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glucose metabolism and heart

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931551/metabolic-manipulation-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-assessing-the-role-of-trimetazidine
#1
Suman Jatain, Aditya Kapoor, Archana Sinha, Roopali Khanna, Sudeep Kumar, Naveen Garg, Satyendra Tewari, Pravin Goel
OBJECTIVES: To study the role of metabolic modulator (trimetazidine: TMZ) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Optimizing altered substrate metabolism in heart failure (HF) with metabolic modulators allows more efficacious energy production from glucose than from free fatty acids. METHODS: 100 patients of DCM (47.7 years, NYHA class 2.17, LVEF 27.3%) were randomized to TMZ (20mg tid, n=50) vs conventional therapy (n=50). Functional status, BNP and various echocardiographic parameters were assessed at 3-6 months...
November 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931032/fatty-acid-oxidation-and-its-relation-with-insulin-resistance-and-associated-disorders
#2
Gary D Lopaschuk
Alterations in muscle fatty acid metabolism have been implicated in mediating the severity of insulin resistance. In the insulin resistant heart fatty acids are favored as an energy source over glucose, which is thus associated with increased fatty acid oxidation, and an overall decrease in glycolysis and glucose oxidation. In addition, excessive uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids in obesity and diabetes can compromise cardiac function. In animal studies, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) show cardiac insulin resistance in which the accumulation of intra-myocardial diacylglycerol has been implicated, likely involving parallel signaling pathways...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915162/high-fat-diet-induces-metabolic-changes-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-female-mouse-hearts
#3
Ignasi Barba, Elisabet Miró-Casas, José L Torrecilla, Eulàlia Pladevall, Sergi Tejedor, Rubén Sebastián-Pérez, Marisol Ruiz-Meana, José R Berrendero, Antonio Cuevas, David García-Dorado
After an acute myocardial infarction, obese patients generally have a better prognosis than their leaner counterparts, known as the "obesity paradox". In addition, female sex is associated with a lower risk of cardiac ischemic events and smaller infarct size compared to males. The objective of the present work was to study the metabolic phenotype and mitochondrial function associated to female sex and short-term high-fat diet. (1)H NMR spectra of mice heart extracts were analysed by mRMR variable selection and linear discriminant analysis was used to evaluate metabolic changes...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906549/anti-inflammatory-and-ros-suppressive-effects-of-the-addition-of-fiber-to-a-high-fat-high-calorie-meal
#4
Husam Ghanim, Manav Batra, Sanaa Abuaysheh, Kelly Green, Antoine Makdissi, Nitesh Kuhadiya, Ajay Chaudhuri, Paresh Dandona
BACKGROUND: Fiber intake is associated with a reduction in the occurrence of cardiovascular events and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the addition of fiber to a high fat-high Calorie (HFHC) meal prevents pro-inflammatory changes induced by HFHC meal. DESIGN: Ten fasting normal subjects consumed HFHC meal with or without an additional 30g of insoluble dietary fiber on 2 separate visits. Blood samples were collected over 5hr and mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904925/breaking-sitting-with-light-activities-vs-structured-exercise-a-randomised-crossover-study-demonstrating-benefits-for-glycaemic-control-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-type-2-diabetes
#5
Bernard M F M Duvivier, Nicolaas C Schaper, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Linh van Kan, Nathalie Stienen, Bjorn Winkens, Annemarie Koster, Hans H C M Savelberg
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to examine the effects of breaking sitting with standing and light-intensity walking vs an energy-matched bout of structured exercise on 24 h glucose levels and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a randomised crossover study, 19 patients with type 2 diabetes (13 men/6 women, 63 ± 9 years old) who were not using insulin each followed three regimens under free-living conditions, each lasting 4 days: (1) Sitting: 4415 steps/day with 14 h sitting/day; (2) Exercise: 4823 steps/day with 1...
December 1, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899891/cardiac-stat3-deficiency-impairs-contractility-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-hypertension
#6
Raffaele Altara, Romain Harmancey, Sean P Didion, George W Booz, Fouad A Zouein
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protects the heart from acute ischemic stress. However, the importance of STAT3 to the heart in chronic stress, such as hypertension, is not known. To study this, we used cardiomyocyte-targeted STAT3 knockout (KO) mice and Angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion by osmotic minipumps. After 4 weeks, ANG II induced similar cardiac hypertrophy in wild type (WT) and cardiac Cre-expressing control (CTRL) mice with no impairment of cardiac function. In contrast, STAT3 KO mice exhibited reduced contractile function but similar hypertrophy to CTRL mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898293/metabolic-syndrome-among-adults-in-china-the-2010-china-noncommunicable-disease-surveillance
#7
Jieli Lu, Limin Wang, Mian Li, Yu Xu, Yong Jiang, Weiqing Wang, Jianhong Li, Shengquan Mi, Mei Zhang, Yichong Li, Tiange Wang, Min Xu, Zhiyun Zhao, Meng Dai, Shenghan Lai, Wenhua Zhao, Linhong Wang, Yufang Bi, Guang Ning
CONTEXT: In China, data on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome have been rare recently. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in 2010. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study covered all 31 provinces of mainland China and consisted of a nationally representative population sample of 98,658 Chinese adults aged ≥ 18 years. Of these, 97,098 participants were eligible for the data analysis reported here...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894250/pathological-interactions-between-the-endothelin-1-and-the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-among-tunisian-coronary-patients
#8
Abdelkader Chalghoum, Yosri Noichri, Azza Dandana, Bruno Baudin, Abdelhédi Miled, Salima Ferchichi
BACKGROUND: The correct understanding of the biochemical and metabolic interactions between coronary risk factors contribute to the exploration of cardiovascular pathophysiology and improves therapeutic care. The aim of this study was to explore the endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity among Tunisian patients with coronary heart disease, and to investigate the metabolic relationships between these two markers,… and to assess the possible relationship between them and the different risk factors...
November 29, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886623/liver-bcatm-transgenic-mouse-model-reveals-the-important-role-of-the-liver-in-maintaining-bcaa-homeostasis
#9
Elitsa A Ananieva, Cynthia G Van Horn, Meghan R Jones, Susan M Hutson
Unlike other amino acids, the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) largely bypass first-pass liver degradation due to a lack of hepatocyte expression of the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm). This sets up interorgan shuttling of BCAAs and liver-skeletal muscle cooperation in BCAA catabolism. To explore whether complete liver catabolism of BCAAs may impact BCAA shuttling in peripheral tissues, the BCATm gene was stably introduced into mouse liver. Two transgenic mouse lines with low and high hepatocyte expression of the BCATm transgene (LivTg-LE and LivTg-HE) were created and used to measure liver and plasma amino acid concentrations and determine whether the first two BCAA enzymatic steps in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney were impacted...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881388/hyperglycemia-induces-defective-ca2-homeostasis-in-cardiomyocytes
#10
Andrea Sorrentino, Giulia Borghetti, Yu Zhou, Antonio Cannata, Marianna Meo, Sergio Signore, Piero Anversa, Annarosa Leri, Polina Goichberg, Khaled Qanud, Jason T Jacobson, Thomas H Hintze, Marcello Rota
Diabetes and other metabolic conditions characterized by elevated blood glucose constitute important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia targets myocardial cells rendering ineffective mechanical properties of the heart, but cellular alterations dictating the progressive deterioration of cardiac function with metabolic disorders remain to be clarified. In the current study, we examined the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac function and myocyte physiology by employing mice with high blood glucose induced by administration of streptozotocin, a compound toxic to insulin-producing β-cells...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879401/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-the-case-for-a-role-of-fructose-in-disease-etiology
#11
Lea M D Delbridge, Vicky L Benson, Rebecca H Ritchie, Kimberley M Mellor
A link between excess dietary sugar and cardiac disease is clearly evident and has been largely attributed to systemic metabolic dysregulation. Now a new paradigm is emerging, and a compelling case can be made that fructose-associated heart injury may be attributed to the direct actions of fructose on cardiomyocytes. Plasma and cardiac fructose levels are elevated in patients with diabetes, and evidence suggests that some unique properties of fructose (vs. glucose) have specific cardiomyocyte consequences. Investigations to date have demonstrated that cardiomyocytes have the capacity to transport and utilize fructose and express all of the necessary proteins for fructose metabolism...
December 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875257/nicotinic-acid-timed-to-feeding-reverses-tissue-lipid-accumulation-and-improves-glucose-control-in-obese-zucker-rats
#12
Tobias Kroon, Tania Baccega, Arne Olsén, Johan Gabrielsson, Nicholas D Oakes
Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of lipolysis, acutely reducing plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. However, a major FFA rebound is seen during rapid NiAc washout and sustained exposure is associated with tolerance development, with FFA returning to pretreatment levels. Our aim was to find a rational NiAc dosing regimen which preserves FFA lowering, sufficient to reverse non-adipose tissue lipid accumulation and improve metabolic control, in obese Zucker rats. We compared feeding-period vs...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871290/heterozygous-connexin-50-mutation-affects-metabolic-syndrome-attributes-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#13
Ondřej Šeda, Drahomíra Křenová, Olena Oliyarnyk, Lucie Šedová, Michaela Krupková, František Liška, Blanka Chylíková, Ludmila Kazdová, Vladimír Křen
BACKGROUND: Several members of connexin family of transmembrane proteins were previously implicated in distinct metabolic conditions. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of complete and heterozygous form of connexin50 gene (Gja8) mutation L7Q on metabolic profile and oxidative stress parameters in spontaneously hypertensive inbred rat strain (SHR). METHODS: Adult, standard chow-fed male rats of SHR, heterozygous SHR-Dca+/- and SHR-Dca-/- coisogenic strains were used...
November 21, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864793/serum-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-is-increased-in-patients-with-psoriasis
#14
A Baran, M Świderska, Joanna Bacharewicz-Szczerbicka, H Myśliwiec, I Flisiak
Psoriasis is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) have been recognized as predictors of these systemic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess correlations between levels of serum heart and adipocyte fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP3, FABP4) and disease severity, indicators of inflammation or metabolic disturbances, and topical treatment in psoriatic patients. Thirty-seven patients with relapse of plaque-type psoriasis and 16 healthy volunteers were recruited...
November 18, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863203/safflower-catharmus-tinctorius-l-oil-supplementation-in-overnourished-rats-during-early-neonatal-development-effects-on-heart-and-liver-function-in-the-adult
#15
Laís Ribeiro Costa, Patrícia Cavalcanti Macêdo, Janatar Stella Vasconcelos de Melo, Cristiane Moura Freitas, Aiany Simoes Alves, Humberto de Moura Barbosa, Eduardo Lira, Mariana Pinheiro Fernandes, Manuella Batista-de-Oliveira-Hornsby, Claudia Lagranha
Carthamus tinctorius L. (common name: safflower) is an herb whose extracted oil (safflower oil) has been employed in both alternative and conventional medicine in the treatment of disease. Overnutrition during early postnatal life can increase the lifetime risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate the effect of safflower oil supplementation given during a critical early developmental stage on the eventual occurrence of metabolic disease in overnourished rats. Groups of overnourished or adequately nourished rats were randomly assigned into 2 additional groups for supplementation with either safflower oil (SF) or vehicle for 7 to 30 days...
December 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861911/metabolism-of-ketone-bodies-during-exercise-and-training-physiological-basis-for-exogenous-supplementation
#16
Mark Evans, Karl E Cogan, Brendan Egan
Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focussed on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone, and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861744/omega-3-production-by-fermentation-of-yarrowia-lipolytica-from-fed-batch-to-continuous
#17
Dongming Xie, Edward Miller, Pamela Sharpe, Ethel Jackson, Quinn Zhu
The omega-3 fatty acid, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) has wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, and mental health. A sustainable source of EPA production through fermentation of metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica has been developed. In this paper, key fed-batch fermentation conditions were identified to achieve 25% EPA in the yeast biomass, which is so far the highest EPA titer reported in the literature. Dynamic models of the EPA fermentation process were established for analyzing, optimizing, and scaling up the fermentation process...
November 14, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845231/streptozotocin-diabetes-increases-mrna-expression-of-ketogenic-enzymes-in-the-rat-heart
#18
George A Cook, Eduard N Lavrentyev, Kevin Pham, Edwards A Park
BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiomyopathy develops in insulin-dependent diabetic patients who have no hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy or vascular disease. Diabetes increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation, but cardiac hypertrophy limits fatty acid oxidation. Here we examined effects of diabetes on gene expression in rat hearts. METHODS: We used oligonucleotide microarrays to examine effects of insulindependent diabetes in the rat heart. RTQ PCR confirmed results of microarrays...
November 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837286/is-there-evidence-of-potential-overtreatment-of-glycaemia-in-elderly-people-with-type-2-diabetes-data-from-the-guidance-study
#19
Nicolle Müller, Kamlesh Khunti, Oliver Kuss, Ulf Lindblad, John J Nolan, Guy Ehm Rutten, Marina Trento, Massimo Porta, Johannes Roth, Guillaume Charpentier, Viktor Jörgens, Ulrich A Müller
AIMS: We used data from the GUIDANCE Study to determine the care of people with type 2 diabetes according to age and accompanying cardiovascular diseases and to assess indicators of overtreatment of glycaemia. METHODS: The GUIDANCE study was a retrospective, cross-sectional study from 2009-2010 based on the records of 7597 people in France, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, UK, Ireland and Germany. We analysed the level of metabolic control achieved and blood glucose-lowering medication used in different age groups and in relation to accompanying diseases...
November 11, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829582/postprandial-hyperlipidemia-and-remnant-lipoproteins
#20
Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita
Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
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