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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026322/molecular-classification-of-esophagogastric-junction-carcinoma-correlated-with-prognosis
#1
Long Zou, Yinying Wu, Ke Ma, Yangwei Fan, Danfeng Dong, Ningyan Geng, Enxiao Li
A novel molecular classification of gastric cancer by the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) is a potential advance in diagnosis and treatment, and it helps to determine prognosis. The use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) rather than gene expression analysis to determine tumor subtypes was evaluated with the aim of determining the feasibility of using the ACRG molecular classification. A total of 69 esophagogastric junction (EGJ) carcinomas were classified as microsatellite instable (MSI, 17.40%, 12 of 69), microsatellite stable with markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MSS/EMT, 18...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025594/gene-expression-profiling-pathway-analysis-and-subtype-classification-reveal-molecular-heterogeneity-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-suggest-subtype-specific-therapeutic-targets
#2
Rahul Agarwal, Jitendra Narayan, Amitava Bhattacharyya, Mayank Saraswat, Anil Kumar Tomar
A very low 5-year survival rate among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is mainly due to lack of early stage diagnosis, distant metastasis and high risk of postoperative recurrence. Hence ascertaining novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and patient specific therapeutics is crucial and urgent. Here, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression data of 423 HCC patients (373 tumors and 50 controls) downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) followed by pathway enrichment by gene ontology annotations, subtype classification and overall survival analysis...
October 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020678/ovarian-cancer-a-heterogeneous-disease
#3
Myriam Kossaï, Alexandra Leary, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Catherine Genestie
Ovarian cancer encompasses a collection of neoplasms with distinct clinicopathological and molecular features and prognosis. Despite there being a variety of ovarian cancer subtypes, these are treated as a single disease. Tremendous efforts have been made to characterize these subtypes and identify tumoral pathways and potential biomarkers for therapeutic strategies. As in other cancer types, tumor heterogeneity appears to be very high across subtypes and within a single tumor, representing a major cause of treatment failure...
October 12, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020180/molecular-tracing-of-the-geographical-origin-of-hiv-1-infection-and-patterns-of-epidemic-spread-among-migrants-who-inject-drugs-in-athens
#4
D Paraskevis, E Kostaki, G K Nikolopoulos, V Sypsa, M Psichogiou, J Del Amo, I Hodges-Mameletzis, D Paraskeva, A Skoutelis, M Malliori, L Williams, S R Friedman, G L Daikos, A Hatzakis
Background: High numbers of HIV-1 infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) have been diagnosed in Athens, Greece since 2011. We aimed to trace the geographic origin of HIV-1 infection for migrant who inject drugs and to investigate whether transmissions occur more frequently among migrants than among Greek nationals. Methods: Multiple cross-sectional studies were pooled to assemble all persons diagnosed with HIV-1 in Greece between 1/1/2011-31/10/2014. Phylogenetic analyses used maximum likelihood estimation...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019331/clinical-and-pathological-characteristics-of-triple-positive-breast-cancer-among-iraqi-patients
#5
Nada A S Alwan, Faisal H Mualla, Munawar Al Naqash, Saad Kathum, Furat N Tawfiq, Sana Nadhir
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting the Iraqi population and the leading cause of cancer related mortality among Iraqi women. It has been well documented that prognosis of patients depends largely upon the hormone receptor contents and HER-2 over expression of their neoplasm. Recent studies suggest that Triple Positive (TP) tumors, bearing the three markers, tend to exhibit a relatively favorable clinical behavior in which overtreatment is not recommended...
September 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018127/bosutinib-attenuates-inflammation-via-inhibiting-salt-inducible-kinases-in-experimental-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-on-mice
#6
Li Ma, Anatol Manaenko, Yi-Bo Ou, An-Wen Shao, Shu-Xu Yang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with highest mortality and morbidity. Pronounced inflammation plays a significant role in the development of the secondary brain injury after ICH. Recently, SIK-2 (salt-inducible kinase-2) was identified as an important component controlling inflammatory response. Here we sought to investigate the role of SIK-2 in post-ICH inflammation and potential protective effects of SIK-2 inhibition after ICH. METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-three male CD-1 mice were used...
October 10, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016943/radiologic-progression-of-glioblastoma-under-therapy-an-exploratory-analysis-of-avaglio
#7
Martha Nowosielski, Benjamin M Ellingson, Olivier L Chinot, Josep Garcia, Cedric Revil, Alexander Radbruch, Ryo Nishikawa, Warren P Mason, Roger Henriksson, Frank Saran, Philipp Kickingereder, Michael Platten, Thomas Sandmann, Lauren E Abrey, Timothy F Cloughesy, Martin Bendszus, Wolfgang Wick
Background: In this exploratory analysis of AVAglio, a randomized phase III clinical study that investigated the addition of bevacizumab (Bev) to radiotherapy/temozolomide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, we aim to radiologically characterize glioblastoma on therapy until progression and investigate whether the type of radiologic progression differs between treatment arms and is related to survival and molecular data. Methods: Five progression types (PTs) were categorized using an adapted algorithm according to MRI contrast enhancement behavior in T1 and T2-weighted images in 621 patients (Bev, n= 299; placebo, n=322)...
September 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016925/divergent-evolution-of-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioblastoma-stem-cells-is-reflected-in-extracellular-vesicles-and-coupled-with-radiosensitization
#8
Delphine Garnier, Brian Meehan, Thomas Kislinger, Paul Daniel, Ankit Sinha, Bassam Abdulkarim, Ichiro Nakano, Janusz Rak
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is almost invariably fatal due to failure of standard therapy. The relapse of GBM following surgery, radiation and systemic temozolomide (TMZ) is attributed to the ability of glioma stem cells (GSCs) to survive, evolve and repopulate the tumor mass, events on which therapy exerts a poorly understood influence. Methods: Here we explore the molecular and cellular evolution of TMZ resistance as it emerges in vivo (xenograft models) in a series of human GSCs with either proneural (PN) or mesenchymal (MES) molecular characteristics...
July 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016833/the-impact-of-surgery-in-molecularly-defined-low-grade-glioma-an-integrated-clinical-radiological-and-molecular-analysis
#9
Maarten M J Wijnenga, Pim J French, Hendrikus J Dubbink, Winand N M Dinjens, Peggy N Atmodimedjo, Johan M Kros, Marion Smits, Renske Gahrmann, Geert-Jan Rutten, Jeroen B Verheul, Ruth Fleischeuer, Clemens M F Dirven, Arnaud J P E Vincent, Martin J van den Bent
Background: Extensive resections in low-grade glioma are associated with improved overall survival. However, WHO classification of gliomas has been completely revised and is now predominantly based on molecular criteria. This requires re-evaluation of the impact of surgery in molecularly defined low-grade glioma subtypes. Methods: We included 228 adults who underwent surgery since 2003 for a supratentorial low-grade glioma. Pre-and postoperative tumor volumes were assessed with semi-automatic software on T2-weighted images...
September 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016808/molecular-differences-in-idh-wildtype-glioblastoma-according-to-mgmt-promoter-methylation
#10
Tobias Kessler, Felix Sahm, Ahmed Sadik, Damian Stichel, Anne Hertenstein, Guido Reifenberger, Angela Zacher, Michael Sabel, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Joachim Steinbach, Ulrich Sure, Dietmar Krex, Anca-L Grosu, Melanie Bewerunge-Hudler, David Jones, Stefan M Pfister, Michael Weller, Christiane Opitz, Martin Bendszus, Andreas von Deimling, Michael Platten, Wolfgang Wick
Background: O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status is a predictive biomarker in glioblastoma. We investigated whether this marker furthermore defines a molecularly distinct tumor subtype with clinically different outcome. Methods: We analyzed copy number alteration (CNV) and methylation profiles of 1095 primary and 92 progressive Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wildtype glioblastomas, including paired samples from 49 patients. DNA mutation data from 182 glioblastoma samples of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and RNA expression from 107 TCGA and 55 Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas samples were analyzed...
August 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016681/heterodimerization-of-two-pore-domain-k-channel-task1-and-talk2-in-living-heterologous-expression-systems
#11
Yoshiaki Suzuki, Kanako Tsutsumi, Tatsuya Miyamoto, Hisao Yamamura, Yuji Imaizumi
Two-pore-domain K+ (K2P) channels sense a wide variety of stimuli such as mechanical stress, inhalational anesthetics, and changes in extracellular pH or temperature. The K2P channel activity forms a background K+ current and, thereby, contributes to resting membrane potentials. Six subfamilies including fifteen subtypes of K2P channels have been identified. Each K2P channel molecule with two pores consists of a homodimer of each subtype. In addition, a few heterodimers mainly within the same subfamilies have been found recently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016621/epidemic-dispersion-of-hiv-and-hcv-in-a-population-of-co-infected-romanian-injecting-drug-users
#12
Simona Paraschiv, Leontina Banica, Ionelia Nicolae, Iulia Niculescu, Adrian Abagiu, Raluca Jipa, Andrea-Clemencia Pineda-Peña, Marta Pingarilho, Emil Neaga, Kristof Theys, Pieter Libin, Dan Otelea, Ana Abecasis
Co-infections with HIV and HCV are very frequent among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, very few studies comparatively reconstructed the transmission patterns of both viruses in the same population. We have recruited 117 co-infected PWID during a recent HIV outbreak in Romania. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on HIV and HCV sequences in order to characterize and compare transmission dynamics of the two viruses. Three large HIV clusters (2 subtype F1 and one CRF14_BG) and thirteen smaller HCV transmission networks (genotypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 4a and 4d) were identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994423/cholangiocarcinoma-evolving-concepts-and-therapeutic-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Sumera Rizvi, Shahid A Khan, Christopher L Hallemeier, Robin K Kelley, Gregory J Gores
Cholangiocarcinoma is a disease entity comprising diverse epithelial tumours with features of cholangiocyte differentiation: cholangiocarcinomas are categorized according to anatomical location as intrahepatic (iCCA), perihilar (pCCA), or distal (dCCA). Each subtype has a distinct epidemiology, biology, prognosis, and strategy for clinical management. The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma, particularly iCCA, has increased globally over the past few decades. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of potentially curative treatment for all three disease subtypes, whereas liver transplantation after neoadjuvant chemoradiation is restricted to a subset of patients with early stage pCCA...
October 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994342/malignant-ectomesenchymoma-series-analysis-of-a-histologically-and-genetically-heterogeneous-tumor
#14
Brannan B Griffin, Pauline M Chou, David George, Lawrence J Jennings, Nicoleta C Arva
AIMS: Malignant ectomesenchymoma is a rare pediatric neoplasm with dual mesenchymal and neuroectodermal elements. Mesenchymal component is usually rhabdomyosarcoma, particularly embryonal subtype, whereas neuroectodermal derivatives are frequently a neuroblastic tumor. Ectomesenchymoma manifests in various sites given the wide migration of neural crest cells during development, though the pelvis/perineum is most often involved. Moreover, no unique unifying molecular abnormality has been determined...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993711/social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-are-related-to-maternal-immune-history-profile
#15
S Patel, A Masi, R C Dale, A J O Whitehouse, I Pokorski, G A Alvares, I B Hickie, E Breen, A J Guastella
Maternal immune activation has been highlighted as a factor that might increase the risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. Preclinical animal evidence shows that immune activation in mothers during pregnancy causes ASD-like behavioural traits in offspring. To this point, there has been no investigation of whether immune system activation in human mothers during pregnancy is associated with more severe symptoms in children with ASD. In this study, data from an existing ASD cohort (N=220) were analysed to investigate whether immune conditions in the mother were associated with greater severity of autism-related symptoms...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993511/cell-cycle-dependent-tumor-engraftment-and-migration-are-enabled-by-aurora-a
#16
Tony L H Chu, Marisa Connell, Lixin Zhou, Zhengcheng He, Jennifer R Won, Seyed M Rahavi, Helen Chen, Pooja Mohan, Oksana Nemirovsky, Abbas Fotovati, Miguel Angel Pujana, Gregor Sd Reid, Torsten O Nielsen, Nelly Pante, Christopher A Maxwell
Cell cycle progression and the acquisition of a migratory phenotype are hallmarks of human carcinoma cells that are perceived as independent processes but may be interconnected by molecular pathways that control microtubule nucleation at centrosomes. Here, cell cycle progression dramatically impacts the engraftment kinetics of 4T1-luciferase2 breast cancer cells in immunocompetent BALB/c or immunocompromised NOD-SCID gamma (NSG) mice. Multi-parameter imaging of wound closure assays was used to track cell cycle progression, cell migration, and associated phenotypes in epithelial cells or carcinoma cells expressing a fluorescence ubiquitin cell cycle indicator...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993342/in-vivo-detection-of-hsp90-identifies-breast-cancers-with-aggressive-behavior
#17
Takuya Osada, Kensuke Kaneko, William R Gwin, Michael A Morse, Amy Hobeika, Brian W Pogue, Zachary C Hartman, Philip F Hughes, Timothy Haystead, H Kim Lyerly
PURPOSE: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone to numerous molecular pathways in malignant cells, is elevated in aggressive breast cancers (BC). We hypothesized that identifying breast cells with elevated Hsp90 activity in situ could result in early detection of aggressive BC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We exploited the uptake of a Hsp90 inhibitor by malignant cells to create an imaging probe (HS131) of Hsp90 activity by linking it to a near infrared (nIR) dye. HS131 uptake into cells correlated with cell membrane expression of Hsp90 and was used to image molecular subtypes of murine and human BC in vitro and in murine models...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993028/the-case-for-dna-methylation-based-molecular-profiling-to-improve-diagnostic-accuracy-for-central-nervous-system-embryonal-tumors-not-otherwise-specified-in-adults
#18
Gail C Halliday, Reimar C Junckerstorff, Jacqueline M Bentel, Andrew Miles, David T W Jones, Volker Hovestadt, David Capper, Raelene Endersby, Catherine H Cole, Tom van Hagen, Nicholas G Gottardo
Central nervous system primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (CNS-PNETs), have recently been re-classified in the most recent 2016 WHO Classification into a standby catch all category, "CNS Embryonal Tumor, not otherwise specified" (CNS embryonal tumor, NOS) based on epigenetic, biologic and histopathologic criteria. CNS embryonal tumors (NOS) are a rare, histologically and molecularly heterogeneous group of tumors that predominantly affect children, and occasionally adults. Diagnosis of this entity continues to be challenging and the ramifications of misdiagnosis of this aggressive class of brain tumors are significant...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991889/trends-in-drug-resistance-prevalence-hiv-1-variants-and-clinical-status-in-hiv-1-infected-pediatric-population-in-madrid-1993-2015-analysis
#19
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Sara Domínguez, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Luis Prieto, Pablo Rojo, Pepa Mellado, Marisa Navarro, Rafael Delgado, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The expanded use of long-term antiretroviral treatments in infected children may exacerbate the problem of drug resistance mutations (HIVDR) selection, which can compromise treatment efficiency. OBJECTIVE: We describe the temporal trends of HIVDR and the HIV-1 variants during 23 years (1993-March 2016) in the Madrid cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected patients with at least one available HIV-1 pol sequence/genotypic resistance profile, establishing different groups according to the sampling year of first resistance data...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991563/imaging-and-screening-of-kidney-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Alberto Diaz de Leon, Ivan Pedrosa
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a diverse and heterogeneous disease spectrum, but insight into its molecular biology has provided an improved understanding of potential risk factors, oncologic behavior, and imaging features. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging may allow the identification and preoperative subtyping of RCC and assessment of a response to various therapies. Active surveillance is a viable management option in some patients and has provided further insight into the natural history of RCC, including the favorable prognosis of cystic neoplasms...
November 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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