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glucose metabolism and heart

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430816/possible-increase-in-insulin-resistance-and-concealed-glucose-coupled-potassium-lowering-mechanisms-during-acute-coronary-syndrome-documented-by-covariance-structure-analysis
#1
Satoshi Ito, Tomohisa Nagoshi, Kosuke Minai, Yusuke Kashiwagi, Hiroshi Sekiyama, Akira Yoshii, Haruka Kimura, Yasunori Inoue, Kazuo Ogawa, Toshikazu D Tanaka, Takayuki Ogawa, Makoto Kawai, Michihiro Yoshimura
OBJECTIVE: Although glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) therapy ought to be beneficial for ischemic heart disease in general, variable outcomes in many clinical trials of GIK in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) had a controversial impact. This study was designed to examine whether "insulin resistance" is involved in ACS and to clarify other potential intrinsic compensatory mechanisms for GIK tolerance through highly statistical procedure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared the degree of insulin resistance during ACS attack and remission phase after treatment in individual patients (n = 104)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429080/effect-of-gpr84-deletion-on-obesity-and-diabetes-development-in-mice-fed-long-chain-or-medium-chain-fatty-acid-rich-diets
#2
Eugene Du Toit, Liam Browne, Helen Irving-Rodgers, Helen M Massa, Nicolette Fozzard, Michael P Jennings, Ian R Peak
PURPOSE: Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428756/neck-circumference-is-associated-with-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-overweight-and-obese-men-but-not-women
#3
Nora E Straznicky, Mariee T Grima, Carolina I Sari, Nina Eikelis, Paul J Nestel, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert, Markus P Schlaich, Sarah E Phillips, Elisabeth A Lambert
Background: Neck circumference (NC) is a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of NC to muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) within an overweight and obese population. Methods: The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Un-medicated persons (72 men, 53 postmenopausal women) aged 56 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM) with body mass index (BMI) 32.8 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), were studied. NC was measured together with traditional anthropometric measures, supine blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, insulin, and glucose...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420717/heart-lipids-and-hormones
#4
Peter Wolf, Yvonne Winhofer, Martin Krssak, Michael Krebs
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well known risk factors like hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that also hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases impact cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419197/inhibition-of-sarcolemmal-fat-cd36-by-sulfo-n-succinimidyl-oleate-rapidly-corrects-metabolism-and-restores-function-in-the-diabetic-heart-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#5
Latt S Mansor, Maria da Luz Sousa Fialho, Georgina Yea, Will A Coumans, James A West, Matthew Kerr, Carolyn A Carr, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz, Rhys D Evans, Julian L Griffin, Damian J Tyler, Kieran Clarke, Lisa C Heather
Aims: The type 2 diabetic heart oxidizes more fat and less glucose, which can impair metabolic flexibility and function. Increased sarcolemmal fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) imports more fatty acid into the diabetic myocardium, feeding increased fatty acid oxidation and elevated lipid deposition. Unlike other metabolic modulators that target mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we proposed that pharmacologically inhibiting fatty acid uptake, as the primary step in the pathway, would provide an alternative mechanism to rebalance metabolism and prevent lipid accumulation following hypoxic stress...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413579/metabolic-recovery-of-the-failing-heart-emerging-therapeutic-options
#6
Dale J Hamilton
Heart failure has mortality rates that parallel those of breast cancer. Current management strategies include neurohormonal blockade, rate control measures, natriuretic peptide preservation, implantation of mechanical assist devices, and heart transplantation. Despite these strategies, however, the failing myocardium remains energy depleted. New strategies to promote metabolic recovery are being developed to potentially augment current treatment guidelines. For example, an unexpected finding of our own studies showed that mechanical unloading with assist devices in advanced-stage heart failure restored metabolic flux...
January 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413577/circadian-control-of-cardiac-metabolism-physiologic-roles-and-pathologic-implications
#7
Martin E Young
Over the course of the day, the heart is challenged with dramatic fluctuations in energetic demand and nutrient availability. It is therefore not surprising that rhythms in cardiac metabolism have been reported at multiple levels, including the utilization of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Evidence has emerged suggesting that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock is in large part responsible for governing cardiac metabolic rhythms. In doing so, the cardiomyocyte clock temporally partitions ATP generation for increased contractile function during the active period, promotes nutrient storage at the end of the active period, and facilitates protein turnover (synthesis and degradation) during the beginning of the sleep phase...
January 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411229/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-myocardial-substrate-preference-emphasizes-the-need-for-a-synchronized-fluxomic-metabolomic-research-design
#8
Mukundan Ragavan, Alexander Kirpich, Xiaorong Fu, Shawn C Burgess, Lauren M McIntyre, Matthew E Merritt
The heart oxidizes fatty acids, carbohydrates and ketone bodies inside the citric acid cycle (CAC) to generate the reducing equivalents needed for ATP production. Competition between these substrates makes it difficult to estimate the extent of pyruvate oxidation. Previously, hyperpolarized pyruvate detected propionate mediated activation of carbohydrate oxidation, even in the presence of acetate. In this report, the optimal concentration of propionate for activation of glucose oxidation is measured in mouse hearts perfused in Langendorff mode...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411022/the-prevalence-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-tibetan-immigrants-living-in-high-altitude-areas-in-ladakh-india
#9
Belle Yanyu Lin, Karma Genden, Wei Shen, Po-Shu Wu, Wen-Chien Yang, Hui-Fang Hung, Chun-Min Fu, Kuen-Cheh Yang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of obesity and related cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan immigrants living in high altitude areas. RESEARCH METHODS & PROCEDURES: A total of 149 Tibetan immigrants aged 20 years and over were recruited in 2016 in Ladakh, India. Anthropometric indices and biochemical factors were measured. Using the provided Asia-Pacific criteria from the World Health Organization, overweight and obese status were determined. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the American Heart Association...
April 12, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404627/multiphasic-regulation-of-systemic-and-peripheral-organ-metabolic-responses-to-cardiac-hypertrophy
#10
Chong Wee Liew, Shanshan Xu, Xuerong Wang, Maximilian McCann, Hyerim Whang Kong, Andrew C Carley, Jingbo Pang, Giamila Fantuzzi, J Michael O'Donnell, E Douglas Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Reduced fat oxidation in hypertrophied hearts coincides with a shift of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I from muscle to increased liver isoforms. Acutely increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase I in normal rodent hearts has been shown to recapitulate the reduced fat oxidation and elevated atrial natriuretic peptide message of cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because of the potential for reduced fat oxidation to affect cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide, and thus, induce adipose lipolysis, we studied peripheral and systemic metabolism in male C57BL/6 mice model of transverse aortic constriction in which left ventricular hypertrophy occurred by 2 weeks without functional decline until 16 weeks (ejection fraction, -45...
April 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403850/rationale-and-design-of-a-multicenter-placebo-controlled-double-blind-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-empagliflozin-on-endothelial-function-the-emblem-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Atsushi Tanaka, Michio Shimabukuro, Yosuke Okada, Isao Taguchi, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Hirofumi Tomiyama, Hiroki Teragawa, Seigo Sugiyama, Hisako Yoshida, Yasunori Sato, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Yumi Ikehara, Noritaka Machii, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Kosuke R Shima, Toshinari Takamura, Yasushi Matsuzawa, Kazuo Kimura, Masashi Sakuma, Jun-Ichi Oyama, Teruo Inoue, Yukihito Higashi, Shinichiro Ueda, Koichi Node
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by systemic metabolic abnormalities and the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, resulting in a shortened life expectancy. A recent cardiovascular (CV) safety trial, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, showed that empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, markedly reduced CV death and all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with T2DM and established CV disease (CVD)...
April 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403686/swimming-training-induces-liver-adaptations-to-oxidative-stress-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-rats-submitted-to-high-fat-diet
#12
Aline Cruz Zacarias, Maria Andrea Barbosa, Renata Guerra-Sá, Uberdan Guilherme Mendes De Castro, Frank Silva Bezerra, Wanderson Geraldo de Lima, Leonardo M Cardoso, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora
Oxidative stress, physical inactivity and high-fat (FAT) diets are associated with hepatic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MS). The therapeutic effects of physical training (PT) were evaluated in rats with MS induced by FAT diet for 13 weeks, on oxidative stress and insulin signaling in the liver, during the last 6 weeks. FAT-sedentary (SED) rats increased body mass, retroperitoneal fat, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), and total cholesterol, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose and insulin...
April 13, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398944/alpine-skiing-as-winter-time-high-intensity-training
#13
Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer
INTRODUCTION: To counteract the winter activity deficit, we set out to analyze cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of two high intensity training (HIT) protocols during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and indoor cycling (IC) and the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. METHODS: Nineteen healthy subjects (two age and fitness groups, both sexes) performed AS, XCS, and IC with measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2), energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion, determined during 4-min of continuous high intensity (HITc: 90% HRmax for XCS and IC or short turn skiing during AS) or 10-min intermittent HIT [HITint: 5x1' high intensity (>90% HRmax or short turn skiing), 1' active recovery]...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396530/downregulation-of-plzf-gene-ameliorates-metabolic-and-cardiac-traits-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#14
František Liška, Vladimír Landa, Václav Zídek, Petr Mlejnek, Jan Šilhavý, Miroslava Šimáková, Hynek Strnad, Jaroslava Trnovská, Vojtěch Škop, Ludmila Kazdová, Colby G Starker, Daniel F Voytas, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Massimiliano Mancini, Ondřej Šeda, Vladimír Křen, Michal Pravenec
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), one of the most widely used model of essential hypertension, is predisposed to left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and metabolic disturbances. Recently, quantitative trait loci influencing blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and heart interstitial fibrosis were genetically isolated within a minimal congenic subline that contains only 7 genes, including mutant Plzf (promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger) candidate gene. To identify Plzf as a quantitative trait gene, we targeted Plzf in the SHR using the transcription activator-like effector nuclease technique and obtained SHR line harboring targeted Plzf gene with a premature stop codon...
April 10, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394194/the-higher-the-insulin-resistance-the-lower-the-cardiac-output-in-men-with-type-1-diabetes-during-the-maximal-exercise-test
#15
Pawel Niedzwiecki, Dariusz Naskret, Stanislaw Pilacinski, Maciej Pempera, Aleksandra Uruska, Anna Adamska, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the hemodynamic parameters analyzed in bioimpedance cardiography during maximal exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes differing in insulin resistance. METHODS: The study group consisted of 40 men with type 1 diabetes. Tissue sensitivity to insulin was assessed on the basis of the glucose disposal rate (GDR) analyzed during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Patients were divided into groups with GDR <4.5 mg/kg/min (G1 group-lower insulin sensitivity) and GDR ≥4...
April 10, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379032/success-and-failure-of-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-czech-republic-over-the-past-30-years-czech-part-of-the-euroaspire-i-iv-surveys
#16
H Rosolová, B Nussbaumerová, O Mayer, R Cífková, J Bruthans
Cardiovascular (CV) mortality was reduced more than 50 % in the Czech population at the turn of the century, due to an improvement of major CV risk factors in the general population, interventional procedures implemented into the treatment of acute coronary events, and new drugs (ACE inhibitors, statins etc.) for CV prevention (Czech MONICA and post-MONICA studies, 1985-2008). An insufficient level of preventive efforts is described in the Czech patients after acute coronary syndrome (Czech part of the EUROASPIRE studies, 1995-2013)...
April 5, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378522/plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-is-associated-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-american-indians-findings-from-the-strong-heart-family-study
#17
Hao Peng, Fawn Yeh, Jue Lin, Lyle G Best, Shelley A Cole, Elisa T Lee, Barbara V Howard, Jinying Zhao
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promotes cellular aging both in vitro and in vivo. Telomere length is a marker of biological aging. OBJECTIVES: To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma PAI-1 and leukocyte telomere length in a large-scale epidemiological study of American Indians. METHODS: We measured leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and plasma PAI-1 in 2,560 American Indians who were free of overt CVD and participated in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS) clinical exam in 2001-2003...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376525/inflammation-and-healthy-lifestyle-choices-influence-cardiometabolic-risks-in-african-american-women
#18
L Jerome Brandon, Jurine Owen
OBJECTIVES: Individuals of African origin in Europe and the Caribbean have a lower prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) than do Europeans and European Americans; however, African Americans, especially women, do not possess the same low CHD prevalence as Africans. As such, this study was designed to determine whether highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fitness (V˙O2max) cluster with other cardiometabolic risks (CMRs) or whether their influence is independent of other CMRs in African American women...
April 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373293/lipid-metabolism-and-its-implications-for-type-1-diabetes-associated-cardiomyopathy
#19
Rebecca H Ritchie, Eser J Zerenturk, Darnel Prakoso, Anna C Calkin
Diabetic cardiomyopathy was first defined over four decades ago. It was observed in small post-mortem studies of diabetic patients who suffered from concomitant heart failure despite the absence of hypertension, coronary disease or other likely causal factors, as well as in large population studies such as the Framingham Heart Study. Subsequent studies continue to demonstrate an increased incidence of heart failure in the setting of diabetes independent of established risk factors, suggesting direct effects of diabetes on the myocardium...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364393/lipid-emulsion-enhances-cardiac-performance-after-ischemia-reperfusion-in-isolated-hearts-from-summer-active-arctic-ground-squirrels
#20
Michele M Salzman, Qunli Cheng, Richard J Deklotz, Gurpreet K Dulai, Hunter F Douglas, Anna E Dikalova, Dorothee Weihrauch, Brian M Barnes, Matthias L Riess
Hibernating mammals, like the arctic ground squirrel (AGS), exhibit robust resistance to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Regulated preference for lipid over glucose to fuel metabolism may play an important role. We tested whether providing lipid in an emulsion protects hearts from summer-active AGS better than hearts from Brown Norway (BN) rats against normothermic IR injury. Langendorff-prepared AGS and BN rat hearts were perfused with Krebs solution containing 7.5 mM glucose with or without 1% Intralipid™...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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