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metabolism and heart failure

J Catharina Duvigneau, Andreia Luís, Adrienne M Gorman, Afshin Samali, Doris Kaltenecker, Richard Moriggl, Andrey V Kozlov
An excessive inflammatory response is frequently associated with cellular dysfunction and cell death. The latter may cause single and multiple organ failure. The most susceptible organs are liver, lung, kidney, heart and intestine. This review will focus on the liver as a target organ for an excessive inflammatory response. It is commonly accepted that organ failure is caused by the action of inflammatory cytokines released in excess during the inflammatory response. It has been suggested that inflammation mediated liver failure is not due to an increased death rate of parenchymal cells, but due to an intracellular metabolic disorder...
November 13, 2018: Cytokine
Kristen A Smith, Heidi R Flori
In caring for critically ill children, recognition and management often begins in the pediatric emergency department. A seamless transition in care is needed to ensure appropriate care to the sickest of children. This review covers the management of critically ill children in the pediatric emergency department beyond the initial stabilization for conditions such as acute respiratory failure and pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus, congenital heart disease, and metabolic emergencies...
December 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Yuncheng Du, Dongping Du
Rehabilitation (Rehab) exercise can benefit cardiac patients as it can promote the recovery and improve the heart wellness. However, heart failure (HF) patients can only take mild exercise, since excessive exercise may lead to fatal events. It is important to control the exercise intensity at a desired level to maximize exercise benefit. Heart Rate (HR) is an essential factor for measuring exercise intensity. Mathematical models of HR can be used to study exercise physiology. However, HR models involve model uncertainty, resulting from model calibration or variability in patients...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Emmanouil G Spanakis, Maria Psaraki, Vangelis Sakkalis
Congestive heart failure (CHF) occurs when the heart cannot provide the necessary cardiac output for the metabolic needs of the human body. The most prominent symptoms are increased venous pressure, abnormal heart and breathing rate, tiredness and leg swelling. Most important pathogenesis influence are: age, gender, high blood pressure, alcohol and smoking, sedentary lifestyle and diet, genetic predisposition and family history, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Common causes are considered to be valvular heart disease, coronary heart disease and hypertension...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Kathleen L Lak, Melissa C Helm, Tammy L Kindel, Jon C Gould
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome is commonly demonstrated in patients with morbid obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of metabolic syndrome on morbidity and mortality following bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) dataset was queried for patients who underwent bariatric surgical procedures between 2012 and 2014. Patient demographics, comorbid conditions, bariatric procedure type, and postoperative complications were analyzed...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Arrigo F G Cicero, Masanari Kuwabara, Claudio Borghi
β-Adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) are well-known useful and cost-effective drugs for managing hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. However, it is often difficult to use β-blockers for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, most β-blockers negatively influence glucose or lipid metabolism. Nebivolol is a third-generation lipophilic β-1 receptor-selective blocker with nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatory effects, metabolically neutral and usually well tolerated by patients with asthma or COPD...
November 13, 2018: Drugs
Giulia Borghetti, Dirk von Lewinski, Deborah M Eaton, Harald Sourij, Steven R Houser, Markus Wallner
Diabetes mellitus and the associated complications represent a global burden on human health and economics. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in diabetic patients, who have a 2-5 times higher risk of developing heart failure than age-matched non-diabetic patients, independent of other comorbidities. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as the presence of abnormal cardiac structure and performance in the absence of other cardiac risk factors, such coronary artery disease, hypertension, and significant valvular disease...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Oliver J Müller, Markus B Heckmann, Lin Ding, Kleopatra Rapti, Ashraf Y Rangrez, Thomas Gerken, Nicole Christiansen, Ulrike E E Rennefahrt, Henning Witt, Sandra González Maldonado, Philipp Ternes, Dominic M Schwab, Theresa Ruf, Susanne Hille, Anca Remes, Andreas Jungmann, Tanja M Weis, Julia Kreußer, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Johannes Backs, Philipp Schatz, Hugo A Katus, Norbert Frey
Aims: Heart failure is characterized by structural and metabolic cardiac remodelling. The aim of the present study is to expand our understanding of the complex metabolic alterations in the transition from pathological hypertrophy to heart failure and exploit the results from a translational perspective. Methods and results: Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery and sacrificed 2, 4, or 6 weeks after the procedure. Samples from plasma, liver, skeletal muscle, and heart were collected and analysed using metabolomics...
November 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Simona Walker, Jessy Schönfelder, Sems-Malte Tugtekin, Christiane Wetzel, Michael C Hacker, Michaela Barbara Schulz-Siegmund
Pericardial scaffolds have a wide spectrum of clinical applications ranging from patches for vascular reconstruction and abdominal wall defects to bioprosthetic heart valves. The current gold standard of tissue preparation involves disinfection and crosslinking using glutaraldehyde. However, glutaraldehyde-associated toxicity as well as rapid calcification and premature graft failure represent the major modes of failure <sup>1</sup>. Therefore, a variety of alternative strategies for tissue conservation have been pursued...
November 9, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Aaron B Kaye, Amar Bhakta, Alex D Moseley, Anupama K Rao, Sally Arif, Seth J Lichtenstein, Neelum T Aggarwal, Annabelle S Volgman, Rupa M Sanghani
Cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of pregnancy-related deaths in the United States. Increasing maternal mortality in the United States underscores the importance of proper cardiovascular management. Significant physiological changes during pregnancy affect the heart's ability to respond to pathological processes such as hypertension and heart failure. These physiological changes further affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of cardiac medications. During pregnancy, these changes can significantly alter medication efficacy and metabolism...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Chao-Hung Wang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Min-Hui Liu
Metabolic disturbances represent functional perturbation in peripheral tissues and predict outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). This study developed an amino acid-based metabolic panel and sought to see whether this panel could add diagnostic and prognostic value to currently used B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements. Mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography were performed on 1288 participants, including 129 normal controls and 712 patients at HF stages A to D in the initial cohort and 447 stage C patients in the validation cohort...
2018: Disease Markers
Qian Zhang, Mingyan Shao, Xuefeng Zhang, Qiyan Wang, Dongqing Guo, Xiaomin Yang, Chun Li, Yong Wang
Aim: Danqi Pill (DQP), a Chinese medicine frequently prescribed in China, has been approved to improve cardiac function by regulating cardiac energy metabolism in heart failure (HF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. The aim of this study was to explore whether the mechanism of DQP is associated to the lipid and glucose metabolism mediated via PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) pathway both in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: Model of HF after AMI was established with ligation of left anterior descending artery on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alexandre Raymond-Paquin, Stanley Nattel, Reza Wakili, Rafik Tadros
Arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy (AIC) is characterized by left ventricular systolic dysfunction for which the primary cause is arrhythmia. The hallmark of AIC is its reversibility once the arrhythmia is properly controlled. Any tachyarrhythmia can potentially cause AIC (often called "tachycardiomyopathy"), with atrial fibrillation (AF) being by far the most common in clinical practice. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AIC need further clarification, but the available evidence, principally from animal models, implicates metabolic dysfunction due to increased oxygen requirements, neurohormonal adaptive mechanisms, and cellular Ca2+ mishandling as important contributors...
November 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Bruno Igreja, Nuno M Pires, Lyndon C Wright, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
Hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. An approach to mitigate the enhanced sympathetic nervous system drive is restricting the biosynthesis of noradrenaline via inhibition of the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), that catalyzes the hydroxylation of dopamine to noradrenaline in sympathetic nerves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of zamicastat, a novel DβH inhibitor that decreases noradrenaline and increases dopamine levels in peripheral sympathetically innervated tissues, on the hemodynamic and cardiometabolic parameters in salt-induced hypertension and heart failure in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Otto A Smiseth, John M Aalen
The impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on cardiac mechanical function ranges from minimal effect in some patients to marked reduction in left ventricular (LV) systolic function in others. It appears that this variability in part reflects differences in anatomical location of the bundle block. In most patients with LBBB and congestive heart failure, however, there is associated cardiac disease such as cardiomyopathies or coronary artery disease which contributes to LV dysfunction. The mechanism of harmful effect of LBBB on cardiac function is in-coordinated ventricular contractions which result in LV contractile inefficiency...
October 25, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Zaza Khuchua, Aleksandr I Glukhov, Arnold W Strauss, Sabzali Javadov
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that bind to DNA and regulate transcription of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. A growing number of studies provide strong evidence that PPARs are the promising pharmacological targets for therapeutic intervention in various diseases including cardiovascular disorders caused by compromised energy metabolism. PPAR agonists have been widely used for decades as lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory drugs. Existing studies are mainly focused on the anti-atherosclerotic effects of PPAR agonists; however, their role in the maintenance of cellular bioenergetics remains unclear...
November 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Alexander Kokkinos
A wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence has linked obesity to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Obesity can increase CVD morbidity and mortality directly and indirectly. Direct effects are mediated by obesity-induced structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system to accommodate excess body weight, as well as by adipokine effects on inflammation and vascular homeostasis...
November 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
E A Ostrakhovitch, S Tabibzadeh
There are numerous theories of aging, a process which still seems inevitable. Aging leads to cancer and multi-systemic disorders as well as chronic diseases including those that impair the functions of endothelial cells, kidney and lung. Decline in age- associated cellular functions leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline that affect the quality of life. Accumulation of damage, mutations, metabolic changes, failure in cellular energy production and clearance of altered proteins over the lifetime, and hyperhomocysteinemia, ultimately result in tissue degeneration...
November 1, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Sukhinder K Cheema, Paramjit S Tappia, Naranjan S Dhalla
Regulation of cardiac fatty acid metabolism is central to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. We investigated the effects of some specific fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in immediate early as well as inflammatory and hypertrophic responses in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiac remodeling begins with upregulation of immediate early genes c-fos and c-jun, followed by upregulation of inflammatory genes such as NF-kB and NFAT. At later stages, genes involved in the hypertrophic responses such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic factor (BNF) are upregulated...
November 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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