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metabolism and heart failure

Linda Alex, Ilaria Russo, Volodymir Holoborodko, Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) is caused, or exacerbated by a wide range of extracardiac conditions. Diabetes, obesity and metabolic dysfunction are associated with a unique HFpEF phenotype, characterized by inflammation, cardiac fibrosis and microvascular dysfunction. Development of new therapies for HFpEF is hampered by the absence of reliable animal models. The leptin resistant db/db mouse has been extensively studied as a model of diabetes-associated cardiomyopathy; however data on the functional and morphological alterations in db/db hearts are conflicting...
July 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
K H D Thilini Hemachandra, M B Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri, Thamara Kannangara
Background: Acute flaccid paralysis is an uncommon, but potentially life threatening, sequel of severe hyperkalemia. Reported primary aetiologies include renal failure, Addison's disease, potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and dietary excess. Coconut water, when consumed in excess, has been reported to cause severe hyperkalemia. We report the case of acute ascending flaccid paralysis secondary to hyperkalemia induced by multiple trigger factors-king coconut water, renal failure, diabetes, metabolic acidosis, and potassium sparing diuretics...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Nathalie López, Anamaría Correa, Romina Ammann, Adriana Diettes, Rodrigo Riveros, Francisco Torres
INTRODUCTION: Propofol Infusion Syndrome (PRIS) is a rare but potentially lethal adverse reaction secondary to the continuous intravenous infusion of this drug. The diagnosis is based on the com bination of metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalemia, hepatomegaly, renal failure, hyperli pidemia, arrhythmias, and rapidly progressive heart failure. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of PRIS and literature review. CLINICAL CASE: A 6-year-old female patient with history of epilepsy secondary to large malformation of cortical development of the right hemisphere...
June 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Celestino Sardu, Raffaele Marfella, Matteo Santamaria, Stefano Papini, Quintino Parisi, Cosimo Sacra, Daniele Colaprete, Giuseppe Paolisso, Maria R Rizzo, Michelangela Barbieri
Background: Internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy reduced all-cause mortality. Conversely, few studies reported that ICDs' shocks may reduce survival. Recently authors suggested that, multiple inflammatory and molecular pathways were related to worse prognosis in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients treated by ICDs. Therefore, it may be relevant to find new biomarkers to predict ICDs' shock and worse prognosis in treated patients. Methods: In 99 MS vs. 107 no MS patients treated by ICD for primary prevention, we evaluated all-cause mortality, cardiac deaths, hospitalization for heart failure, appropriate and inappropriate therapy, and survival after appropriate ICD therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Tafadzwa Chihanga, Hannah N Ruby, Qing Ma, Sabina Bashir, Prasad Devarajan, Michael A Kennedy
Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by multiple factors including sepsis, respiratory failure, heart failure, trauma, or nephrotoxic medications, among others. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate potential urinary metabolic biomarkers of hypoxia-induced AKI. Urine metabolic profiles of 48 Swiss Webster mice were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) for 7 days following 72 hours exposure to a hypoxic 6.5% oxygen environment. Histological analyses indicated a lack of gross nephron structural changes in the aftermath of hypoxia...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Sarayut Lahnwong, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Diabetes mellitus currently affects over 350 million patients worldwide and is associated with many deaths from cardiovascular complications. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs with cardiovascular benefits beyond other antidiabetic drugs. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin significantly decreases the mortality rate from cardiovascular causes [38% relative risk reduction (RRR)], the mortality rate from all-causes (32% RRR) and the rate of heart failure hospitalization (35% RRR) in diabetic patients with established cardiovascular diseases...
July 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Shuyi Wang, Jun Ren
Recent advances in medical technology and health care have greatly improved the management for chronic diseases and prolonged human lifespan. Unfortunately, increased lifespan and the aging population impose a major challenge on the ever-rising prevalence of chronic diseases, in particular cardiometabolic stress associated with the pandemic obesity in our modern society. Although overweight and obesity are associated with incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart failure (HF), it paradoxically leads to a more favorable prognosis in patients with chronic HF, a phenomenon commonly defined as "obesity paradox"...
July 7, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Martin A Alpert, Kamalesh Karthikeyan, Obai Abdullah, Rugheed Ghadban
Obesity, particularly severe obesity is capable of producing hemodynamic alterations that contribute to changes in cardiac morphology which may predispose to impairment of ventricular function and heart failure. These include a high cardiac output state in most, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and LV diastolic dysfunction. Right heart involvement may result from LV failure, the hypercirculatiory state, and sleep disordered breathing. In recent years experimental studies and some studies in humans suggest that certain neurohormonal and metabolic alterations that occur commonly in obesity may contribute to alterations in cardiac structure and function...
July 7, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Karolina E Hilse, Anne Rupprecht, Monika Egerbacher, Sarah Bardakji, Lars Zimmermann, Andrea E M Seiler Wulczyn, Elena E Pohl
The involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is widely acknowledged. However, contradictory reports show that the functions of UCP2/UCP3 are still disputed. We have previously described that UCP2 is highly abundant in cells that rely on glycolysis, such as stem, cancer and activated immune cells. In contrast, high amounts of UCP3 are present in brown adipose tissue, followed by heart and skeletal muscles - all known to metabolize fatty acids (FA) to a high extent...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Julia Geynisman-Tan, Katarzyna Bochenska, Akira Gillingham, Sarah Collins, Christina Lewicky-Gaupp, Margaret Mueller, Kimberly Kenton
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of newly diagnosed, clinically meaningful laboratory abnormalities on routine preoperative laboratory testing in women undergoing urogynecologic surgery. METHODS: All urogynecologic cases performed at a single institution over a 3-year period were reviewed. Women undergoing major surgery routinely had a basic metabolic panel, complete blood count (CBC), and type and screen, whereas women undergoing minor surgery had testing at the surgeon's discretion...
July 3, 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Bryce Nicholas Balmain, Ollie Jay, Norman R Morris, Glenn Malcolm Stewart, Kenji Shiino, Amelia J McFarland, Rohan Jayasinghe, Jonathan Chan, Surendran Sabapathy
Heart failure (HF) patients are susceptible to heat strain during exercise, secondary to blunted skin blood flow (SkBF) responses which may be explained by impaired nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation. Folic acid improves vascular endothelial function and SkBF through NO-dependent mechanisms in healthy older individuals and cardiovascular disease patients. We examined the effect of folic acid supplementation (5 mg/d for 6wk) on vascular function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), and SkBF responses (cutaneous vascular conductance [CVC]) during 60-min of exercise at a fixed metabolic heat production (300 ẆHprod ) in a 30{degree sign}C environment in ten HF (New York Heart Association Class I-II) patients and ten healthy controls (CON)...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jacek Hawiger
Sepsis is one of the ten leading causes of death in developed and developing countries. In the United States, sepsis mortality approaches that of acute myocardial infarction and exceeds deaths from stroke. Neonates and the elderly are the most vulnerable patients, with these groups suffering from the highest sepsis mortality. In both groups, many survivors respectively display serious developmental disabilities and cognitive decline. The National Institute of Health National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Panel redefined sepsis as a "severe endothelial dysfunction syndrome in response to intravascular and extravascular infections causing reversible or irreversible injury to the microcirculation responsible for multiple organ failure...
July 5, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
Anja Karlstaedt, Walter Schiffer, Heinrich Taegtmeyer
Recent advances in cancer cell metabolism provide unprecedented opportunities for a new understanding of heart metabolism and may offer new approaches for the treatment of heart failure. Key questions driving the cancer field to understand how tumor cells reprogram metabolism and to benefit tumorigenesis are also applicable to the heart. Recent experimental and conceptual advances in cancer cell metabolism provide the cardiovascular field with the unique opportunity to target metabolism. This review compares cancer cell metabolism and cardiac metabolism with an emphasis on strategies of cellular adaptation, and how to exploit metabolic changes for therapeutic benefit...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Balazs Odler, Vasile Foris, Anna Gungl, Veronika Müller, Paul M Hassoun, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Horst Olschewski, Gabor Kovacs
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) associated with high morbidity and mortality. There are several biomarkers of SSc-PAH, reflecting endothelial physiology, inflammation, immune activation, extracellular matrix, metabolic changes, or cardiac involvement. Biomarkers associated with diagnosis, disease severity and progression have been identified, however, very few have been tested in a prospective setting. Some antinuclear antibodies such as nucleosome antibodies (NUC), anti-centromere antibodies (CENP-A/B) and anti-U3-ribonucleoprotein (anti-U3-RNP) are associated with PAH while anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein (anti-U1-RNP) is associated with a reduced PAH risk...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marco Simonini, Paola Casanova, Lorena Citterio, Elisabetta Messaggio, Chiara Lanzani, Paolo Manunta
The endogenous ouabain (EO) is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal gland with cardio-tonic effects. In this article, we have reviewed and summarized the most recent reports about EO, particularly with regard to how it may interact with specific genetic backgrounds. We have focused our attention on the EO’s potential pathogenic role in several diseases, including renal failure, essential hypertension and heart failure. Notably, these reports have demonstrated that EO acts as a pro-hypertrophic and growth-promoting hormone, which might lead to a cardiac remodeling affecting cardiovascular functions and structures...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dunja Aksentijevic, Brett A O'Brien, Thomas R Eykyn, Michael J Shattock
Alterations in excitation-contraction coupling and elevated intracellular sodium (Nai ) are hallmarks of pathological cardiac remodelling that underline contractile dysfunction. In addition, changes in cardiac metabolism are observed in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF) that lead to a mismatch in ATP supply and demand, contributing to poor prognosis. A link between Nai and altered metabolism has been proposed but is not well understood. Many mitochondrial enzymes are stimulated by mitochondrial calcium (Camito ) during contraction, thereby sustaining production of reducing equivalents to maintain ATP supply...
July 3, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Judit C Sági, Bálint Egyed, Andrea Kelemen, Nóra Kutszegi, Márta Hegyi, András Gézsi, Martina Ayaka Herlitschke, Andrea Rzepiel, Lili E Fodor, Gábor Ottóffy, Gábor T Kovács, Dániel J Erdélyi, Csaba Szalai, Ágnes F Semsei
BACKGROUND: The treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and osteosarcoma (OSC) is very effective: the vast majority of patients recover and survive for decades. However, they still need to face serious adverse effects of chemotherapy. One of these is cardiotoxicity which may lead to progressive heart failure in the long term. Cardiotoxicity is contributed mainly to the use of anthracyclines and might have genetic risk factors. Our goal was to test the association between left ventricular function and genetic variations of candidate genes...
July 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
Pavlos Kashioulis, Jaana Lundgren, Emman Shubbar, Lisa Nguy, Aso Saeed, Cecilia Wallentin Guron, Gregor Guron
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF) develop severe renal insufficiency and metabolic abnormalities that closely resemble those in patients with uremia. The aim of the present study was to determine left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in rats with ACRF. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without adenine (controls, C)...
July 3, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Frank M Bengel, Tobias L Ross
Molecular imaging in infiltrative cardiomyopathies is increasingly penetrating the clinical arena. Current approaches target the infiltrate directly, or its metabolic, physiologic, or functional consequences. Inflammation may not just play a role as the infiltrative mechanism itself. It is also thought to play a key role in the development and progression of heart failure in general, because it promotes the development of tissue fibrosis. The cascade leading from tissue damage to inflammation and further to fibrosis and loss of function has emerged as a therapeutic target...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Jin Bu, Zhaohui Wang
Considering the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), significant interest has been focused on the gut microbiota-heart interaction because the gut microbiota has been recognized as a barometer of human health. Dysbiosis, characterized by changes in the gut microbiota in CVD, has been reported in cardiovascular pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Conversely, gut microbiota-derived metabolites, such as trimethylamine/trimethylamine N -oxide (TMA/TMAO), can impact host physiology...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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