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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244961/time-dependent-therapeutic-roles-of-nitazoxanide-on-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats-effects-on-hepatic-ppar-%C3%AE-receptors
#1
Samah Mohamed Elaidy, Mona A Hussain, Mohamed K El-Kherbetawy
Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is an approved strategy in facing insulin resistance (IR) for the diabetes mellitus (DM)-type 2. The PPAR-γ modulators display improvements in the insulin sensitizing and adverse effects of the traditional thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is proposed as a PPAR-γ receptor ligand, with agonistic post-transcriptional effects. Currently, NTZ-antidiabetic activities versus pioglitazone (PIO) in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) rat model of type-2 diabetes was explored...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244833/genomic-characterization-and-molecular-evolution-analysis-of-subtype-b-and-bf-recombinant-hiv-1-strains-among-argentinean-men-who-have-sex-with-men-reveal-a-complex-scenario
#2
Cintia G Cevallos, Leandro R Jones, Maria A Pando, Jean K Carr, Maria M Avila, Jorge Quarleri
Currently, data on HIV-1 circulating strains among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Argentina is scarce. In South America, the distribution and the prevalence of BF recombinants are dissimilar and exhibit an underappreciated heterogeneity of recombinant structures. Here, we studied for the first time the genetic diversity of HIV-1 BF recombinants and their evolution over time through in-depth phylogenetic analysis and multiple recombination detection methods involving 337 HIV-1 nucleotide sequences (25 near full-length (NFL) and 312 partial pol gene) obtained from Argentinean MSM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244827/neuroligin-4x-overexpression-in-human-breast-cancer-is-associated-with-poor-relapse-free-survival
#3
Henry J Henderson, Balasubramanyam Karanam, Rajeev Samant, Komal Vig, Shree R Singh, Clayton Yates, Deepa Bedi
The molecular mechanisms involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis still remain unclear to date. It is a heterogeneous disease featuring several different phenotypes with consistently different biological characteristics. Neuroligins are neural cell adhesion molecules that have been implicated in heterotopic cell adhesion. In humans, alterations in neuroligin genes are implicated in autism and other cognitive diseases. Until recently, neuroligins have been shown to be abundantly expressed in blood vessels and also play a role implicated in the growth of glioma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244222/diffusion-weighted-imaging-features-of-breast-tumours-and-the-surrounding-stroma-reflect-intrinsic-heterogeneous-characteristics-of-molecular-subtypes-in-breast-cancer
#4
Ming Fan, Ting He, Peng Zhang, Hu Cheng, Juan Zhang, Xin Gao, Lihua Li
Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3...
December 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242947/the-position-of-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-in-epidermo-lysis-bullosa-diagnosis
#5
Cristina Has, Julia Küsel, Antonia Reimer, Julia Hoffmann, Franziska Schauer, Andreas Zimmer, Judith Fischer
The precise classification of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) into 4 main types and more than 30 subtypes is based on the level of skin cleavage, as well as clinical and molecular features, and is crucial for early prognostication, case management, genetic counselling and prenatal or pre-implantation diagnosis. We report here the molecular pathology of 40 consecutive cases of suspected EB, which were investigated by immunofluorescence mapping (IFM) and/or by a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) multi-gene panel...
December 15, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242316/colorectal-cancer-consensus-molecular-subtypes-translated-to-preclinical-models-uncover-potentially-targetable-cancer-cell-dependencies
#6
Anita Sveen, Jarle Bruun, Peter W Eide, Ina A Eilertsen, Lorena Ramirez, Astrid Murumägi, Mariliina A Arjama, Stine A Danielsen, Kushtrim Kryeziu, Elena Elez, Josep Tabernero, Justin Guinney, Hector G Palmer, Arild Nesbakken, Olli Kallioniemi, Rodrigo Dienstmann, Ragnhild A Lothe
PURPOSE: Response to standard oncological treatment is limited in colorectal cancer (CRC). The gene expression-based consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) provide a new paradigm for stratified treatment and drug repurposing, however, drug discovery is currently limited by the lack of translation of CMS to preclinical models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed CMS in primary CRCs, cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). For classification of preclinical models, we developed an optimized classifier enriched for cancer cell-intrinsic gene expression signals, and performed high-throughput in vitro drug screening (n=459 drugs) to analyze subtype-specific drug sensitivities...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242034/dendritic-cells-in-the-regulation-of-immunity-and-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Cheng Qian, Xuetao Cao
As potent antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) comprise the most heterogeneous cell population with significant cellular phenotypic and functional plasticity. They form a sentinel network to modulate immune responses, since intrinsic cellular mechanisms and complex external, environmental signals endow DCs with the distinct capacity to induce protective immunity or tolerance to self. Interactions between DCs and other cells of the immune system mediate this response. This interactive response depends on DC maturation status and subtype, as well as the microenvironment of the tissue location and DC-intrinsic regulators...
December 11, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241727/simple-classifiers-for-molecular-subtypes-of-colorectal-cancer
#8
Woo Gyeong Kim, Joo Yeon Kim, Do Youn Park
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease entity with a diverse biological pathogenesis. This study aims to validate the two studies published in 2013 which established a separate CRC molecular subtype classification by utilizing a rapidly accessible miniclassifier, and verify a simplified version thereof. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants diagnosed with CRC (n = 568) were subtyped in three classifications for characteristic, and prognostic purposes...
December 11, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241666/identification-of-human-circadian-genes-based-on-time-course-gene-expression-profiles-by-using-a-deep-learning-method
#9
Peng Cui, Tingyan Zhong, Zhuo Wang, Tao Wang, Hongyu Zhao, Chenglin Liu, Hui Lu
Circadian genes express periodically in an approximate 24-h period and the identification and study of these genes can provide deep understanding of the circadian control which plays significant roles in human health. Although many circadian gene identification algorithms have been developed, large numbers of false positives and low coverage are still major problems in this field. In this study we constructed a novel computational framework for circadian gene identification using deep neural networks (DNN) a deep learning algorithm which can represent the raw form of data patterns without imposing assumptions on the expression distribution...
December 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241664/distinguishing-three-subtypes-of-hematopoietic-cells-based-on-gene-expression-profiles-using-a-support-vector-machine
#10
Yu-Hang Zhang, Yu Hu, Yuchao Zhang, Lan-Dian Hu, Xiangyin Kong
Hematopoiesis is a complicated process involving a series of biological sub-processes that lead to the formation of various blood components. A widely accepted model of early hematopoiesis proceeds from long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) to multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and then to lineage-committed progenitors. However, the molecular mechanisms of early hematopoiesis have not been fully characterized. In this study, we applied a computational strategy to identify the gene expression signatures distinguishing three types of closely related hematopoietic cells collected in recent studies: (1) hematopoietic stem cell/multipotent progenitor cells; (2) LT-HSCs; and (3) hematopoietic progenitor cells...
December 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241552/a-single-cell-rna-sequencing-study-reveals-cellular-and-molecular-dynamics-of-the-hippocampal-neurogenic-niche
#11
Benedetta Artegiani, Anna Lyubimova, Mauro Muraro, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hans Clevers
Adult neurogenesis in the murine dentate gyrus occurs in a specialized microenvironment that sustains the generation of neurons during life. To fully understand adult neurogenesis, it is essential to determine the neural stem cell (NSC) and progenitor developmental stages, their molecular determinants, and the niche cellular and molecular composition. We report on a single-cell RNA sequencing study of the hippocampal niche, performed by isolating all the non-neuronal cell populations. Our analysis provides a comprehensive description of the dentate gyrus cells, and it allows the identification of exclusive cell-type-specific markers...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241223/tumour-sidedness-and-intrinsic-subtypes-in-patients-with-stage-ii-iii-colon-cancer-analysis-of-nsabp-c-07-nrg-oncology
#12
S Rim Kim, Nan Song, Greg Yothers, Patrick G Gavin, Carmen J Allegra, Soonmyung Paik, Katherine L Pogue-Geile
BACKGROUND: We tested the association of colon tumour sidedness with prognosis and with molecular subtypes recently shown to be predictive of oxaliplatin benefit in stage III colon cancer. METHODS: NSABP/NRG C-07 trial (N=1603) was used to determine association of tumour sidedness with molecular subtypes and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Sidedness was associated with molecular subtypes except stem-like/CMS4 subtype...
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239846/molecular-subtypes-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-are-associated-with-outcome-during-pazopanib-therapy-in-the-metastatic-setting
#13
Annelies Verbiest, Gabrielle Couchy, Sylvie Job, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Laure Caruana, Evelyne Lerut, Raymond Oyen, Aurélien de Reyniès, Brigitte Laguerre, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Agnieszka Wozniak, Steven Joniau, Hendrik Van Poppel, Kathleen Van Den Eynde, Benoit Beuselinck
BACKGROUND: We previously described 4 molecular subtypes of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC), named ccrcc1-4 (Beuselinck et al, 2015). These have both prognostic and predictive value for patients treated with first-line sunitinib, with distinctive objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The ccrcc2 and ccrcc3 tumors have the best outcomes, followed by ccrcc1 and then ccrcc4. We hypothesized that these molecular subtypes would show similar outcomes with first-line pazopanib treatment...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239042/special-types-of-thyroid-carcinoma
#14
REVIEW
Zubair W Baloch, Virginia A LiVolsi
This article reviews the small percentage of thyroid tumours that are not classified as classic papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. It includes subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma, including, tall-cell, hobnail/micropapillary, columnar cell, diffuse sclerosing and solid variants. Poorly differentiated carcinoma, high-grade carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma are reviewed. Also discussed are entities that are unusual but need to be recognized as primary thyroid neoplasms, i...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237837/molecular-dynamics-and-mode-of-transmission-of-koala-retrovirus-korv-as-it-invades-and-spreads-through-a-wild-queensland-koala-population
#15
Bonnie Chaban, Vanissa A Ong, Jonathan Hanger, Peter Timms
The recent acquisition of a novel retrovirus (KoRV) by koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) has created new opportunities for retroviral research and new challenges for koala conservation. There are currently two major subtypes of KoRV; KoRV-A, which is believed to be endogenous only in koalas from the northern part of Australia, and KoRV-B, which appears to be exogenous. Understanding and management of these subtypes requires population-level studies of their prevalence and diversity, especially when co-infected in the same population, and investigations of their modes of transmission in the wild...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237828/identification-of-novel-structural-determinants-in-mw965-env-that-regulate-the-neutralization-phenotype-and-conformational-masking-potential-of-primary-hiv-1-isolates
#16
Zakiya M Qualls, Alok Choudhary, William Honnen, Raja Prattipati, James E Robinson, Abraham Pinter
The subtype C HIV-1 isolate MW965.26 is a highly neutralization-sensitive tier-1a primary isolate that is widely used in vaccine studies, but the basis for the sensitive neutralization phenotype of this isolate is not known. Substituting the MW965.26 V1/V2 domain into a neutralization-sensitive SF162 Env clone resulted in high resistance to standard anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating that this region possessed strong masking activity in a standard Env backbone and indicating that determinants elsewhere in MW965...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237388/crigler-najjar-syndrome-current-perspectives-and-the-application-of-clinical-genetics
#17
Ammar Ebrahimi, Fakher Rahim
Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS, OMIM: 218800) is the paradigm of an inborn error of metabolism and a rare genetic disease with an estimated incidence of 0.6-1.0 per million live births. Discrimination between CNS subtypes is usually done on the basis of the clinical criteria, such as response to phenobarbital treatment and other molecular and functional characteristics. The identification of four novel pathogenic mutations and the analysis of residual activity of missense in UGT1A1 gene are useful for clinical diagnosis, and may reveal a new insight in enzyme activity, whereas the identification of pathogenic mutations will accelerate genetic counseling for newly identified CNS patients...
December 13, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236822/the-relative-frequency-of-common-neuromuscular-diagnoses-in-a-reference-center
#18
Ana Cotta, Júlia Filardi Paim, Elmano Carvalho, Antonio Lopes da-Cunha-Júnior, Monica M Navarro, Jaquelin Valicek, Miriam Melo Menezes, Simone Vilela Nunes, Rafael Xavier-Neto, Sidney Baptista, Luciano Romero Lima, Reinaldo Issao Takata, Antonio Pedro Vargas
The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. OBJECTIVE: To report the relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center. METHODS: A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. RESULTS: Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46...
November 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235200/concise-review-the-cellular-conspiracy-of-als
#19
REVIEW
Andrea Serio, Rickie Patani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is incurable and devastating. A dearth of therapies has galvanized experimental focus onto the cellular and molecular mechanisms that both initiate and subsequently drive motor neuron (MN) degeneration. A traditional view of ALS pathogenesis posits that disease-specific injury to a subtype of neurons is mechanistically cell-autonomous. This "neuron-centric" view has biased past research efforts. However, a wealth of accumulating evidence now strongly implicates non-neuronal cells as being major determinants of ALS...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234254/prognostic-significance-of-focal-adhesion-kinase-in-node-negative-breast-cancer
#20
Katrin Almstedt, Isabel Sicking, Marco J Battista, Shangou Huangfu, Anne-Sophie Heimes, Veronika Weyer-Elberich, Annette Hasenburg, Marcus Schmidt
Background: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays an important role as a mediator of cell migration, invasion, proliferation and survival. Conflicting results for the prognostic role of FAK in breast cancer (BC) prompted us to determine its impact. Methods: Patients with node-negative BC entered this retrospective study. FAK expression was determined by immunohistochemistry (n = 335). The prognostic impact of FAK was examined with Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier estimation in the whole cohort as well as in different molecular subtypes...
October 2017: Breast Care
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