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transcranial neuromodulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901245/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-report-on-two-cases-and-proposal-for-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#1
Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva, André Russowsky Brunoni, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Roseli Gedanke Shavitt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation techniques for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have expanded through greater understanding of the brain circuits involved in this disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique, has been studied as an alternative for treatment-resistant OCD. We describe the design of a clinical trial using tDCS for OCD and report on the outcomes from two patients with primary OCD who were resistant to cognitive-behavioral therapy and to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and who received tDCS in an open manner during the training phase for the study procedures...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897150/effect-of-microscopic-modeling-of-skin-in-electrical-and-thermal-analysis-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#2
Jose Gomez-Tames, Yukiya Sugiyama, Ilkka Laakso, Satoshi Tanaka, Soichiro Koyama, Norihiro Sadato, Akimasa Hirata
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation scheme where a small current is delivered to the brain via two electrodes attached to the scalp. The electrode design is an important topic, not only as regards efficacy, but also from a safety perspective, as tDCS may be related to skin lesions that are sometimes observed after stimulation. Previous computational models of tDCS have omitted the effects of microscopic structures in the skin, and the different soak conditions of the electrodes, and model validation has been limited...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886079/cerebellar-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-and-motor-control-training-in-individuals-with-cervical-dystonia
#3
Lynley V Bradnam, Michelle N McDonnell, Michael C Ridding
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that cervical dystonia is a neural network disorder with the cerebellum as a key node. The cerebellum may provide a target for neuromodulation as a therapeutic intervention in cervical dystonia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation of the cerebellum on dystonia symptoms, quality of life, hand motor dexterity and cortical neurophysiology using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
November 23, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790791/a-clinical-trial-with-combined-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-and-alcohol-approach-bias-retraining
#4
Tess E den Uyl, Thomas E Gladwin, Mike Rinck, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Reinout W Wiers
Two studies showed an improvement in clinical outcomes after alcohol approach bias retraining, a form of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). We investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance effects of CBM. TDCS is a neuromodulation technique that can increase neuroplasticity and has previously been found to reduce craving. One hundred alcohol-dependent inpatients (91 used for analysis) were randomized into three experimental groups in a double-blind parallel design. The experimental group received four sessions of CBM while receiving 2 mA of anodal tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
October 27, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786243/new-strategies-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-primary-headache-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Nathaniel M Schuster, Alan M Rapoport
The primary headache disorders, which include migraine, cluster headache and tension-type headache, are among the most common diseases and leading causes of disability worldwide. The available treatment options for primary headache disorders have unsatisfactory rates of efficacy, tolerability and patient adherence. In this Review, we discuss promising new approaches for the prevention of primary headache disorders, such as monoclonal antibodies targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor, and small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonists...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780991/neuromodulation-for-addiction-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-opportunities-and-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Shahid Bashir, Woo-Kyoung Yoo
The field of neuromodulation encompasses a wide spectrum of interventional technologies that modify the pathological activity within the nervous system to achieve a therapeutic effect. Therapy, including transcranial direct current stimulation, has shown promising results across a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of neuromodulation for addiction and discusses the opportunities and challenges available for clinicians and researchers interested in advancing the neuromodulation therapy...
October 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775599/corticospinal-excitability-in-children-with-congenital-hemiparesis
#7
Chao-Ying Chen, Tonya L Rich, Jessica M Cassidy, Bernadette T Gillick
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used as an assessment or intervention to evaluate or influence brain activity in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) commonly caused by perinatal stroke. This communication report analyzed data from two clinical trials using TMS to assess corticospinal excitability in children and young adults with hemiparetic CP. The results of this communication revealed a higher probability of finding a motor evoked potential (MEP) on the non-lesioned hemisphere compared to the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0...
October 20, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756567/study-design-and-methodology-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-as-a-treatment-for-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#8
Angelo Alonzo, Scott Aaronson, Marom Bikson, Mustafa Husain, Sarah Lisanby, Donel Martin, Shawn M McClintock, William M McDonald, John O'Reardon, Zeinab Esmailpoor, Colleen Loo
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a new, non-invasive neuromodulation approach for treating depression that has shown promising efficacy. The aim of this trial was to conduct the first international, multicentre randomised controlled trial of tDCS as a treatment for unipolar and bipolar depression. The study recruited 120 participants across 6 sites in the USA and Australia. Participants received active or sham tDCS (2.5mA, 20 sessions of 30min duration over 4weeks), followed by a 4-week open label active treatment phase and a 4-week taper phase...
October 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698358/in-vivo-imaging-of-magnetic-fields-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-in-human-brain-using-mri
#9
Mayank V Jog, Robert X Smith, Kay Jann, Walter Dunn, Belen Lafon, Dennis Truong, Allan Wu, Lucas Parra, Marom Bikson, Danny J J Wang
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies mA currents at the scalp to modulate cortical excitability. Here, we present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, which detects magnetic fields induced by tDCS currents. This technique is based on Ampere's law and exploits the linear relationship between direct current and induced magnetic fields. Following validation on a phantom with a known path of electric current and induced magnetic field, the proposed MRI technique was applied to a human limb (to demonstrate in-vivo feasibility using simple biological tissue) and human heads (to demonstrate feasibility in standard tDCS applications)...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676804/management-of-neuropathic-central-pain-by-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-and-mirror-therapy
#10
Yann Le Déan, Benjamin Brissebrat, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, Xavier De Boissezon, Philippe Marque
OBJECTIVE: Central neuropathic pain is common among neurological patients. Drug therapy has high pharmacoresistance and some GABAergic agents can be detrimental to the recovery process. Alternative therapies include neuromodulation techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and motor imagery techniques with mirror therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate their effectiveness in clinical practice on central neuropathic pain. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients followed in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation department of Rangueil University Hospital were included...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651067/targeted-transcranial-theta-burst-stimulation-alters-fronto-insular-network-and-prefrontal-gaba
#11
Sarina J Iwabuchi, Felix Raschke, Dorothee P Auer, Peter F Liddle, Sudheer T Lankappa, Lena Palaniyappan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used worldwide to treat depression. However, the exact physiological effects are not well understood. Pathophysiology of depression involves crucial limbic structures (e.g. insula), and it is still not clear if these structures can be modulated through neurostimulation of surface regions (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), and whether rTMS-induced excitatory/inhibitory transmission alterations relate to fronto-limbic connectivity changes...
September 17, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648877/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-after-stroke-it-is-time-for-large-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Christian Grefkes, Gereon R Fink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We here provide an update about studies published recently in the field of noninvasive neuromodulation of the motor system, aiming at facilitating recovery of function after stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of longitudinal studies have confirmed that repeated stimulation of the motor cortex in combination with motor training improves performance compared with control or sham stimulation. In the early postacute stroke phase, enhancement of ipsilesional motor cortex excitability by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) seems to be a well tolerated and effective strategy to promote motor recovery...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647553/the-role-of-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-inhibition-mechanism-a-study-on-cognitive-reflection-test-and-similar-tasks-through-neuromodulation
#13
Viola Oldrati, Jessica Patricelli, Barbara Colombo, Alessandro Antonietti
The main characteristic of the cognitive reflection test (CRT) is that it requires people to overcome a cognitive conflict. Solving this conflict requires (1) inhibitory control of prepotent but incorrect responses and (2) mental set-shifting in order to reframe the problem and reach a meaningful solution. Based on the well-known involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in inhibitory control we hypothesised that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC would modulate its contribution to problem-solving performance...
September 17, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589514/time-configuration-of-combined-neuromodulation-and-motor-training-after-stroke-a-proof-of-concept-study
#14
Elizabeth S Powell, Cheryl Carrico, Philip M Westgate, Kenneth C Chelette, Laurie Nichols, Lakshmi Reddy, Emily Salyers, Andrea Ward, Lumy Sawaki
BACKGROUND: Intensive motor training is a therapeutic intervention that supports recovery of movement function after stroke by capitalizing on the brain's capacity for neuroplastic change. Peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are neuromodulation techniques that can upregulate neuroplasticity and, in turn, enhance outcomes of motor training after stroke. Few studies have investigated possible adjuvant effects between peripheral nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and intensive motor training...
July 15, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568058/low-intensity-repetitive-magnetic-stimulation-lowers-action-potential-threshold-and-increases-spike-firing-in-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-vitro
#15
Alexander D Tang, Ivan Hong, Laura J Boddington, Andrew R Garrett, Sarah Etherington, John N J Reynolds, Jennifer Rodger
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become a popular method of modulating neural plasticity in humans. Clinically, rTMS is delivered at high intensities to modulate neuronal excitability. While the high-intensity magnetic field can be targeted to stimulate specific cortical regions, areas adjacent to the targeted area receive stimulation at a lower intensity and may contribute to the overall plasticity induced by rTMS. We have previously shown that low-intensity rTMS induces molecular and structural plasticity in vivo, but the effects on membrane properties and neural excitability have not been investigated...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567759/after-effects-of-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-the-excitability-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-motor-cortex-in-rats
#16
Ho Koo, Min Sun Kim, Sang Who Han, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitche, Yun-Hee Kim, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Sung-Hwa Ko, Yong-Il Shin
PURPOSE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly seen as a useful tool for noninvasive cortical neuromodulation. A number of studies in humans have shown that when tDCS is applied to the motor cortex it can modulate cortical excitability. It is especially interesting to note that when applied with sufficient duration and intensity, tDCS can enable long-lasting neuroplastic effects. However, the mechanism by which tDCS exerts its effects on the cortex is not fully understood...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531976/slow-frequency-pulsed-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-for-modulation-of-cortical-plasticity-based-on-reciprocity-targeting-with-precision-electrical-head-modeling
#17
Phan Luu, Easwara Moorthy Essaki Arumugam, Erik Anderson, Amanda Gunn, Dennis Rech, Sergei Turovets, Don M Tucker
In pain management as well as other clinical applications of neuromodulation, it is important to consider the timing parameters influencing activity-dependent plasticity, including pulsed versus sustained currents, as well as the spatial action of electrical currents as they polarize the complex convolutions of the cortical mantle. These factors are of course related; studying temporal factors is not possible when the spatial resolution of current delivery to the cortex is so uncertain to make it unclear whether excitability is increased or decreased with anodal vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531388/impact-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-attentional-bias-for-threat-a-proof-of-concept-study-among-individuals-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#18
Alexandre Heeren, Joël Billieux, Pierre Philippot, Rudi de Raedt, Chris Baeken, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt
Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with and maintained by attentional bias (AB) for social threat. However, over the last years, it has been suggested that AB in SAD may result from a decreased activation of the left prefrontal cortex, and particularly of its dorsolateral part (dlPFC). Accordingly, a transient increase of neural activity within the left dlPFC via non-invasive brain stimulation decreases AB in nonanxious control participants. Yet, none of these studies focused on SAD...
August 16, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524960/longitudinal-changes-in-depressive-circuitry-in-response-to-neuromodulation-therapy
#19
Yagna Pathak, Oludamilola Salami, Sylvain Baillet, Zhimin Li, Christopher R Butson
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a public health problem worldwide. There is increasing interest in using non-invasive therapies such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat MDD. However, the changes induced by rTMS on neural circuits remain poorly characterized. The present study aims to test whether the brain regions previously targeted by deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of MDD respond to rTMS, and whether functional connectivity (FC) measures can predict clinical response...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516909/neuronal-substrates-underlying-performance-variability-in-well-trained-skillful-motor-task-in-humans
#20
Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Shintaro Uehara, Satoshi Hirose, Shinji Yamamoto, Eiichi Naito
Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s) and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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