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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827290/kinetochore-components-required-for-centromeric-chromatin-assembly-are-impacted-by-msc1-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#1
Chenchao Gao, Lauren Langbein, Fariha Kamal, Anuja A George, Nancy C Walworth
Eukaryotic chromosome segregation requires a protein complex known as the kinetochore that mediates attachment between mitotic spindle microtubules and centromere-specific nucleosomes composed of the widely conserved histone variant CENP-A. Mutations in kinetochore proteins of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lead to chromosome missegregation such that daughter cells emerge from mitosis with unequal DNA content. We find that multiple copies of Msc1, a fission yeast homologue of the KDM5 family of proteins, suppresses the temperature-sensitive growth defect of several kinetochore mutants, including mis16 and mis18, as well as mis6, mis15 and mis17, components of the Constitutive Centromere Associated Network (CCAN)...
August 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821619/dsc-e3-ligase-localization-to-the-golgi-requires-the-atpase-cdc48-and-cofactor-ufd1-for-activation-of-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-in-fission-yeast
#2
Risa Burr, Diedre Ribbens, Sumana Raychaudhuri, Emerson V Stewart, Jason Ho, Peter J Espenshade
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe regulate lipid homeostasis and the hypoxic response under conditions of low sterol or oxygen availability. SREBPs are cleaved in the Golgi through the combined action of the Dsc E3 ligase complex, the rhomboid protease Rbd2, and the essential ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA+) ATPase Cdc48. The soluble SREBP N-terminal transcription factor domain is then released in the cytosol to enter the nucleus and regulate gene expression...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811869/pro-and-antioxidant-functions-of-the-peroxisome-mitochondria-connection-and-its-impact-on-aging-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes and mitochondria are the main intracellular sources for reactive oxygen species. At the same time, both organelles are critical for the maintenance of a healthy redox balance in the cell. Consequently, failure in the function of both organelles is causally linked to oxidative stress and accelerated aging. However, it has become clear that peroxisomes and mitochondria are much more intimately connected both physiologically and structurally. Both organelles share common fission components to dynamically respond to environmental cues, and the autophagic turnover of both peroxisomes and mitochondria is decisive for cellular homeostasis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811350/defining-the-dna-binding-site-recognized-by-the-fission-yeast-zn2cys6-transcription-factor-pho7-and-its-role-in-phosphate-homeostasis
#4
Beate Schwer, Ana M Sanchez, Angad Garg, Debashree Chatterjee, Stewart Shuman
Fission yeast phosphate homeostasis entails transcriptional induction of genes encoding phosphate-mobilizing proteins under conditions of phosphate starvation. Transcription factor Pho7, a member of the Zn2Cys6 family of fungal transcription regulators, is the central player in the starvation response. The DNA binding sites in the promoters of phosphate-responsive genes have not been defined, nor have any structure-function relationships been established for the Pho7 protein. Here we narrow this knowledge gap by (i) delineating an autonomous DNA-binding domain (DBD) within Pho7 that includes the Zn2Cys6 module, (ii) deploying recombinant Pho7 DBD in DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) to map the Pho7 recognition sites in the promoters of the phosphate-regulated pho1 and tgp1 genes to a 12-nucleotide sequence motif [5'-TCG(G/C)(A/T)xxTTxAA], (iii) independently identifying the same motif as a Pho7 recognition element via in silico analysis of available genome-wide ChIP-seq data, (iv) affirming that mutations in the two Pho7 recognition sites in the pho1 promoter efface pho1 expression in vivo, and (v) establishing that the zinc-binding cysteines and a pair of conserved arginines in the DBD are essential for Pho7 activity in vivoIMPORTANCE Fungi respond to phosphate starvation by inducing the transcription of a set of phosphate acquisition genes that comprise a phosphate regulon...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808035/fission-yeast-myosin-myo2-is-down-regulated-in-actin-affinity-by-light-chain-phosphorylation
#5
Luther W Pollard, Carol S Bookwalter, Qing Tang, Elena B Krementsova, Kathleen M Trybus, Susan Lowey
Studies in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have provided the basis for the most advanced models of the dynamics of the cytokinetic contractile ring. Myo2, a class-II myosin, is the major source of tension in the contractile ring, but how Myo2 is anchored and regulated to produce force is poorly understood. To enable more detailed biochemical/biophysical studies, Myo2 was expressed in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system with its two native light chains, Rlc1 and Cdc4. Milligram yields of soluble, unphosphorylated Myo2 were obtained that exhibited high actin-activated ATPase activity and in vitro actin filament motility...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807855/spatial-organization-and-molecular-interactions-of-the-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-ccq1-tpz1-poz1-shelterin-complex
#6
Harry Scott, Jin-Kwang Kim, Clinton Yu, Lan Huang, Feng Qiao, Derek J Taylor
The shelterin complex is a macromolecular assembly of proteins that binds to and protects telomeric DNA, which composes the ends of all linear chromosomes. Shelterin proteins prevent chromosome ends from fusing together and from eliciting erroneous induction of DNA damage response pathways. In addition, shelterin proteins play key roles in regulating the recruitment and activation of telomerase, an enzyme that extends telomeric DNA. In fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, interactions between the shelterin proteins Ccq1, Tpz1, and Poz1 are important for regulating telomerase-mediated telomere synthesis and thus telomere length homeostasis...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806726/replication-fork-slowing-and-stalling-are-distinct-checkpoint-independent-consequences-of-replicating-damaged-dna
#7
Divya Ramalingam Iyer, Nicholas Rhind
In response to DNA damage during S phase, cells slow DNA replication. This slowing is orchestrated by the intra-S checkpoint and involves inhibition of origin firing and reduction of replication fork speed. Slowing of replication allows for tolerance of DNA damage and suppresses genomic instability. Although the mechanisms of origin inhibition by the intra-S checkpoint are understood, major questions remain about how the checkpoint regulates replication forks: Does the checkpoint regulate the rate of fork progression? Does the checkpoint affect all forks, or only those encountering damage? Does the checkpoint facilitate the replication of polymerase-blocking lesions? To address these questions, we have analyzed the checkpoint in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe using a single-molecule DNA combing assay, which allows us to unambiguously separate the contribution of origin and fork regulation towards replication slowing, and allows us to investigate the behavior of individual forks...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805296/basidiomycete-specific-pscamkl1-encoding-a-camk-like-protein-kinase-is-required-for-full-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#8
Min Jiao, Dan Yu, Chenglong Tan, Jia Guo, Dingyun Lan, Ershang Han, Tuo Qi, Ralf Thomas Voegele, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases (PKs) that respond to changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) and play diverse roles in eukaryotes. In fungi, CAMKs are generally classified into four families CAMK1, CAMKL, RAD53, and CAMK-Unique. Among these, CAMKL constitutes the largest family. In some fungal plant pathogens members of the CaMKL family have been shown to be responsible for pathogenesis. However, little is known about their role(s) in rust fungi. In this study, we functionally characterized a novel PK gene, PsCaMKL1, from Puccinia striiformis f...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801453/correction-for-szilagyi-et-al-cyclin-dependent-kinase-8-regulates-mitotic-commitment-in-fission-yeast
#9
Zsolt Szilagyi, Gabor Banyai, Marcela Davila Lopez, Christopher J McInerny, Claes M Gustafsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799069/rae1-mediated-nuclear-export-of-rnc1-is-an-important-determinant-in-controlling-mapk-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Ryosuke Satoh, Kanako Hagihara, Reiko Sugiura
In eukaryotic cells, RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play critical roles in regulating almost every aspect of gene expression, often shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. They are also key determinants in cell fate via controlling the target mRNAs under the regulation of various signaling pathways in response to environmental stresses. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that couple the location of mRNA and RBPs is a major challenge in the field of gene expression and signal responses. In fission yeast, a KH-type RBP Rnc1 negatively regulates MAPK signaling activation via mRNA stabilization of the dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase Pmp1, which dephosphorylates MAPK Pmk1...
August 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799013/phospho-mimicking-atf1-mutants-bypass-the-transcription-activating-function-of-the-map-kinase-sty1-of-fission-yeast
#11
REVIEW
Laura Sánchez-Mir, Clàudia Salat-Canela, Esther Paulo, Mercè Carmona, José Ayté, Baldo Oliva, Elena Hidalgo
Stress-dependent activation of signaling cascades is often mediated by phosphorylation events, but the exact nature and role of these phosphorelays are frequently poorly understood. Here, we review which are the consequences of the stress-dependent phosphorylation of a transcription factor on gene activation. In fission yeast, the MAP kinase Sty1 is activated upon several environmental hazards and promotes cell adaptation and survival, greatly through activation of a gene program mediated by the transcription factor Atf1...
August 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#12
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777780/coupling-tor-to-the-cell-cycle-by-the-greatwall-endosulfine-pp2a-b55-pathway
#13
REVIEW
Livia Pérez-Hidalgo, Sergio Moreno
Cell growth and division are two processes tightly coupled in proliferating cells. While Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is the master regulator of growth, the cell cycle is dictated by the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). A long-standing question in cell biology is how these processes may be connected. Recent work has highlighted that regulating the phosphatases that revert CDK phosphorylations is as important as regulating the CDKs for cell cycle progression. At mitosis, maintaining a low level of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-B55 activity is essential for CDK substrates to achieve the correct level of phosphorylation...
August 4, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775153/screening-and-purification-of-natural-products-from-actinomycetes-that-affect-the-cell-shape-of-fission-yeast
#14
R A Lewis, J-J Li, N E E Allenby, J Errington, J Hayles, P Nurse
This study was designed to identify bioactive compounds that alter the cellular shape of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, by affecting functions involved in the cell cycle or cell morphogenesis. We used a multidrug sensitive fission yeast strain, SAK950 to screen a library of 657 actinomycete bacteria and identified 242 strains that induced eight different major shape phenotypes in S. pombe. These include the typical cell cycle related phenotype, Elongated cells and cell morphology related phenotype Rounded cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774892/dialogue-between-centrosomal-entrance-and-exit-scaffold-pathways-regulates-mitotic-commitment
#15
Kuan Yoow Chan, Marisa Alonso-Nuñez, Agnes Grallert, Kayoko Tanaka, Yvonne Connolly, Duncan L Smith, Iain M Hagan
The fission yeast scaffold molecule Sid4 anchors the septum initiation network to the spindle pole body (SPB, centrosome equivalent) to control mitotic exit events. A second SPB-associated scaffold, Cut12, promotes SPB-associated Cdk1-cyclin B to drive mitotic commitment. Signals emanating from each scaffold have been assumed to operate independently to promote two distinct outcomes. We now find that signals from Sid4 contribute to the Cut12 mitotic commitment switch. Specifically, phosphorylation of Sid4 by NIMA(Fin1) reduces Sid4 affinity for its SPB anchor, Ppc89, while also enhancing Sid4's affinity for casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771613/activation-of-gcn2-in-response-to-different-stresses
#16
Silje Anda, Róbert Zach, Beáta Grallert
All organisms have evolved pathways to respond to different forms of cellular stress. The Gcn2 kinase is best known as a regulator of translation initiation in response to starvation for amino acids. Work in budding yeast has showed that the molecular mechanism of GCN2 activation involves the binding of uncharged tRNAs, which results in a conformational change and GCN2 activation. This pathway requires GCN1, which ensures delivery of the uncharged tRNA onto GCN2. However, Gcn2 is activated by a number of other stresses which do not obviously involve accumulation of uncharged tRNAs, raising the question how Gcn2 is activated under these conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765303/genetic-analysis-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#17
Karl Ekwall, Geneviève Thon
In this introduction we discuss some basic genetic tools and techniques that are used with the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Genes commonly used for selection or as reporters are discussed, with an emphasis on genes that permit counterselection, intragenic complementation, or colony-color assays. S. pombe is most stable as a haploid organism. We describe its mating-type system, how to perform genetic crosses and methods for selecting and propagating diploids. We discuss the relative merits of tetrad dissection and random spore preparation in strain construction and genetic analyses...
August 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765280/the-exocyst-subunit-sec3-is-regulated-by-a-protein-quality-control-pathway
#18
Caroline Kampmeyer, Antonina Karakostova, Signe M Schenstrøm, Amanda B Abildgaard, Anne-Marie Lauridsen, Isabelle Jourdain, Rasmus Hartmann-Petersen
Exocytosis involves fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, thereby delivering membrane proteins to the cell surface and releasing material into the extracellular space. The tethering of the secretory vesicles before membrane fusion is mediated by the exocyst, an essential phylogenetically conserved octameric protein complex. Exocyst biogenesis is regulated by several processes, but the mechanisms by which the exocyst is degraded are unknown. Here, to unravel the components of the exocyst degradation pathway, we screened for extragenic suppressors of a temperature-sensitive fission yeast strain mutated in the exocyst subunit Sec3 (sec3-913)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765164/selective-termination-of-lncrna-transcription-promotes-heterochromatin-silencing-and-cell-differentiation
#19
Leila Touat-Todeschini, Yuichi Shichino, Mathieu Dangin, Nicolas Thierry-Mieg, Benoit Gilquin, Edwige Hiriart, Ravi Sachidanandam, Emeline Lambert, Janine Brettschneider, Michael Reuter, Jan Kadlec, Ramesh Pillai, Akira Yamashita, Masayuki Yamamoto, André Verdel
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulating gene expression at the chromatin level are widespread among eukaryotes. However, their functions and the mechanisms by which they act are not fully understood. Here, we identify new fission yeast regulatory lncRNAs that are targeted, at their site of transcription, by the YTH domain of the RNA-binding protein Mmi1 and degraded by the nuclear exosome. We uncover that one of them, nam1, regulates entry into sexual differentiation. Importantly, we demonstrate that Mmi1 binding to this lncRNA not only triggers its degradation but also mediates its transcription termination, thus preventing lncRNA transcription from invading and repressing the downstream gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) essential to sexual differentiation...
August 1, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760705/adaptation-to-metabolic-dysfunction-during-aging-making-the-best-of-a-bad-situation
#20
REVIEW
S Michal Jazwinski, James C Jiang, Sangkyu Kim
Mitochondria play a central role in energy metabolism in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. As importantly, they are key in several anabolic processes, including amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, heme biosynthesis, and the formation of iron‑sulfur clusters. Mitochondria are also engaged in waste removal in the urea cycle. Their activity can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species which have damaging effects in the cell. These organelles are dynamic, undergoing cycles of fission and fusion which can be coupled to their removal by mitophagy...
July 29, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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