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Pierre Bertho, Adrien Pauvert, Thomas Pouderoux, Henri Robert
BACKGROUND: Osteo-chondral defects due to advanced osteochondritis of the knee eventually cause osteoarthritis. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) may hold potential for overcoming the treatment challenges raised by defects larger than 2 cm2 . The primary objective of this study was to assess medium-term functional outcomes of AMIC. The secondary objective was to confirm the absence of adverse events. HYPOTHESIS: AMIC significantly improves knee function in patients with osteochondritis responsible for osteo-chondral defects grade III or IV in the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification...
June 20, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Bogdan Conrad, Li-Hsin Han, Fan Yang
Hydrogels are attractive matrices for cell-based cartilage tissue regeneration given their injectability and ability to fill defects with irregular shapes. However, most hydrogels developed to date often lack cell scale macroporosity, which restrains the encapsulated cells, leading to delayed new extracellular matrix deposition restricted to pericellular regions. Further, tissue engineered cartilage using conventional hydrogels generally suffers from poor mechanical property and fails to restore the load-bearing property of articular cartilage...
June 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
C S Chang, C Y Yang, H Y Hsiao, L Chen, I M Chu, M H Cheng, C H Tsao
Tissue engineering has the potential to overcome the limitations of tracheal reconstruction. To tissue-engineer a tracheal cartilage, auricular chondrocytes were encapsulated in a photocurable poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG/PCL) hydrogel. Chondrogenic genes, including Sox9, Acan and Col2a1, were up-regulated in auricular chondrocytes after 2 weeks of in vitro cultivation in the PEG/PCL hydrogel. Co-cultivation of 70 % auricular chondrocytes and 30 % bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) accelerated the chondrogenic genes' expression in the PEG/PCL hydrogel...
June 21, 2018: European Cells & Materials
W E Hotham, A Malviya
This systematic review examines the current literature regarding surgical techniques for restoring articular cartilage in the hip, from the older microfracture techniques involving perforation to the subchondral bone, to adaptations of this technique using nanofractures and scaffolds. This review discusses the autologous and allograft transfer systems and the autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) technique, as well as a summary of the previously discussed techniques, which could become common practice for restoring articular cartilage, thus reducing the need for total hip arthroplasty...
May 2018: Bone & Joint Research
E Ferreira, R M Porter
Large bone defects remain a tremendous clinical challenge. There is growing evidence in support of treatment strategies that direct defect repair through an endochondral route, involving a cartilage intermediate. While culture-expanded stem/progenitor cells are being evaluated for this purpose, these cells would compete with endogenous repair cells for limited oxygen and nutrients within ischaemic defects. Alternatively, it may be possible to employ extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by culture-expanded cells for overcoming key bottlenecks to endochondral repair, such as defect vascularization, chondrogenesis, and osseous remodelling...
April 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Chih-Sheng Chiang, Jian-Yi Chen, Min-Yu Chiang, Kai-Ting Hou, Wei-Ming Li, Shwu-Jen Chang, San-Yuan Chen
Introduction: Stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes for the regeneration of articular cartilage is a promising strategy, but it is currently ineffective. Although both physical stimulation and growth factors play important roles in cartilage repair, their interplay remains unclear and requires further investigation. In this study, we aimed to clarify their contribution using a magnetic drug carrier that not only can deliver growth factors but also provide an external stimulation to cells in the two-dimensional environment...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Samih Mohamed-Ahmed, Inge Fristad, Stein Atle Lie, Salwa Suliman, Kamal Mustafa, Hallvard Vindenes, Shaza B Idris
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been introduced as an alternative to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for cell-based therapy. However, different studies comparing ASCs and BMSCs have shown conflicting results. In fact, harvesting ASCs and BMSCs from different individuals might influence the results, making comparison difficult. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize donor-matched ASCs and BMSCs in order to investigate proliferation, differentiation potential and possible effects of donor variation on these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Wei Zhang, Wenhui Chu, Qingxiu Liu, Dawn Coates, Yudong Shang, Chunyi Li
BACKGROUND: Deer antlers are the only known mammalian organ with vascularized cartilage that can completely regenerate. Antlers are of real significance as a model of mammalian stem cell-based regeneration with particular relevance to the fields of chondrogenesis, angiogenesis, and regenerative medicine. Recent research found that thymosin beta 10 (TMSB10) is highly expressed in the growth centers of growing antlers. The present study reports here the expression, functions, and molecular interactions of deer TMSB10...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Chiu-Mei Hsueh, Hung-Ming Lin, Te-Yu Tseng, Yao-De Huang, Hsuan-Shu Lee, Chen-Yuan Dong
Second order susceptibility (SOS) microscopy is used to image and characterize chondrogenesis in cultured human mesesnchymal stem cells (hMSCs). SOS analysis shows that the second order susceptibility tensor ratios can be used to characterize type I and II collagens in living tissues and that both collagen types are produce at the onset of chondrogenesis. Time-lapse analysis shows a modulation of extracellular matrix results in an higher rate in increase of type II collagen, as compared to type I collagen. With time, type II collagen content stabilizes at the composition of 70% of total collagen content...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Melika Sarem, Miriam Heizmann, Andrea Barbero, Ivan Martin, V Prasad Shastri
In adult bone injuries, periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) form bone via endochondral ossification (EO), whereas those from bone marrow (BM)/endosteum form bone primarily through intramembranous ossification (IMO). We hypothesized that this phenomenon is influenced by the proximity of MSCs residing in the BM to the trabecular bone microenvironment. Herein, we investigated the impact of the bone mineral phase on human BM-derived MSCs' choice of ossification pathway, using a biomimetic bone-like hydroxyapatite (BBHAp) interface...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hidetoshi Tsushima, Yuning J Tang, Vijitha Puviindran, Shu-Hsuan Claire Hsu, Puviindran Nadesan, Chunying Yu, Hongyuan Zhang, Anthony J Mirando, Matthew J Hilton, Benjamin A Alman
During enchondral ossification, mesenchymal cells express genes regulating the intracellular biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids. Here we investigated conditional deletion of Scap or Insig1 and Insig2 (inhibits or activates intracellular biosynthesis respectively). Mesenchymal condensation and chondrogenesis was disrupted in mice lacking Scap in mesenchymal progenitors, while mice lacking the Insig genes in mesenchymal progenitors had short limbs, but normal chondrogenesis. Mice lacking Scap in chondrocytes showed severe dwarfism, with ectopic hypertrophic cells, while deletion of Insig genes in chondrocytes caused a mild dwarfism and shorting of the hypertrophic zone...
June 13, 2018: Development
Bo Gao, Wenjie Gao, Zizhao Wu, Taifeng Zhou, Xianjian Qiu, Xudong Wang, Chengjie Lian, Yan Peng, Anjing Liang, Jincheng Qiu, Yuanxin Zhu, Caixia Xu, Yibing Li, Peiqiang Su, Dongsheng Huang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread arthritic disease and a primary cause of disability. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation has a pivotal part in its pathogenesis. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a primary mediator of local inflammatory processes in OA. Current therapies for OA mainly focus on the symptoms of the advanced stage of the disease. The possible utilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to regenerate cartilage is an appealing method, but in the case of OA requires chondrogenesis to take place within an inflamed environment...
June 14, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Tasneem Kausar, Shahid M Nayeem
GDF-5 mediated signal transduction regulating chondrogenesis and skeletogenesis involves three different type-I receptors viz. Act-RI, BMPRIA and BMPRIB. BMPRIA and BMPRIB generally shows temporal and spatial co-expression but some spatially different expression pattern has also been observed. BMPRIA receptor is the key receptor implicated in BMP signalling during osteogenesis and is expressed in osteoblasts during the course of bone formation. However, BMPRIB appears to be primarily expressed in mesenchymal pre-cartilage condensations and also found in differentiated osteoblast and chondrocytes...
May 26, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
Hye Jin Kim, Se Won Yi, Hyun Jyung Oh, Jung Sun Lee, Ji Sun Park, Keun-Hong Park
Overexpression and knockdown of specific proteins can control stem cell differentiation for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we fabricated RUNX2, SOX9, and C/EBPα plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) and ATF4-targeting shRNA (shATF4) to induce osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The pDNAs and shATF4 were complexed with TRITC-gene regulation nanoparticles (GRN). Osteogenesis-related gene expression was reduced at early (12 h) and late (36 h) time points after co-delivery of shATF4 and SOX9 or C/EBPα pDNA, respectively, and osteogenesis was inhibited in these hMSCs...
May 29, 2018: Biomaterials
Yu-Hsun Chang, Kun-Chi Wu, Hwan-Wun Liu, Tang-Yuan Chu, Dah-Ching Ding
Objective: The present study investigated the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) on joint cartilage destruction induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) in mice. Materials and Methods: HUCMSCs were tested for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics including surface markers by flow cytometry and mesoderm differentiation (adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and Western blot assay were used to evaluate MIA-induced chondrocyte apoptosis...
April 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Jennifer L Robinson, Paola Soria, Manshan Xu, Mark Vrana, Jeffrey Luchetti, Helen H Lu, Jing Chen, Sunil Wadhwa
Temporomandibular joint degenerative disease (TMJ-DD) is a chronic form of TMJ disorder that specifically afflicts people over the age of 40 and targets women at a higher rate than men. Prevalence of TMJ-DD in this population suggests that estrogen loss plays a role in the disease pathogenesis. Thus, the goal of the present study was to determine the role of estrogen on chondrogenesis and homeostasis via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) during growth and maturity of the joint. Young and mature WT and ERαKO female mice were subjected to ovariectomy procedures and then given placebo or estradiol treatment...
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liangjie Huang, Lingxian Yi, Chunli Zhang, Ying He, Liangliang Zhou, Yan Liu, Long Qian, Shuxun Hou, Tujun Weng
Cell-based therapy serves as an effective way for cartilage repair. Compared with a limited source of autologous chondrocytes, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are proposed as an attractive cell source for cartilage regeneration. How to drive chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs efficiently remains to be further investigated. TGF- β 3 has shown a strong chondrogenic action on ADSCs. Recently, fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF-18) has gained marked attention due to its anabolic effects on cartilage metabolism, but existing data regarding the role of FGF-18 on the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are conflicting...
2018: Stem Cells International
Patrícia Shigunov, Lucas Titton Balvedi, Marlon Dias Mariano Santos, Roberto H Herai, Alessandra Melo de Aguiar, Bruno Dallagiovanna
Adult stem cells are considered promising candidates for cellular therapies due to their capacity to differentiate and self-renew. Differentiation leads to changes in the metabolism, structure, and gene expression patterns of cells. Hedgehog is one of the pathways that is involved in the enhancement of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in adult stem cells, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we treated adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) with two well-characterized drugs, purmorphamine (Hedgehog pathway activator) and cyclopamine (Hedgehog pathway inhibitor), and identified mRNAs associated with polysomes in each treatment group to determine the post transcriptional genetic networks governed by the Hedgehog pathway...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Scott Detamore, Salma Mahzoon
In the field of regenerative medicine, creating a biomaterial device with the potential to alone affect cellular fate is a desirable translational strategy. Native tissues and growth factors are attractive candidates to provide desired signals in a biomaterial environment; however, these molecules can have translational challenges such as high cost, complicated regulatory pathways, and/or limitations with reproducibility. In regenerative medicine, there is a burgeoning community of investigators who seek to overcome these challenges by introducing synthetic peptides to mimic the desirable signals provided by growth factors and tissue matrices...
May 29, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Ariana Hudita, Bianca Galateanu, Sorina Dinescu, Marieta Costache, Anca Dinischiotu, Carolina Negrei, Miriana Stan, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Dragana Nikitovic, Dumitru Lupuliasa, Andra Balanescu
Objective Cetylated fatty acids are a group of naturally occurring fats of plant and/or animal origin. Cetyl myristoleate, in particular, was initially involved in osteoarthritis related research as its therapeutic administration prevented experimentally induced arthritis in Swiss Albino mice. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of Celadrin cetylated fatty acids action at the cellular level inflammation related pain relief and chondrogenesis. Design For this, we tested the effects of the cetylated fatty acids mixture from Celadrin on an in vitro scaffold-free 3-dimensional mesenchymal stem cells culture model of chondrogenesis...
May 1, 2018: Cartilage
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