliet, Gerard M Ribbers, Yves Vandermeeren, Maarten A Frens, Ruud W Selles
BACKGROUND: tDCS is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has been reported to improve motor skill learning after stroke. However, the contribution of tDCS to motor skill learning has only been investigated in a small number of studies. In addition, it is unclear if tDCS effects are mediated by activity-dependent BDNF release and dependent on timing of tDCS relative to training. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the role of activity-dependent BDNF release and timing of tDCS relative to training in motor skill learning...
July 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733256/prefrontal-neuromodulation-reverses-spatial-associations-of-non-numerical-sequences-but-not-numbers
#16
Philipp Alexander Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
Numerical and non-numerical sequence items interact with spatial responding, pointing towards mental representations that are grounded in space and referred to as SNARC effects (spatial-numerical association of response codes). An ongoing controversy pertains to the universal origin of different SNARC effects and whether their underpinning is a spatial arrangement of cardinal magnitude (mental number line) or a sequential arrangement of ordinal elements in working memory. Recent results from prefrontal neuromodulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were supportive of the unified working memory account...
September 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728060/clinical-neurophysiology-of-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-from-diagnostic-stimulation-to-therapeutic-neuromodulation
#17
REVIEW
Aldo Ragazzoni, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Damian Cruse, G Bryan Young, Carlo Miniussi, Simone Rossi
The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681660/strategies-for-replacing-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-sessions-recommendations-for-designing-neurostimulation-clinical-trials
#18
Aurore Thibaut, Anthony Terrence O'Brien, Felipe Fregni
Despite the potential impact of missed visits on the outcomes of neuromodulation treatments, it is not clear how this issue has been addressed in clinical trials. Given this gap in the literature, we reviewed articles on non-invasive brain stimulation in participants with depression or chronic pain, and investigated how missed visits were handled. Areas covered: We performed a search on PUBMED/MEDLINE using the keywords: 'tDCS', 'transcranial direct current stimulation', 'transcranial magnetic stimulation', 'depression', and 'pain'...
August 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680099/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-and-cognitive-training-to-improve-learning-and-cognition-of-the-atypically-developing-brain-a-pilot-study
#19
Chung Yen Looi, Jenny Lim, Francesco Sella, Simon Lolliot, Mihaela Duta, Alexander Alexandrovich Avramenko, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Learning disabilities that affect about 10% of human population are linked to atypical neurodevelopment, but predominantly treated by behavioural interventions. Behavioural interventions alone have shown little efficacy, indicating limited success in modulating neuroplasticity, especially in brains with neural atypicalities. Even in healthy adults, weeks of cognitive training alone led to inconsistent generalisable training gains, or "transfer effects" to non-trained materials. Meanwhile, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a painless and more direct neuromodulation method was shown to further promote cognitive training and transfer effects in healthy adults without harmful effects...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655149/neuromodulation-of-axon-terminals
#20
Darpan Chakraborty, Dennis Q Truong, Marom Bikson, Hanoch Kaphzan
Understanding which cellular compartments are influenced during neuromodulation underpins any rational effort to explain and optimize outcomes. Axon terminals have long been speculated to be sensitive to polarization, but experimentally informed models for CNS stimulation are lacking. We conducted simultaneous intracellular recording from the neuron soma and axon terminal (blebs) during extracellular stimulation with weak sustained (DC) uniform electric fields in mouse cortical slices. Use of weak direct current stimulation (DCS) allowed isolation and quantification of changes in axon terminal biophysics, relevant to both suprathreshold (e...
June 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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