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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635989/sinonasal-tumor-pathology-what-s-new
#1
A Franchi
The sinonasal tract is an anatomical region affected by a wide variety of tumors with different clinical behavior, histologic and molecular features. Substantial advances have been made in the field of sinonasal tumor pathology in recent years, including improvement in the diagnosis, treatment and genetic characterization. In this article, a review of the histological features of new distinctive pathologic entities as well as newly described molecular alterations of these rare tumors is presented.
March 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635355/aberrant-wnt-signaling-a-special-focus-in-cns-diseases
#2
Mercedes Arnés, Sergio Casas Tintó
Wnt signals regulate cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during development, as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity in the adult brain. Abnormal Wnt signaling is central to a number of brain pathologies. We review here, the significance of this pathway focused in the contribution of the most frequent alterations in receptors, secretable modulators and downstream targets in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Glioblastoma (GBM). β-catenin and GSK3 levels are pivotal in the neurodegeneration associated to AD contributing to memory deficits, tau phosphorylation, increased β-amyloid production and modulation of Apolipoprotein E in the brain...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631996/role-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-skull-base-lesions-a-pictorial-review
#3
Neetu Soni, Nishant Gupta, Yogesh Kumar, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
Skull base lesions can be related to wide number of pathologies including infections, benign and malignant tumors. Accurate diagnosis and differentiation between these entities is important for prompt and appropriate treatment. However, computed tomography and routine magnetic resonance imaging techniques only provide information on the extent of the lesions, with limited ability to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Diffusion-weighted imaging can help in many such situations by providing additional information, including help in differentiating benign from malignant lesions, so that appropriate treatment can be initiated...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631646/primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-presenting-as-a-presacral-mass-a-rare-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#4
Pradnya S Bhadarge, Sonali S Datar, Pradeep S Umap, Alok C Shrivastava
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are a group of highly malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT) of neuroectodermal origin. They exhibit a great diversity in their clinical manifestations and pathologic similarities with other SRCTs. PNET commonly occurs in the central nervous system, head and neck region, paravertebral region, pelvis, and lower extremities. PNET presenting as a presacral mass is very rare. We present a case of 65-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy with excision of mass was carried out...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631629/poorly-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma-a-hospital-based-clinicopathological-study-and-review-of-literature
#5
Thin Thin Win, Nor Hayati Othman, Irfan Mohamad
INTRODUCTION: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is a rare aggressive malignancy of thyroid follicular cells and has unique features in morphology and behavior. This study was aimed to describe the experience of a tertiary medical center with PDTC within a 10-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive retrospective study of eight cases of PDTC among 418 various thyroid carcinomas. All cases of PDTC were retrieved along with the clinicopathological information...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631096/a-case-of-nivolumab-related-cholangitis-and-literature-review-how-to-look-for-the-right-tools-for-a-correct-diagnosis-of-this-rare-immune-related-adverse-event
#6
Francesco Gelsomino, Giovanni Vitale, Andrea Ardizzoni
Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, used for the treatment of several tumors, can trigger effector T-cells against tumor- and self-antigens, leading to the occurrence of different immune-related adverse events. Among them, liver injuries are rare and usually transient. To date, only four cases of immune-related cholangitis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have been described during nivolumab treatment. Here, we describe laboratory tests, imaging and liver biopsy features that confirm this diagnosis as opposed to other forms of autoimmune liver disease; nevertheless, we also provide evidence of the presence of different clinical-pathological patterns of immune-related cholangitis...
June 20, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630778/female-urethral-diverticulum-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Ryo Kasahara, Tadashi Tabei, Yukio Tsuura, Kazuki Kobayashi
A 48-year-old woman with a history of voiding difficulty visited our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a periurethral tumor, which was pathologically diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma via transperineal needle biopsy. Radical cystectomy and urethrectomy were performed, and the urinary tract was reconstructed using an ileal conduit. Pathological examination of a resected specimen confirmed adenocarcinoma of the urethral diverticulum. The patient received adjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy...
2017: Case Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629842/indications-for-sublobar-resection-of-clinical-stage-ia-radiologic-pure-solid-lung-adenocarcinoma
#8
Aritoshi Hattori, Takeshi Matsunaga, Kazuya Takamochi, Shiaki Oh, Kenji Suzuki
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors associated with lepidic growth in resected clinical stage IA radiologic pure-solid lung adenocarcinoma for identifying a possible sublobar resection candidate in the population. METHODS: Clinicopathologic data were reviewed for 200 surgically resected clinical stage IA pure-solid lung adenocarcinomas. Radiologic pure-solid tumor was defined as a tumor without a ground-glass opacity component, that is, a consolidation tumor ratio equal to 1...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625636/prognostic-impact-of-ttf-1-expression-in-patients-with-stage-iv-lung-adenocarcinomas
#9
Juliana B Schilsky, Ai Ni, Linda Ahn, Sutirtha Datta, William D Travis, Mark G Kris, Jamie E Chaft, Natasha Rekhtman, Matthew D Hellmann
OBJECTIVES: Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is routinely tested in the diagnostic evaluation of suspected lung cancers, is commonly expressed by lung adenocarcinomas, and may modulate lung cancer biology. We examined the role of TTF-1 as a predictive and prognostic marker in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed clinical, pathologic, and molecular features, treatments received, and overall survival obtained from the medical records of 479 consecutive patients at a single site with stage IV lung adenocarcinomas and evaluable TTF-1 expression...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625333/liver-metastases-from-gastric-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Beata Polkowska-Pruszyńska, Karol Rawicz-Pruszyński, Bogumiła Ciseł, Robert Sitarz, Grażyna Polkowska, Witold Krupski, Wojciech P Polkowski
Gastric carcinoma (GC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide but the third leading cause of cancer death, and surgery remains the only curative treatment option. Prognosis of patients with liver metastases from gastric carcinoma (LMGC) is poor, and the optimal treatment of metastatic gastric cancer remains a matter of debate. In 2002, a 53-year-old male patient with GC and synchronous oligometastatic lesion in liver VIII segment underwent a total gastrectomy combined with metastasectomy. The pathologic diagnosis was stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma (pT3N2M1), which was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin, epirubicin, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil)...
May 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625270/-progress-in-relationship-of-the-long-non-coding-rna-and-sepsis
#11
Lingling Sun, Li Li, Jing Yan
The mechanism of long chain non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is diverse. LncRNA can regulate the expression of genes at multiple levels and is closely related to some pathological process, such as tumor formation, viral replication, inflammatory damage, etc. The abnormal expression of lncRNA is involved in the patho-physiological changes of the disease, and plays a key role in many links, such as the stability of mRNA, the regulation of translation level, protein transport, RNA processing and modification, and so on...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625005/dose-dense-mvac-prior-to-radical-cystectomy-a-real-world-experience
#12
Homayoun Zargar, Jay B Shah, Elisabeth E Fransen van de Putte, Kylea R Potvin, Kamran Zargar-Shoshtari, Bas W van Rhijn, Siamak Daneshmand, Jeff M Holzbeierlein, Philippe E Spiess, Eric Winquist, Simon Horenblas, Colin Dinney, Peter C Black, Wassim Kassouf
PURPOSE: Our primary endpoint was to assess pathological response rate (pT0N0 and ≤pT1N0) for patients with BCa treated with the accelerated or dose dense MVAC (ddMVAC) chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy (RC) in this real-word multi-institutional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with urothelial cancer who underwent ddMVAC and RC at seven contributing institutions from 2000 to 2015. Patients with cT2-4a, M0 BCa were included...
June 17, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623377/collision-and-composite-tumors-radiologic-and-pathologic-correlation
#13
Calvin T Sung, Anup Shetty, Christine O Menias, Roozbeh Houshyar, Shreya Chatterjee, Thomas K Lee, Paul Tung, Mohammed Helmy, Chandana Lall
The terms composite and collision tumors have been used interchangeably throughout radiological literature. Both composite and collision tumors involve two morphologically and immunohistochemically distinct neoplasms coexisting within a single organ. However, collision tumors lack the histological cellular intermingling seen in composite tumors. Composite tumors often arise from a common driver mutation that induces a divergent histology from a common neoplastic source while collision tumors may arise from coincidental neoplastic change...
June 16, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621619/histopathological-prognostic-factors-of-recurrence-following-definitive-therapy-for-atypical-and-malignant-meningiomas
#14
Daniel Kim, Andrzej Niemierko, William L Hwang, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, William T Curry, Fred G Barker, Robert L Martuza, Kevin S Oh, Jay S Loeffler, Helen A Shih
OBJECTIVE Patients with atypical and malignant (WHO Grade II and III) meningiomas have a worse prognosis than patients with benign (WHO Grade I) meningiomas. However, there is limited understanding of the pathological risk factors that affect long-term tumor control following combined treatment with surgery and radiation therapy. Here, the authors identify clinical and histopathological risk factors for the progression and/or recurrence (P/R) of high-grade meningiomas based on the largest series of patients with atypical and malignant meningiomas, as defined by the 2007 WHO classification...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621580/vegfr-2-inhibitors-and-the-therapeutic-applications-thereof-a-patent-review-2012-2016
#15
Fan-Wei Peng, Da-Ke Liu, Qing-Wen Zhang, Yun-Gen Xu, Lei Shi
Angiogenesis is an important component of certain normal physiological processes, but aberrant angiogenesis contributes to some pathological disorders and in particular to tumor growth. Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical step in the signal transduction pathway that initiates tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis via blocking VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway has emerged as a potential approach to anticancer therapy...
June 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621297/endoscopic-ultrasound-with-or-without-fine-needle-aspiration-has-a-meaningful-impact-on-clinical-care-in-the-pediatric-population
#16
Amit Raina, Maire A Conrad, Benjamin Sahn, Alireza Sedarat, Gregory G Ginsberg, Nuzhat A Ahmad, Vinay Chandrasekhara, Petar Mamula, Michael L Kochman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The safety and utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the evaluation and management of gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders among adults has been established. The literature on safety and efficacy in a pediatric referral population (under 21 years of age) is limited. We hypothesized that EUS is safe and useful in the pediatric population. We reviewed the pediatric EUS experience at a single tertiary-care system. We describe the indications, findings, safety, technical success rate, and impact on clinical outcomes...
May 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620889/levels-of-microrna-heterogeneity-in-cancer-biology
#17
REVIEW
Nina Petrovic, Sercan Ergün, Esma R Isenovic
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, involved in the silencing of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. The importance of miRNA signatures in disease screening, prognosis, and progression of different tumor types and subtypes is increasing. miRNA expression levels change depending on numerous factors. In this review, we are describing the circumstances under which miRNA levels can change, these are named 'levels' of heterogeneity of miRNAs. miRNAs can have oncogenic, tumor suppressive, or both roles depending on tumor type and target mRNA whose translation they silence...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620444/clinical-utility-of-pretreatment-prediction-of-chemoradiotherapy-response-in-rectal-cancer-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Byong Chul Yoo, Seung-Gu Yeo
Approximately 20% of all patients with locally advanced rectal cancer experience pathologically complete responses following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and standard surgery. The utility of radical surgery for patients exhibiting good CRT responses has been challenged. Organ-sparing strategies for selected patients exhibiting complete clinical responses include local excision or no immediate surgery. The subjects of this tailored management are patients whose presenting disease corresponds to current indications of neoadjuvant CRT, and their post-CRT tumor response is assessed by clinical and radiological examinations...
March 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619493/dynamic-4d-cta-for-neuro-vascular-pathologies-a-case-series
#19
Ahmed Alnemari, Tarek R Mansour, Mohamad Bazerbashi, Mark Buehler, Jason Schroeder, Daniel Gaudin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article is to illustrate, summarize, and review the multifaceted application of four-dimensional computed tomography angiography (4D-CTA) in the characterization and diagnosis of various cerebrovascular and tumor-associated vascular pathologies through the presentation of clinical cases including acute/chronic stroke, arteriovenous malformations, aneurysm, moya-moya disease, and the hypervascularity associated with a tumor and its relationship to pre-operative embolization...
June 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619109/type-ii-crispr-cas9-approach-in-the-oncological-therapy
#20
REVIEW
A Biagioni, A Chillà, E Andreucci, A Laurenzana, F Margheri, S Peppicelli, M Del Rosso, G Fibbi
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a prokaryotic adaptable immune mechanism used by many bacteria and archaea to protect themselves from foreign nucleic acids. This complex system can recognize and cut non-self DNA in order to provide the prokaryotic organisms a strong defense against foreign viral or plasmid attacks and make the cell immune from further assaults. Today, it has been adapted to be used in vitro and in vivo in eukaryotic cells to perform a complete and highly selective gene knockout or a specific gene editing...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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