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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937442/orally-active-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-analogs
#1
William B Campbell, John D Imig, James M Schmitz, John R Falck
Biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases of endothelial, myocardial, and renal tubular cells. EETs relax vascular smooth muscle and decrease inflammatory cell adhesion and cytokine release. Renal EETs promote sodium excretion and vasodilation to decrease hypertension. Cardiac EETs reduce infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion injury and decrease fibrosis and inflammation in heart failure. In diabetes, EETs improve insulin sensitivity, increase glucose tolerance, and reduce the renal injury...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934276/enhanced-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-activity-improves-cardiac-outcomes-in-a-murine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#2
Lin Piao, Yong-Hu Fang, Manfred M Kubler, Michael W Donnino, Willard W Sharp
RATIONALE: Post-ischemic changes in cellular metabolism alter myocardial and neurological function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the limiting step in mitochondrial glucose oxidation, is inhibited by increased expression of PDH kinase (PDK) during ischemia/reperfusion injury. This results in decreased utilization of glucose to generate cellular ATP. Post-cardiac arrest (CA) hypothermia improves outcomes and alters metabolism, but its influence on PDH and PDK activity following CA are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932489/the-impact-of-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-on-routine-laboratory-parameters
#3
András Mihály Boros, Péter Perge, Klaudia Vivien Nagy, Astrid Apor, Zsolt Bagyura, Endre Zima, Levente Molnár, Tamás Tahin, Dávid Becker, László Gellér, Béla Merkely, Gábor Széplaki
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in chronic heart failure has been shown to improve mortality and morbidity. However, comprehensive data are not available as concerns how circulating biomarkers reflecting different organ functions, such as serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin, cholesterol, or various liver enzymes, change over time as a consequence of CRT. The aim of this prospective study was to overview these possible changes. METHODS: A total of 20 routine laboratory parameters were measured in 122 control subjects and in 129 patients with chronic heart failure before CRT, 6 months, and 2 years later...
March 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928113/pdk4-inhibits-cardiac-pyruvate-oxidation-in-late-pregnancy
#4
Laura Liu, Glenn C Rowe, Steven Yang, Jian Li, Federico Damilano, Mun Chun Chan, Wenyun Lu, Cholsoon Jang, Shogo Wada, Michael Morley, Michael Hesse, Bernd K Fleischmann, Joshua Rabinowitz, Saumya Das, Anthony Rosenzweig, Zoltan Arany
Rationale: Pregnancy profoundly alters maternal physiology. The heart hypertrophies during pregnancy, but its metabolic adaptations are not well understood. Objective: To determine the mechanisms underlying cardiac substrate use during pregnancy. Methods and Results: We use here (13)C-glucose, (13)C-lactate, and (13)C-fatty acid tracing analyses to show that hearts in late pregnant mice increase fatty acid uptake and oxidation into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, while reducing glucose and lactate oxidation...
September 19, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927226/female-clock%C3%AE-19-%C3%AE-19-mice-are-protected-from-the-development-of-age-dependent-cardiomyopathy
#5
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923651/high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-for-the-metabolic-assessment-of-acute-rejection-after-cardiac-transplantation-in-rats
#6
C W Lee, J S Lee, C W Woo, S Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for metabolite characterization and the differentiation of acute rejection after heart transplantation in rat models. METHODS: We transplanted syngeneic heart grafts from Lewis rats (n = 4) and allogeneic heart grafts from F344 rats (n = 4) heterotopically into Lewis recipients. On day 7 postoperatively, the transplanted hearts were harvested for ex vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy and HR-MAS (1)H NMR spectroscopy...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921743/exercise-training-dose-differentially-alters-muscle-and-heart-capillary-density-and-metabolic-functions-in-an-obese-rat-with-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Marcus Vinicius Machado, Aline Bomfim Vieira, Fabiana Gomes da Conceição, Alessandro Rodrigues Nascimento, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Eduardo Tibirica
We evaluated the effect of frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome (MS). Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a either standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or 8 different exercise groups that varied by the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, body composition, aerobic capacity, hemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated...
September 17, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920721/-changes-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-after-kidney-transplantation-and-their-effects-on-cardiovascular-risk
#8
Bernadett Borda, Edit Szederkényi, Zoltán Hódi, Aurél Ottlakán, Viktor Szabó, György Lázár
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of deaths after transplantation, with diabetes mellitus being the main risk factor in development. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of new onset diabetes mellitus in connection with the cardiovascular risk predicted by the HEART Score. METHOD: 44 patients were involved in our study; after overview of baseline data, OGTT was performed, followed by patient classification into the following groups: normal, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and new onset diabetes mellitus...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919580/concomitant-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-add-to-the-atrial-arrhythmogenic-phenotype-in-male-hypertensive-rats
#9
Mathias Hohl, Dennis H Lau, Andreas Müller, Adrian D Elliott, Benedikt Linz, Rajiv Mahajan, Jeroen M L Hendriks, Michael Böhm, Ulrich Schotten, Prashanthan Sanders, Dominik Linz
BACKGROUND: Besides hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have recently emerged as risk factors for atrial fibrillation. This study sought to delineate the development of an arrhythmogenic substrate for atrial fibrillation in hypertension with and without concomitant obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared obese spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-obese, n=7-10) with lean hypertensive controls (SHR-lean, n=7-10) and normotensive rats (n=7-10)...
September 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912917/the-low-dose-7-5-mg-day-pioglitazone-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Hidekatsu Yanai, Hiroki Adachi
Pioglitazone is one of thiazolidinedione derivatives, which stimulates nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and improves glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis showed that pioglitazone therapy was associated with a lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes. Further, in a cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes, pioglitazone therapy was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of all-cause mortality...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912726/cardiovascular-and-muscular-consequences-of-work-matched-interval-type-of-concentric-and-eccentric-pedaling-exercise-on-a-soft-robot
#11
Martin Flück, Rebekka Bosshard, Max Lungarella
Eccentric types of endurance exercise are an acknowledged alternative to conventional concentric types of exercise rehabilitation for the cardiac patient, because they reduce cardiorespiratory strain due to a lower metabolic cost of producing an equivalent mechanical output. The former contention has not been tested in a power- and work-matched situation of interval-type exercise under identical conditions because concentric and eccentric types of exercise pose specific demands on the exercise machinery, which are not fulfilled in current practice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911834/how-swimming-affects-plasma-insulin-and-glucose-concentration-in-thoroughbreds-a-pilot-study
#12
F Bonelli, M Sgorbini, V Meucci, C Sighieri, P Baragli
Low intensity exercise increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and decreases its plasma concentration. In this study, plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were evaluated 5min before and 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 60min after an IV bolus of glucose in 12 Thoroughbreds before and after 1 month of submaximal aquatraining exercise, monitored using heart rate and blood lactate. Plasma glucose concentrations were evaluated using a colorimetric enzymatic method, and plasma insulin concentrations with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay method...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903724/resting-heart-rate-and-impaired-glucose-regulation-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-chinese-people-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#13
Zhen Yang, Weiwei Zhang, Lingfei Zhu, Ning Lin, Yixin Niu, Xiaoyong Li, Shuai Lu, Hongmei Zhang, Xuanchun Wang, Jie Wen, Guang Ning, Li Qin, Qing Su
BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) has been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to explore whether a positive relationship exists between RHR and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) among middle-aged and older Chinese individuals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis that included a total of 9898 subjects (3194 men and 6704 women) in a Chinese population. The RHRs were derived from ECG recordings, and the subjects were stratified based on RHR quartiles...
September 13, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899364/determination-of-risk-factors-affecting-the-in-hospital-prognosis-of-patients-with-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#14
Rui Wang, Biqi Mei, Xinlong Liao, Xia Lu, Lulu Yan, Man Lin, Yao Zhong, Yili Chen, Tianhui You
BACKGROUND: To determine the factors affecting the in-hospital prognosis of patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and to establish its prognostic discriminant model. METHODS: A total of 701 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing PCI were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups, good prognosis and poor prognosis, based on whether the patient had adverse outcomes (death or heart function ≥ grade III) at discharge...
September 12, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894049/the-pathophysiological-basis-of-the-protective-effects-of-metformin-in-heart-failure
#15
Aleksandra Dziubak, Grażyna Wójcicka
Metformin, currently recommended as the drug of first choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is one of the few antihiperglycemic drugs to reduce cardiovascular risk. Nonetheless, due to the risk of lactic acidosis during metformin therapy, its usage in patients with diabetes and heart failure (HF) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this review is to present data supporting the possibility of using metformin in the treatment of diabetic patients with concomitant heart failure. In the failing heart, metformin through the mechanism related to AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, improves free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, as well as nitric oxide (NO)-NO synthase pathway...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#16
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889965/losartan-counteracts-the-effects-of-cardiomyocyte-swelling-on-glucose-uptake-and-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-levels
#17
Yamil Gerena, Janice Griselle Lozada, Bryan Jael Collazo, Jarold Méndez-Álvarez, Jennifer Méndez-Estrada, Walmor C De Mello
A growing body of evidence demonstrates an association between Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blockers (ARBs) and enhanced glucose metabolism during ischemic heart disease. Despite these encouraging results, the mechanisms responsible for these effects during ischemia remain poorly understood. In this study we investigated the influence of losartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, and secreted Ang II (sAng II) on glucose uptake and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) levels during cardiomyocyte swelling. H9c2 cells were differentiated to cardiac muscle and the levels of myogenin, Myosin Light Chain (MLC), and membrane AT1 receptors were measured using flow cytometry...
September 7, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888607/effect-of-increasing-amounts-of-milk-replacer-powder-added-to-whole-milk-on-postweaning-performance-reproduction-glucose-metabolism-and-mammary-fat-pad-in-dairy-heifers
#18
C F A Lage, R A Azevedo, F S Machado, M M Campos, L G R Pereira, T R Tomich, B C Carvalho, B R C Alves, G B Santos, F Z Brandão, S G Coelho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing the total solids (TS) content of liquid feed, by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder to whole milk, on age at puberty and postweaning performance, glucose metabolism, and mammary fat pad of dairy heifers. Crossbreed Holstein × Gyr heifers (n = 58) were distributed into 4 different treatments during the preweaning period. Treatments consisted of liquid feeds with TS content of 12.5 (actual TS = 13.5 ± 0.53%; n = 15), 15.0 (actual TS = 16...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886529/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-as-therapeutic-targets-for-heart-failure
#19
REVIEW
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El-Husseny, Eshak I Bahbah, Ahmed Elmaraezy, Aya Ashraf Ali, Asmaa Ashraf, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical syndrome that affects more than 23 million individuals worldwide. Despite the marked advances in its management, the mortality rates in HF patients have remained unacceptably high. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription regulators, involved in the regulation of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. PPAR agonists are currently used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia; however, their role as therapeutic agents for HF remains under investigation...
September 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883902/sirt1-activation-by-resveratrol-alleviates-cardiac-dysfunction-via-mitochondrial-regulation-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-mice
#20
Sai Ma, Jing Feng, Ran Zhang, Jiangwei Chen, Dong Han, Xiang Li, Bo Yang, Xiujuan Li, Miaomiao Fan, Congye Li, Zuhong Tian, Yabin Wang, Feng Cao
BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major threat for diabetic patients. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) has a regulatory effect on mitochondrial dynamics, which is associated with DCM pathological changes. Our study aims to investigate whether resveratrol, a SRIT1 activator, could exert a protective effect against DCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1(KO)) mice were generated using Cre-loxP system. SIRT1(KO) mice displayed symptoms of DCM, including cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, insulin resistance, and abnormal glucose metabolism...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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