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Fission yeast

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913728/fission-yeast-stn1-is-crucial-for-semi-conservative-replication-at-telomeres-and-subtelomeres
#1
Masahiro Takikawa, Yusuke Tarumoto, Fuyuki Ishikawa
The CST complex is a phylogenetically conserved protein complex consisting of CTC1/Cdc13, Stn1 and Ten1 that protects telomeres on linear chromosomes. Deletion of the fission yeast homologs stn1 and ten1 results in complete telomere loss; however, the precise function of Stn1 is still largely unknown. Here, we have isolated a high-temperature sensitive stn1 allele (termed stn1-1). stn1-1 cells abruptly lost telomeric sequence almost completely at the restrictive temperature. The loss of chromosomal DNA happened without gradual telomere shortening, and extended to 30 kb from the ends of chromosomes...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902423/characterization-of-cis-elements-in-the-promoter-of-trz2-encoding-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-mitochondrial-trna-3-end-processing-enzyme
#2
Jinyu Liu, Linting Huang, Yirong Wang, Ying Huang
The endonuclease tRNase Z is responsible for the 3'-end processing of tRNA precursors, which is one of the essential steps in tRNA maturation. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains two essential tRNase ZL genes (trz1 and trz2) involved in nuclear and mitochondrial tRNA 3'-end processing, respectively. Our previous studies suggest that trz2 is expressed at a very low level. Here we report characterization of the trz2 promoter. Using lacZ as a reporter, we show that the trz2 promoter contains a HomolD box and a very weak diverged TATA element...
November 22, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901072/characterisation-of-functional-domains-in-fission-yeast-ams2-that-are-required-for-core-histone-gene-transcription
#3
Yuko Takayama, Masaki Shirai, Fumie Masuda
Histone gene expression is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with a peak at S phase, which is crucial for cell division and genome integrity. However, the detailed mechanisms by which expression of histone genes are tightly regulated remain largely unknown. Fission yeast Ams2, a GATA-type zinc finger motif-containing factor, is required for activation of S phase-specific core histone gene transcription. Here we report the molecular characterisation of Ams2. We show that the zinc finger motif in Ams2 is necessary to bind the histone gene promoter region and to activate histone gene transcription...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898700/sbg1-is-a-novel-regulator-for-the-localization-of-the-%C3%AE-glucan-synthase-bgs1-in-fission-yeast
#4
Reshma Davidson, Josef A Pontasch, Jian-Qiu Wu
Glucan synthases synthesize glucans, complex polysaccharides that are the major components in fungal cell walls and division septa. Studying regulation of glucan synthases is important as they are essential for fungal cell survival and thus popular targets for anti-fungal drugs. Linear 1,3-β-glucan is the main component of primary septum and is synthesized by the conserved β-glucan synthase Bgs1 in fission yeast cytokinesis. It is known that Rho1 GTPase regulates Bgs1 catalytic activity and the F-BAR protein Cdc15 plays a role in Bgs1 delivery to the plasma membrane...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890612/in%C3%A2-vitro-reconstitution-and-biochemical-analyses-of-the-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-nucleosome
#5
Masako Koyama, Wataru Nagakura, Hiroki Tanaka, Tomoya Kujirai, Yuji Chikashige, Tokuko Haraguchi, Yasushi Hiraoka, Hitoshi Kurumizaka
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has a small genome but shares many physiological functions with higher eukaryotes, is a useful single-cell, model eukaryotic organism. In particular, many features concerning chromatin structure and dynamics, including heterochromatin, centromeres, telomeres, and DNA replication origins, are well conserved between S. pombe and higher eukaryotes. However, the S. pombe nucleosome, the fundamental structural unit of chromatin, has not been reconstituted in vitro. In the present study, we established the method to purify S...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889481/mitotic-nuclear-envelope-breakdown-and-spindle-nucleation-are-controlled-by-interphase-contacts-between-centromeres-and-the-nuclear-envelope
#6
Alfonso Fernández-Álvarez, Cécile Bez, Eileen T O'Toole, Mary Morphew, Julia Promisel Cooper
Faithful genome propagation requires coordination between nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown, spindle formation, and chromosomal events. The conserved linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex connects fission yeast centromeres and the centrosome, across the NE, during interphase. During meiosis, LINC connects the centrosome with telomeres rather than centromeres. We previously showed that loss of telomere-LINC contacts compromises meiotic spindle formation. Here, we define the precise events regulated by telomere-LINC contacts and address the analogous possibility that centromeres regulate mitotic spindle formation...
November 22, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887640/functional-and-regulatory-profiling-of-energy-metabolism-in-fission-yeast
#7
Michal Malecki, Danny A Bitton, Maria Rodríguez-López, Charalampos Rallis, Noelia Garcia Calavia, Graeme C Smith, Jürg Bähler
BACKGROUND: The control of energy metabolism is fundamental for cell growth and function and anomalies in it are implicated in complex diseases and ageing. Metabolism in yeast cells can be manipulated by supplying different carbon sources: yeast grown on glucose rapidly proliferates by fermentation, analogous to tumour cells growing by aerobic glycolysis, whereas on non-fermentable carbon sources metabolism shifts towards respiration. RESULTS: We screened deletion libraries of fission yeast to identify over 200 genes required for respiratory growth...
November 25, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876895/multiple-crosstalk-between-tor-and-the-cell-integrity-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-fission-yeast
#8
Marisa Madrid, Beatriz Vázquez-Marín, Alejandro Franco, Teresa Soto, Jero Vicente-Soler, Mariano Gacto, José Cansado
In eukaryotic cells, the highly conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways elicit adaptive responses to extra- and intracellular conditions by regulating essential cellular functions. However, the nature of the functional relationships between both pathways is not fully understood. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe the cell integrity MAPK pathway (CIP) regulates morphogenesis, cell wall structure and ionic homeostasis. We show that the Rab GTPase Ryh1, a TORC2 complex activator, cross-activates the CIP and its core member, the MAPK Pmk1, by two distinct mechanisms...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875300/the-fission-yeast-pre-mrna-processing-factor-18-prp18-has-intron-specific-splicing-functions-with-links-to-g1-s-cell-cycle-progression
#9
Nagampalli Vijaykrishna, Geetha Melangath, Rakesh Kumar, Piyush Khandelia, Pushpinder Bawa, Raghavan Varadarajan, Usha Vijayraghavan
The fission yeast genome which contains numerous short introns is an apt model for studies on fungal splicing mechanisms and splicing by intron-definition. Here we perform a domain analysis of the evolutionarily conserved Schizosaccharomyces pombe pre-mRNA processing factor, SpPrp18. Our mutational and biophysical analyses of the C- terminal alpha-helical bundle reveal critical roles for the conserved region as well as and helix five. We generate a novel conditional missense mutant, spprp18-5 To assess the role of SpPrp18, we performed global splicing analyses on cells depleted of prp18+ and the conditional spprp18-5 mutant which show widespread but intron-specific defects...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872152/an-unconventional-interaction-between-dis1-tog-and-mal3-eb1-promotes-the-fidelity-of-chromosome-segregation
#10
Yuzy Matsuo, Sebastian P Maurer, Masashi Yukawa, Silva Zakian, Martin R Singleton, Thomas Surrey, Takashi Toda
Dynamic microtubule plus ends interact with various intracellular target regions such as the cell cortex and the kinetochore. Two conserved families of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins, XMAP215/TOG and EB1, play pivotal roles in regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we study the functional interplay between fission yeast Dis1/XMAP215 and Mal3/EB1. Using an in vitro microscopy assay, we find that purified Dis1 autonomously tracks growing microtubule ends and is a bona fide microtubule polymerase. Mal3 recruits additional Dis1 to microtubule ends, explaining the synergistic enhancement of microtubule dynamicity by these proteins...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856494/the-dynamic-landscape-of-fission-yeast-meiosis-alternative-splice-isoforms
#11
Zheng Kuang, Jef D Boeke, Stefan Canzar
Alternative splicing increases the diversity of transcriptomes and proteomes in metazoans. The extent to which alternative splicing is active and functional in unicellular organisms is less understood. Here we exploit a single-molecule long-read sequencing technique and develop an open-source software program called SpliceHunter to characterize the transcriptome in the meiosis of fission yeast. We reveal 14353 alternative splicing events in 17669 novel isoforms at different stages of meiosis, including antisense and read-through transcripts...
November 17, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854023/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-of-histone-modifications-in-fission-yeast
#12
Jean Mbogning, Jason C Tanny
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a sensitive, accurate, and reliable technique widely used to analyze protein-DNA interactions at specific binding sites in vivo. It has been a particularly powerful technique for mapping of histone modification patterns both at individual loci and genome-wide. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ChIP of histone modifications associated with active transcription in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe).
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852900/gradients-of-phosphatidylserine-contribute-to-plasma-membrane-charge-localization-and-cell-polarity-in-fission-yeast
#13
Armin Haupt, Nicolas Minc
Surface charges at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane may contribute to regulate the surface recruitment of key signaling factors. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an abundant charged lipid, which may regulate charge distribution in different cell types. In here, we characterize the subcellular distribution and function of PS in the rod-shaped, polarized fission yeast. We find that PS preferably accumulates at cell tips and defines a gradient of negative charges along the cell surface. This polarization depends on actin-mediated endocytosis and contributes to the subcellular partitioning of charged polarity-regulating Rho-GTPases like Rho1 or Cdc42 in a protein charge-dependent manner...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846375/ubiquitination-of-ermes-components-by-the-e3-ligase-rsp5-is-involved-in-mitophagy
#14
Naïma Belgareh-Touzé, Laetitia Cavellini, Mickael M Cohen
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo permanent fission and fusion events. These processes play an essential role in maintaining normal cellular function. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial encounter structure (ERMES) is a marker of sites of mitochondrial division, but it is also involved in a plethora of other mitochondrial functions. However, it remains unclear how these different functions are regulated. We show here that Mdm34 and Mdm12, 2 components of ERMES, are ubiquitinated by the E3 ligase Rsp5...
November 15, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825453/cytokinesis-going-super-resolution-in-live-cells
#15
Yajun Liu, Jian-Qiu Wu
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for studying molecular organization, but mostly in fixed cells. New work using high-speed fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy now reveals the organization of cytokinesis nodes and contractile rings in live fission yeast cells.
November 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825338/sequential-and-counter-selectable-cassettes-for-fission-yeast
#16
Hanna Amelina, Vera Moiseeva, Laura Catharine Collopy, Siân Rosanna Pearson, Christine Anne Armstrong, Kazunori Tomita
BACKGROUND: Fission yeast is one of the most commonly used model organisms for studying genetics. For selection of desirable genotypes, antibiotic resistance cassettes are widely integrated into the genome near genes of interest. In yeasts, this is achieved by PCR amplification of the cassette flanked by short homology sequences, which can be incorporated by homology directed repair. However, the currently available cassettes all share the same tef promoter and terminator sequences. It can therefore be challenging to perform multiple genetic modifications by PCR-based targeting, as existing resistance cassettes in strains can be favored for recombination due to shared homology between the cassettes...
November 8, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825301/analysis-of-the-association-between-codon-optimality-and-mrna-stability-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#17
Yuriko Harigaya, Roy Parker
BACKGROUND: Recent experiments have shown that codon optimality is a major determinant of mRNA stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that this phenomenon may be conserved in Escherichia coli and some metazoans, although work in Neurospora crassa is not consistent with this model. RESULTS: We examined the association between codon optimality and mRNA stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our analysis revealed the following points. First, we observe a genome-wide association between codon optimality and mRNA stability also in S...
November 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821526/split-hand-foot-malformation-genetics-supports-the-chromosome-7-copy-segregation-mechanism-for-human-limb-development
#18
REVIEW
Amar J S Klar
Genetic aberrations of several unlinked loci cause human congenital split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) development. Mutations of the DLX5 (distal-less) transcription factor-encoding gene in chromosome 7 cause SHFM through haploinsufficiency, but the vast majority of cases result from heterozygous chromosomal aberrations of the region without mutating the DLX5 gene. To resolve this paradox, we invoke a chromosomal epigenetic mechanism for limb development. It is composed of a monochromatid gene expression phenomenon that we discovered in two fission yeasts with the selective chromosome copy segregation phenomenon that we discovered in mouse cells...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815906/synchronization-of-yeast
#19
Jessica Smith, Arkadi Manukyan, Hui Hua, Huzefa Dungrawala, Brandt L Schneider
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are amongst the simplest and most powerful model systems for studying the genetics of cell cycle control. Because yeast grows very rapidly in a simple and economical media, large numbers of cells can easily be obtained for genetic, molecular, and biochemical studies of the cell cycle. The use of synchronized cultures greatly aids in the ease and interpretation of cell cycle studies. In principle, there are two general methods for obtaining synchronized yeast populations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811944/complex-structure-of-the-fission-yeast-srebp-scap-binding-domains-reveals-an-oligomeric-organization
#20
Xin Gong, Hongwu Qian, Wei Shao, Jingxian Li, Jianping Wu, Jun-Jie Liu, Wenqi Li, Hong-Wei Wang, Peter Espenshade, Nieng Yan
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors are master regulators of cellular lipid homeostasis in mammals and oxygen-responsive regulators of hypoxic adaptation in fungi. SREBP C-terminus binds to the WD40 domain of SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), which confers sterol regulation by controlling the ER-to-Golgi transport of the SREBP-SCAP complex and access to the activating proteases in the Golgi. Here, we biochemically and structurally show that the carboxyl terminal domains (CTD) of Sre1 and Scp1, the fission yeast SREBP and SCAP, form a functional 4:4 oligomer and Sre1-CTD forms a dimer of dimers...
November 2016: Cell Research
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