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Mónica Elizabeth Mosquera Ortega, Delfina Mercedes Romero, Alejandro Martín Pato, Carla Solange Sosa-Holt, Adriana Ridolfi, Edda Villaamil Lepori, Marcelo Javier Wolansky
Pyrethroids (PYRs) are synthetic insecticides increasingly used in agricultural and household pest control. Little is known on how the toxicity of highly effective bolus doses of single compounds compares to more realistic scenarios of low-level exposure to PYR mixtures. In this study, we examined a quaternary mixture of two noncyano (tefluthrin, TEF; bifenthrin, BIF) and two cyano (α-cypermethrin, α-CPM; deltamethrin, DTM) PYRs in young adult rats. These compounds are mostly composed of PYR isomers ranking top ten in acute lethality in rats...
July 12, 2018: Toxicology
Cunyan Li, Huai Tao, Xiudeng Yang, Xianghui Zhang, Yong Liu, Yamei Tang, Aiguo Tang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating psychiatric disorder. Validation of potential serum biomarkers during first-episode psychosis (FEP) is especially helpful to understand the onset and prognosis of this disorder. To address this question, we examined multiple blood biomarkers and assessed the efficacy to diagnose SZ. The expression levels of Neuregulin1 (NRG1), ErbB4, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1) and ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) proteins in peripheral blood of 53 FEP patients and 57 healthy controls were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Lijun Wang, Fang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping for endometrial cancer (EC) is a contemporary technique that could provide benefits over traditional lymphadenectomy. Comprehensive published literature on sentinel lymph node mapping for laparoscopy surgery in EC, data extraction, evidence-based medicine-based methods, and meta-analysis are carried out to further explore sentinel lymph node mapping in laparoscopy surgery in EC. The application value provides basis for prevention and treatment of EC...
July 14, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Min Qian, Haitao Ren, Tao Qu, Zhaohui Lu, Yueli Zou, Junying He, Yanhuan Zhao, Lin Chen, Hongzhi Guan
BACKGROUND: Neurocutaneous melanocytosis (NCM) is a poorly understood disease due to its rarity. This study aimed to summarize the characteristics of adult NCM and improve the awareness of this disease. METHODS: The clinical data of 13 adult patients with NCM were retrospectively reviewed, including neuroimages, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and histological features. RESULTS: There were 9 males and 4 females. The mean age at symptom onset was 36...
July 13, 2018: European Neurology
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Joaquim Radua
OBJECTIVE: Evidence syntheses such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses provide a rigorous and transparent knowledge base for translating clinical research into decisions, and thus they represent the basic unit of knowledge in medicine. Umbrella reviews are reviews of previously published systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Therefore, they represent one of the highest levels of evidence synthesis currently available, and are becoming increasingly influential in biomedical literature...
July 13, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Greg L Alston, Wallace Marsh, Ashley N Castleberry, Katherine A Kelley, Eric G Boyce
OBJECTIVE: The Hiring Intent Reasoning Examination (HIRE) was designed to (1) explore the relative value of applicant-specific attributes evaluated during the hiring of entry-level pharmacists; (2) examine how each of these attributes influences hiring decisions; and (3) identify which attributes practicing pharmacists perceive as most and least valuable. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was developed and sent to 36,817 pharmacists; 3723 (11%) responded representing a broad cross-section of practice settings and job roles...
July 7, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Helen Kerr, Jayne Price, Honor Nicholl, Peter O'Halloran
BACKGROUND: Improvements in care and treatment have led to more young adults with life-limiting conditions living beyond childhood, necessitating a transition from children's to adult services. Given the lack of evidence on interventions to promote transition, it is important that those creating and evaluating interventions develop a theoretical understanding of how such complex interventions may work. OBJECTIVES: To develop theory about the interventions, and organisational and human factors that help or hinder a successful transition from children's to adult services, drawing on the experience, knowledge, and insights of young adults with life-limiting conditions, their parents/carers, and service providers...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
O Adriani, Y Akaike, K Asano, Y Asaoka, M G Bagliesi, E Berti, G Bigongiari, W R Binns, S Bonechi, M Bongi, P Brogi, J H Buckley, N Cannady, G Castellini, C Checchia, M L Cherry, G Collazuol, V Di Felice, K Ebisawa, H Fuke, T G Guzik, T Hams, M Hareyama, N Hasebe, K Hibino, M Ichimura, K Ioka, W Ishizaki, M H Israel, K Kasahara, J Kataoka, R Kataoka, Y Katayose, C Kato, N Kawanaka, Y Kawakubo, K Kohri, H S Krawczynski, J F Krizmanic, T Lomtadze, P Maestro, P S Marrocchesi, A M Messineo, J W Mitchell, S Miyake, A A Moiseev, K Mori, M Mori, N Mori, H M Motz, K Munakata, H Murakami, S Nakahira, J Nishimura, G A de Nolfo, S Okuno, J F Ormes, S Ozawa, L Pacini, F Palma, P Papini, A V Penacchioni, B F Rauch, S B Ricciarini, K Sakai, T Sakamoto, M Sasaki, Y Shimizu, A Shiomi, R Sparvoli, P Spillantini, F Stolzi, J E Suh, A Sulaj, I Takahashi, M Takayanagi, M Takita, T Tamura, N Tateyama, T Terasawa, H Tomida, S Torii, Y Tsunesada, Y Uchihori, S Ueno, E Vannuccini, J P Wefel, K Yamaoka, S Yanagita, A Yoshida, K Yoshida
Extended results on the cosmic-ray electron + positron spectrum from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV are presented based on observations with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the International Space Station utilizing the data up to November 2017. The analysis uses the full detector acceptance at high energies, approximately doubling the statistics compared to the previous result. CALET is an all-calorimetric instrument with a total thickness of 30 X_{0} at normal incidence and fine imaging capability, designed to achieve large proton rejection and excellent energy resolution well into the TeV energy region...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Nicola Personeni, Tiziana Pressiani, Armando Santoro, Lorenza Rimassa
Over the past ten years, sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has been the only systemic agent approved for first-line treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whereas only recently lenvatinib was shown to be noninferior to sorafenib, in terms of survival, all other agents previously tested failed to prove noninferiority (or superiority) when compared with sorafenib. Similarly, in a second-line setting, most investigational drugs have failed to provide better survival outcomes than placebo...
2018: Drugs in Context
Jente van Staalduinen, David Baker, Peter Ten Dijke, Hans van Dam
Chemoresistance remains a major complication of cancer treatments. Recent data provide strong evidence that chemoresistance is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a latent developmental process, which is re-activated during cancer progression. EMT involves transcriptional reprogramming and is driven by specific EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs). In this review, we provide support for the idea that EMT-TFs contribute to the development of resistance against cancer therapy and discuss how EMT-TFs might be targeted to advance novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of cancer...
July 12, 2018: Oncogene
Jozo Grgic, Dorothea Dumuid, Enrique Garcia Bengoechea, Nipun Shrestha, Adrian Bauman, Timothy Olds, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: During a 24-h day, each given period is spent in either sedentary behaviour, sleeping, light physical activity (LPA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In epidemiological research most studies have traditionally analysed the associations of these behaviours in isolation from each other; that is, without taking into account the displacement of time spent in the remaining behaviours. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in exploring how all the behaviours across the energy expenditure spectrum influence health outcomes...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Lauren Hirsch, Scott B Patten, Lauren Bresee, Nathalie Jette, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) has increased in recent years; however, their use and effect on metabolic outcomes has been poorly characterised in population-level studies.AimsThis study aimed to determine the associations between SGA use and metabolic indicators in a general population. METHOD: We used data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Canadian households. Participants were Canadians aged 3-79 years, living in one of the ten provinces...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Abhishek Zanwar, Avinash Jain, Latika Gupta, Smirti Chaurasia, Sandeep Kumar, Durga Prasanna Misra, Ramnath Misra
Despite many studies focused on involvement of T cell in pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TaK), very few have explored the role of B cells. Hence, we sought evidence of B cell involvement in a large cohort of TaK by measuring serum levels of B cell survival factors activation factor (BAFF) and A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL). Serum BAFF and APRIL levels were measured by ELISA in 50 patients and 48 healthy individuals, and further assessed for correlation with outcome measures, such as Indian Takayasu Clinical Activity Score-ESR (ITAS-ESR) and Takayasu arteritis Damage score (TADS)...
July 11, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Blandine Dozières-Puyravel, Laurent François, Silvana de Lucia, Estelle Goujon, Marion Danse, Stéphane Auvin
Ketogenic diets (KDs) are well-established treatments for pharmacoresistant epilepsies and some metabolic disorders. The amount of publications including evidence-based trials has continuously increased in the last 10 years. We evaluated the use of KDs in France using 2 surveys from more than ten years ago (2005 and 2008). METHODS: We conducted a new survey based on 10 questions to evaluate the evolution of the practice since 2008 and the thoughts of French pediatric neurologists on the barriers as well as possible ways to support the use of KDs...
July 8, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Joana G Lopes, Victor Sourjik
The microorganisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can influence the metabolism, immunity, and behavior of animal hosts. Increasing evidence suggests that communication between the host and the microbiome also occurs in the opposite direction, with hormones and other host-secreted compounds being sensed by microorganisms. Here, we addressed one key aspect of the host-microbe communication by studying chemotaxis of a model commensal bacterium, Escherichia coli, to several compounds present abundantly in the GI tract, namely catecholamines, thyroid hormones, and polyamines...
July 11, 2018: ISME Journal
Amos Omondi Salim, Clifford Chacha Mwita, Samson Gwer
REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to determine the best available evidence on the most effective treatment of Madura foot. INTRODUCTION: Madura foot or mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous soft-tissue infection that is endemic to several regions of Africa and Asia. It may be of fungal (eumycetoma) or bacterial (actinomycetoma) origin, warranting therapy with either antifungal or antibacterial medication as well as surgery. Without timely intervention, it often results in lifelong disability...
July 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
J P V Oliveira, M P Pereira, V P Duarte, F F Corrêa, E M Castro, F J Pereira
Typha domingensis (cattail) is a native macrophyte known by its capacity to tolerate several heavy metals effects and the potential use for phytoremediation. However, in despite that cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic pollutants; its effects in T. domingensis biology remain uninvestigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the tolerance of T. domingensis to cadmium contamination by evaluating its growth, Cd uptake, leaf anatomy and gas exchange. The experiment was designed using three cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 50 µM) and ten replicates for 90 days...
August 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Sudipta Acharya, Sriparna Saha, Prasanna Pradhan
To describe the cellular functions of proteins and genes, a potential dynamic vocabulary is Gene Ontology (GO), which comprises of three sub-ontologies namely, Biological-process, Cellular-component and Molecular-function. It has several applications in the field of bioinformatics like annotating/measuring gene-gene or protein-protein semantic similarity, identifying genes/proteins by their GO annotations for disease gene and target discovery etc. To determine semantic similarity between genes, several semantic measures have been proposed in literature, which involve information content of GO-terms, GO tree structure or the combination of both...
June 21, 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Yin-Wei Chen, Yong-Hua Niu, Dao-Qi Wang, Hao Li, Gaurab Pokhrel, Hao Xu, Tao Wang, Shao-Gang Wang, Ji-Hong Liu
Varicocele is one of the common correctable causes of male infertility. Recent studies have demonstrated varicocelectomy in males with abnormal semen parameters was associated with better fertility outcome, but the effect of adjuvant drug therapy after varicocelectomy on fertility outcome in patients with varicocele-associated infertility remains undefined. Hence, the present meta-analysis was performed to assess the efficacy of adjuvant drug therapy after varicocelectomy. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No...
July 11, 2018: Andrologia
Sebastián Valverde Martínez, Waleska Salcedo Mercado, Edwin Grinard de León, Carlos Polo López, Angel Gallego Matey, Luis Miguel Gómez Tejeda
OBJECTIVE: We report two cases of patients diagnosed of paratesticular liposarcoma and perform a literature review of this rare entity. Our aim is to clarify its clinical and therapeutic characteristics. METHODS: Retrospective review of the medical records of two patients diagnosed of liposarcoma of the spermatic cord. RESULTS: Case 1: 65 year old male, presented a left large scrotal mass of 20 × 14 × 11 cm. He underwent radical orchiectomy...
July 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
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