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glucose metabolism and heart

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772707/pimt-ncoa6ip-deletion-in-the-mouse-heart-causes-delayed-cardiomyopathy-attributable-to-perturbation-in-energy-metabolism
#2
Yuzhi Jia, Ning Liu, Navin Viswakarma, Ruya Sun, Mathew J Schipma, Meng Shang, Edward B Thorp, Yashpal S Kanwar, Bayar Thimmapaya, Janardan K Reddy
PIMT/NCOA6IP, a transcriptional coactivator PRIP/NCOA6 binding protein, enhances nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. Germline disruption of PIMT results in early embryonic lethality due to impairment of development around blastocyst and uterine implantation stages. We now generated mice with Cre-mediated cardiac-specific deletion of PIMT (csPIMT-/- ) in adult mice. These mice manifest enlargement of heart, with nearly 100% mortality by 7.5 months of age due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Significant reductions in the expression of genes (i) pertaining to mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I to IV; (ii) calcium cycling cardiac muscle contraction ( Atp2a1 , Atp2a2 , Ryr2 ); and (iii) nuclear receptor PPAR- regulated genes involved in glucose and fatty acid energy metabolism were found in csPIMT-/- mouse heart...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769417/lactate-in-cardiogenic-shock-current-understanding-and-clinical-implications
#3
G M Kubiak, A R Tomasik, K Bartus, R Olszanecki, P Ceranowicz
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an essential substrate metabolite in human beings. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation provides > 95% of ATP with the remainder derived from glycolysis or tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). In normal hearts, acetyl-CoA is synthesized from the β-oxidation of free fatty acids (FFA) and the oxidation of pyruvate. Pyruvate is synthesized from glycolysis and can be submitted either for decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA or for dehydrogenation to lactate. Moreover, pyruvate, as well as lactate, plays a key role in aerobic glucose metabolism which is highly dependent on ubiquitous regulatory mechanisms...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753426/-sardine-purified-proteins-improve-blood-pressure-glycemic-control-anti-atherogenic-metabolic-pathways-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-obese-rats
#4
F Affane, F Bensalah, N I Harrat, H Chekkal, S Louala, M Y Lamri-Senhadji
AIM OF THE STUDY: The effects of sardine by-products (SBy-P) and fillet proteins (SF-P) were compared to casein (Cas) ; these effects were assessed on blood pressure, glycemic control, reverse cholesterol transport, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity in obese rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats were subjected for three months, to a high-fat diet. The obese rats were divided into three groups and consumed the same high-fat diet for 28 days after addition of either, 20% SBy-P, SF-P or Cas...
May 9, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751292/dietary-protein-dilution-limits-dyslipidemia-in-obesity-through-fgf21-driven-fatty-acid-clearance
#5
Adriano Maida, Annika Zota, Alexandros Vegiopoulos, Sila Appak-Baskoy, Hellmut G Augustin, Mathias Heikenwalder, Stephan Herzig, Adam J Rose
Recent studies have demonstrated that dietary protein dilution (PD) can promote metabolic inefficiency and improve glucose metabolism. However, whether PD can promote other aspects of metabolic health, such as improve systemic lipid metabolism, and mechanisms therein remains unknown. Mouse models of obesity, such as high-fat-diet-fed C57Bl/6 N mice, and New Zealand Obese mice were fed normal (i.e., 20%P) and protein-dilute (i.e., 5%EP) diets. FGF21-/- and Cd36-/- and corresponding littermate +/+ controls were also studied to examine gene-diet interactions...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748368/cardiovascular-effects-of-new-oral-glucose-lowering-agents-dpp-4-and-sglt-2-inhibitors
#6
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major challenge in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucose-lowering agents that reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events would be considered a major advance, as recently reported with liraglutide and semaglutide, 2 glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and with empagliflozin and canagliflozin, 2 SGLT-2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2) inhibitors, but not with DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors. The present review is devoted to CV effects of new oral glucose-lowering agents...
May 11, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747616/association-of-retinol-binding-protein-4-and-transthyretin-with-triglyceride-levels-and-insulin-resistance-in-rural-thais-with-high-type-2-diabetes-risk
#7
Karunee Kwanbunjan, Pornpimol Panprathip, Chanchira Phosat, Noppanath Chumpathat, Naruemon Wechjakwen, Somchai Puduang, Ratchada Auyyuenyong, Ina Henkel, Florian J Schweigert
BACKGROUND: Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), a protein secreted by adipocytes and bound in plasma to transthyretin (TTR), has been associated with obesity, the early phase of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between RBP4, TTR, triglyceride (TG) and type 2 diabetes risk in rural Thailand. METHODS: We measured the serum RBP4, TTR, glucose, triglyceride and insulin levels, and glucose tolerance of 167 volunteers from Sung Noen District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand...
May 10, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747346/-phenotype-and-mechanism-of-inducible-ppp2r1a-knockout-mouse-model
#8
J L Fan, F P Wang, S Wang, X L Liu, X N Wu, W Chen, L P Chen, W X Li
Objective: Investigate the effects of inducible ppp2r1a knockout on main physiological function in adult mice and study the mechanism. Methods: Ppp2r1a(flox/flox) mice and CAGG-CreER mice were hybridized to obtain 20 CAGG-CreER ppp2r1a(flox/flox) and 20 mice in homozygous group. Two groups of mice were divided into 4 groups respectively, finally we got 8 groups with 5 mice in each group. Tamoxifen was injected intraperitoneally to acquire inducible ppp2r1a knockout mice. The knockout efficiency of PP2A Aα in vital organs was measured by Western blot...
May 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743827/the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-performance-biochemical-and-psychophysiological-variables-during-a-cycling-time-trial-a-crossover-randomized-trial
#9
Amanda M J Ferreira, Luiz F Farias-Junior, Thaynan A A Mota, Hassan M Elsangedy, Aline Marcadenti, Telma M A M Lemos, Alexandre H Okano, Ana P T Fayh
Background: The hypothesis of the central effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) on performance improvement in a fed state has not been established, and its psychophysiological responses have not yet been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CMR in athletes fed state on performance, biochemical and psychophysiological responses compared to ad libitum water intake. Methods: Eleven trained male cyclists completed a randomized, crossover trial, which consisted of a 30 km cycle ergometer at self-selected intensity and in a fed state...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740976/high-prevalence-of-diabetes-before-and-after-lung-transplantation-target-for-improving-outcome
#10
Monika Fazekas-Lavu, Michael Reyes, Monique Malouf, Marshall Plit, Adrian Havryk, Lesley V Campbell, Jacqueline R Center, Allan R Glanville, Jerry R Greenfield
BACKGROUND: Diabetes increases morbidity and mortality of lung transplantation. However, the reported prevalence of diabetes varies post-transplantation partly due to lack of detection protocols. AIMS: We determined the prevalence of diabetes in patients (i) waitlisted for lung transplant and (ii) early post-transplantation. METHODS: We analyzed patients on the St Vincent's Heart Lung database from 1/4/14 to 30/9/15 on the waitlist (Study 1) and those transplanted (Study 2)...
May 9, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739849/a-novel-inhibitor-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-stimulates-myocardial-carbohydrate-oxidation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Cheng-Yang Wu, Santhosh Satapati, Wenjun Gui, Richard M Wynn, Gaurav Sharma, Mingliang Lou, Xiangbing Qi, Shawn C Burgess, Craig Malloy, Chalermchai Khemtong, A Dean Sherry, David Chuang, Matthew E Merritt
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a key control point of energy metabolism and is subject to regulation by multiple mechanisms, including post-translational phosphorylation by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Pharmacological modulation of PDC activity could provide a new treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy, as dysregulated substrate selection is concomitant with decreased heart function. Dichloroacetate (DCA), a classic PDK inhibitor, has been used to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy, but the lack of specificity and side effects of DCA indicate a more specific inhibitor of PDK is needed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735306/renoprotective-effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors
#12
REVIEW
Hiddo J L Heerspink, Mikhail Kosiborod, Silvio E Inzucchi, David Z I Cherney
Over the past two years, our understanding of anti-hyperglycemic medications used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has fundamentally changed. Before the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, agents used to lower blood glucose were felt to prevent or delay the development of microvascular complications, but were not known to definitively reduce cardiovascular risk or mortality. Previous studies with then novel sodium-glucose cotransport-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors demonstrated improvements in several cardiovascular and renal risk factors, including HbA1c, blood pressure, weight, renal hyperfiltration, and albuminuria...
May 5, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734946/positively-increased-visceral-adiposity-index-in-hyperuricemia-free-of-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Dongfeng Gu, Yanan Ding, Yunfeng Zhao, Shuzhai Miao, Qingshan Qu
BACKGROUND: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) was closely associated with metabolic syndrome, however almost no research focused on VAI and hyperuricemia, therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship of VAI and hyperuricemia free of metabolic syndrome and estimate the power of VAI as predictor for hyperuricemia. METHODS: A cross-sectional research coming from a health check-up program was conducted. All participants were divided into four groups according to VAI quartiles...
May 7, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733496/children-s-stress-related-reports-and-stress-biomarkers-interact-in-their-association-with-metabolic-syndrome-risk
#15
Nathalie Michels, Dante Matthys, Barbara Thumann, Staffan Marild, Stefaan De Henauw
The purpose was to examine the cross-sectional associations of stress-related reports and stress biomarkers with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in children while also testing the interaction between stress biomarkers and stress reports. In 353 children (5-10 years old, 7.9% overweight/obese), MetS risk was measured by blood pressure, waist circumference, glucose homeostasis, triglycerides, and high-density cholesterol. Stress was measured by stress-related reports (events, emotions, and internalizing/externalizing problems) and two biomarkers: salivary cortisol (total-day and morning output) and heart rate variability (percentage of consecutive normal RR intervals differing more than 50 ms and low-to-high-frequency ratio)...
May 7, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732375/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-and-its-signaling
#16
Nathaniel Lal, Karanjit Puri, Brian Rodrigues
In diabetes, compromised glucose utilization leads the heart to use FA almost exclusively for ATP generation. Chronically, this adaptation unfortunately leads to the conversion of FA to potentially toxic FA metabolites. Paired with increased formation of reactive oxygen species related to excessive mitochondrial oxidation of FA, can provoke cardiac cell death. To protect against this cell demise, intrinsic mechanisms must be available to the heart. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB) may be one growth factor that plays an important role in protecting against heart failure...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728017/-ginseng-prescription-rules-and-molecular-mechanism-in-treating-coronary-heart-disease-based-on-data-mining-and-integrative-pharmacology
#17
Sen Li, Shi-Huan Tang, Jin-Ling Liu, Jin Su, Fu-Yuan He
The ancient dragon Materia Medica, Compendium of Materia Medica and other works recorded that the main effect of ginseng is tonifying qi. It is reported that the main active ingredient of ginseng is ginsenoside. Modern studies have found that ginseng mono saponins are effective for cardiovascular related diseases. This paper preliminary clarified the efficacy of traditional ginseng-nourishing qi and cardiovascular disease through the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary platform and integration platform of association of pharmacology...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717270/biological-and-psychological-mediators-of-the-relationships-between-fat-mass-fat-free-mass-and-energy-intake
#18
Mark Hopkins, Graham Finlayson, Cristiana Duarte, Catherine Gibbons, Alexandra M Johnstone, Stephen Whybrow, Graham W Horgan, John E Blundell, R James Stubbs
BACKGROUND: While recent studies in humans indicate that fat-free mass (FFM) is closely associated with energy intake (EI) when in energy balance, associations between fat mass (FM) and EI are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the indirect and direct effects of FFM, FM and resting metabolic rate (RMR) on EI in individuals at or close to energy balance. METHODS: Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715632/acute-waterborne-cadmium-toxicity-in-the-estuarine-pulmonate-mud-snail-amphibola-crenata
#19
Nuwan A L De Silva, Islay D Marsden, Sally Gaw, Chris N Glover
Freshwater pulmonate snails are sensitive to trace metals, but to date, the sensitivity of estuarine pulmonate snails to these important environmental toxicants is undescribed. Using the estuarine mud snail Amphibola crenata, effects of a 48-h exposure to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated. The 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50 ) was 50.4 mg L-1 , a value higher than that previously reported for any gastropod mollusc. Cadmium levels in the tissues of mud snails were highest in the viscera (digestive gland and gonad), with the foot muscle and remaining tissue compartment (kidney, mantle, remaining digestive tissues and heart) displaying significantly lower concentrations...
April 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710660/acute-intraperitoneal-administration-of-taurine-decreases-the-glycemia-and-reduces-food-intake-in-type-1-diabetic-rats
#20
Rosane Gomez, Greice Caletti, Bruno Dutra Arbo, Ana Lúcia Hoefel, Ricardo Schneider, Alana Witt Hansen, Rianne Remus Pulcinelli, Luana Freese, Solange Bandiera, Luiz Carlos Kucharski, Helena Maria Tanhauser Barros
Taurine, an amino acid with antioxidant and osmoregulatory properties, has been studied for its possible antidiabetic properties in type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals. In type 2 diabetic mice, taurine decreases blood glucose through increased insulin secretion and insulin receptor sensitization. However, insulin is absent in type 1 diabetic individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine on parameters related to the energy balance that could explain the metabolic action of this amino acid in type 1 diabetic rats...
April 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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