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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545058/a-systematic-genomic-screen-implicates-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-and-membrane-growth-in-nuclear-size-control
#1
Kazunori Kume, Helena Cantwell, Frank R Neumann, Andrew W Jones, Ambrosius P Snijders, Paul Nurse
How cells control the overall size and growth of membrane-bound organelles is an important unanswered question of cell biology. Fission yeast cells maintain a nuclear size proportional to cellular size, resulting in a constant ratio between nuclear and cellular volumes (N/C ratio). We have conducted a genome-wide visual screen of a fission yeast gene deletion collection for viable mutants altered in their N/C ratio, and have found that defects in both nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport and lipid synthesis alter the N/C ratio...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541282/tailing-and-degradation-of-argonaute-bound-small-rnas-protect-the-genome-from-uncontrolled-rnai
#2
Paola Pisacane, Mario Halic
RNAi is a conserved mechanism in which small RNAs induce silencing of complementary targets. How Argonaute-bound small RNAs are targeted for degradation is not well understood. We show that the adenyl-transferase Cid14, a member of the TRAMP complex, and the uridyl-transferase Cid16 add non-templated nucleotides to Argonaute-bound small RNAs in fission yeast. The tailing of Argonaute-bound small RNAs recruits the 3'-5' exonuclease Rrp6 to degrade small RNAs. Failure in degradation of Argonaute-bound small RNAs results in accumulation of 'noise' small RNAs on Argonaute and targeting of diverse euchromatic genes by RNAi...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539404/analysis-of-interphase-node-proteins-in-fission-yeast-by-quantitative-and-super-resolution-fluorescence-microscopy
#3
Matthew Akamatsu, Yu Lin, Joerg Bewersdorf, Thomas D Pollard
We used quantitative confocal microscopy and FPALM super resolution microscopy of live fission yeast to investigate the structures and assembly of two types of interphase nodes, multiprotein complexes associated with the plasma membrane that merge together and mature into the precursors of the cytokinetic contractile ring. During the long G2 phase of the cell cycle seven different interphase node proteins maintain constant concentrations as they accumulate in proportion to cell volume. During mitosis the total numbers of type 1 node proteins (cell cycle kinases Cdr1p, Cdr2p, Wee1p, and anillin Mid1p) are constant even when the nodes disassemble...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536259/differential-functional-regulation-of-pkc-orthologs-in-fission-yeast
#4
Marisa Madrid, Beatriz Vázquez-Marín, Teresa Soto, Alejandro Franco, Elisa Gómez-Gil, Jero Vicente-Soler, Mariano Gacto, Pilar Pérez, José Cansado
The two PKC orthologs Pck1 and Pck2 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe operate in a redundant fashion to control essential functions, including morphogenesis and cell wall biosynthesis, as well as the activity of the cell integrity pathway (CIP) and its core element the MAPK Pmk1. We show here that despite the strong structural similarity and functional redundancy of these two enzymes, the mechanisms regulating their maturation, activation, and stabilization have a remarkably distinct biological impact on both kinases...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522285/production-of-3-hydroxypropionic-acid-via-the-malonyl-coa-pathway-using-recombinant-fission-yeast-strains
#5
Akiko Suyama, Yujiro Higuchi, Masahiro Urushihara, Yuka Maeda, Kaoru Takegawa
3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) can be converted into derivatives such as acrylic acid, a source for producing super absorbent polymers. Although Escherichia coli has often been used for 3-HP production, it exhibits low tolerance to 3-HP. To circumvent this problem, we selected the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as this microorganism has higher tolerance to 3-HP than E. coli. Therefore, we constructed S. pombe transformants overexpressing two genes, one encoding the S. pombe acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Cut6p) and the other encoding the malonyl-CoA reductase derived from Chloroflexus aurantiacus (CaMCR)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515144/transient-activation-of-fission-yeast-ampk-is-required-for-cell-proliferation-during-osmotic-stress
#6
Katherine L Schutt, James B Moseley
The heterotrimeric kinase AMPK acts as an energy sensor to coordinate cell metabolism with environmental status in yeast through humans. Low intracellular ATP leads to AMPK activation through phosphorylation of the activation loop within the catalytic subunit. Other environmental stresses also activate AMPK, but it is unclear if cellular energy status affects AMPK activation under these conditions. Fission yeast AMPK catalytic subunit Ssp2 is phosphorylated at Thr189 by the upstream kinase Ssp1 in low glucose conditions, similar to other systems...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515143/cyclin-c-influences-the-timing-of-mitosis-in-fission-yeast
#7
Gabor Banyai, Zsolt Szilagyi, Vera Baraznenok, Olga Khorosjutina, Claes M Gustafsson
The multiprotein Mediator complex is required for the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator contains the Cdk8 regulatory subcomplex, which directs periodic transcription and influences cell cycle progression in fission yeast. We here investigate the role of CycC, the cognate cyclin partner of Cdk8, in cell cycle control. Previous reports suggested that CycC interact with other cellular Cdks, but a fusion of CycC to Cdk8 reported here did not cause any obvious cell cycle phenotypes...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513584/kinesin-5-independent-mitotic-spindle-assembly-requires-the-antiparallel-microtubule-crosslinker-ase1-in-fission-yeast
#8
Sergio A Rincon, Adam Lamson, Robert Blackwell, Viktoriya Syrovatkina, Vincent Fraisier, Anne Paoletti, Meredith D Betterton, Phong T Tran
Bipolar spindle assembly requires a balance of forces where kinesin-5 produces outward pushing forces to antagonize the inward pulling forces from kinesin-14 or dynein. Accordingly, Kinesin-5 inactivation results in force imbalance leading to monopolar spindle and chromosome segregation failure. In fission yeast, force balance is restored when both kinesin-5 Cut7 and kinesin-14 Pkl1 are deleted, restoring spindle bipolarity. Here we show that the cut7Δpkl1Δ spindle is fully competent for chromosome segregation independently of motor activity, except for kinesin-6 Klp9, which is required for anaphase spindle elongation...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512211/correction-for-bernard-et-al-splicing-factor-spf30-assists-exosome-mediated-gene-silencing-in-fission-yeast
#9
Pascal Bernard, Julie Drogat, Sonia Dheur, Sylvie Genier, Jean-Paul Javerzat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502666/purification-and-characterisation-of-the-fission-yeast-ndc80-complex
#10
Yuzy Matsuo, Sebastian P Maurer, Thomas Surrey, Takashi Toda
The Ndc80 complex is a conserved outer kinetochore protein complex consisting of Ndc80 (Hec1), Nuf2, Spc24 and Spc25. This complex comprises a major, if not the sole, platform with which the plus ends of the spindle microtubules directly interact. In fission yeast, several studies indicate that multiple microtubule-associated proteins including the Dis1/chTOG microtubule polymerase and the Mal3/EB1 microtubule plus-end tracking protein directly or indirectly bind Ndc80, thereby ensuring stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment...
May 11, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502612/marrvel-integration-of-human-and-model-organism-genetic-resources-to-facilitate-functional-annotation-of-the-human-genome
#11
Julia Wang, Rami Al-Ouran, Yanhui Hu, Seon-Young Kim, Ying-Wooi Wan, Michael F Wangler, Shinya Yamamoto, Hsiao-Tuan Chao, Aram Comjean, Stephanie E Mohr, Norbert Perrimon, Zhandong Liu, Hugo J Bellen
One major challenge encountered with interpreting human genetic variants is the limited understanding of the functional impact of genetic alterations on biological processes. Furthermore, there remains an unmet demand for an efficient survey of the wealth of information on human homologs in model organisms across numerous databases. To efficiently assess the large volume of publically available information, it is important to provide a concise summary of the most relevant information in a rapid user-friendly format...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497540/meikin-associated-polo-like-kinase-specifies-bub1-distribution-in-meiosis-i
#12
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Yuya Yamagishi, Tadashi Ishiguro, Yuki Okada, Yuji Tanno, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
In meiosis I, sister chromatids are captured by microtubules emanating from the same pole (mono-orientation), and centromeric cohesion is protected throughout anaphase. Shugoshin, which is localized to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage. Another key meiotic kinetochore factor, meikin, may regulate cohesion protection, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that fission yeast Moa1 (meikin), which associates stably with CENP-C during meiosis I, recruits Plo1 (polo-like kinase) to the kinetochores and phosphorylates Spc7 (KNL1) to accumulate Bub1...
May 12, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493118/position-matters-multiple-functions-of-linc-dependent-chromosome-positioning-during-meiosis
#13
Kazuhiro Katsumata, Eriko Nishi, Sadia Afrin, Kaoru Narusawa, Ayumu Yamamoto
Chromosome positioning is crucial for multiple chromosomal events, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes, which consist of conserved nuclear membrane proteins, were shown to control chromosome positioning and facilitate various biological processes by interacting with the cytoskeleton. However, the precise functions and regulation of LINC-dependent chromosome positioning are not fully understood. During meiosis, the LINC complexes induce clustering of telomeres, forming the bouquet chromosome arrangement, which promotes homologous chromosome pairing...
May 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490498/shelterin-components-mediate-genome-reorganization-in-response-to-replication-stress
#14
Takeshi Mizuguchi, Nitika Taneja, Emiko Matsuda, Jon-Matthew Belton, Peter FitzGerald, Job Dekker, Shiv I S Grewal
The dynamic nature of genome organization impacts critical nuclear functions including the regulation of gene expression, replication, and DNA damage repair. Despite significant progress, the mechanisms responsible for reorganization of the genome in response to cellular stress, such as aberrant DNA replication, are poorly understood. Here, we show that fission yeast cells carrying a mutation in the DNA-binding protein Sap1 show defects in DNA replication progression and genome stability and display extensive changes in genome organization...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485554/identification-of-aca-28-a-1-acetoxychavicol-acetate-analogue-compound-as-a-novel-modulator-of-erk-mapk-signaling-which-preferentially-kills-human-melanoma-cells
#15
Ryosuke Satoh, Kanako Hagihara, Kazuki Matsuura, Yoshiaki Manse, Ayako Kita, Tatsuki Kunoh, Takashi Masuko, Mariko Moriyama, Hiroyuki Moriyama, Genzoh Tanabe, Osamu Muraoka, Reiko Sugiura
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is essential for cell proliferation and is frequently deregulated in human tumors such as melanoma. Melanoma remains incurable despite the use of conventional chemotherapy; consequently, development of new therapeutic agents for melanoma is highly desirable. Here, we carried out a chemical genetic screen using a fission yeast phenotypic assay and showed that ACA-28, a synthetic derivative of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), which is a natural ginger compound, effectively inhibited the growth of melanoma cancer cells wherein ERK MAPK signaling is hyperactivated due to mutations in the upstream activating regulators...
May 9, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481910/pcna-ubiquitylation-ensures-timely-completion-of-unperturbed-dna-replication-in-fission-yeast
#16
Yasukazu Daigaku, Thomas J Etheridge, Yuka Nakazawa, Mayumi Nakayama, Adam T Watson, Izumi Miyabe, Tomoo Ogi, Mark A Osborne, Antony M Carr
PCNA ubiquitylation on lysine 164 is required for DNA damage tolerance. In many organisms PCNA is also ubiquitylated in unchallenged S phase but the significance of this has not been established. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we demonstrate that lysine 164 ubiquitylation of PCNA contributes to efficient DNA replication in the absence of DNA damage. Loss of PCNA ubiquitylation manifests most strongly at late replicating regions and increases the frequency of replication gaps. We show that PCNA ubiquitylation increases the proportion of chromatin associated PCNA and the co-immunoprecipitation of Polymerase δ with PCNA during unperturbed replication and propose that ubiquitylation acts to prolong the chromatin association of these replication proteins to allow the efficient completion of Okazaki fragment synthesis by mediating gap filling...
May 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479325/size-dependent-expression-of-the-mitotic-activator-cdc25-suggests-a-mechanism-of-size-control-in-fission-yeast
#17
Daniel Keifenheim, Xi-Ming Sun, Edridge D'Souza, Makoto J Ohira, Mira Magner, Michael B Mayhew, Samuel Marguerat, Nicholas Rhind
Proper cell size is essential for cellular function. Nonetheless, despite more than 100 years of work on the subject, the mechanisms that maintain cell-size homeostasis are largely mysterious [1]. Cells in growing populations maintain cell size within a narrow range by coordinating growth and division. Bacterial and eukaryotic cells both demonstrate homeostatic size control, which maintains population-level variation in cell size within a certain range and returns the population average to that range if it is perturbed [1, 2]...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476936/genome-wide-screen-for-cell-growth-regulators-in-fission-yeast
#18
Louise Weston, Jessica Greenwood, Paul Nurse
Cellular growth control is important for all living organisms but experimental investigation into this problem is difficult because of the complex range of growth regulatory mechanisms. We have used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to identify potential master regulators of growth. The S. pombe pat1(ts)mei4Δ strain enters the meiotic developmental program at restrictive temperature, but arrests in meiotic G2 phase as mei4(+) is essential for meiotic progression. These cells do not grow, even in an abundance of nutrients...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476860/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-yeast-mating-type-switching
#19
REVIEW
Sara J Hanson, Kenneth H Wolfe
Cell differentiation in yeast species is controlled by a reversible, programmed DNA-rearrangement process called mating-type switching. Switching is achieved by two functionally similar but structurally distinct processes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe In both species, haploid cells possess one active and two silent copies of the mating-type locus (a three-cassette structure), the active locus is cleaved, and synthesis-dependent strand annealing is used to replace it with a copy of a silent locus encoding the opposite mating-type information...
May 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475874/unprotected-replication-forks-are-converted-into-mitotic-sister-chromatid-bridges
#20
Anissia Ait Saada, Ana Teixeira-Silva, Ismail Iraqui, Audrey Costes, Julien Hardy, Giulia Paoletti, Karine Fréon, Sarah A E Lambert
Replication stress and mitotic abnormalities are key features of cancer cells. Temporarily paused forks are stabilized by the intra-S phase checkpoint and protected by the association of Rad51, which prevents Mre11-dependent resection. However, if a fork becomes dysfunctional and cannot resume, this terminally arrested fork is rescued by a converging fork to avoid unreplicated parental DNA during mitosis. Alternatively, dysfunctional forks are restarted by homologous recombination. Using fission yeast, we report that Rad52 and the DNA binding activity of Rad51, but not its strand-exchange activity, act to protect terminally arrested forks from unrestrained Exo1-nucleolytic activity...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Cell
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