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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663033/how-long-does-telomerase-extend-telomeres-regulation-of-telomerase-release-and-telomere-length-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Kazunori Tomita
Telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes telomeres, is essential for most eukaryotes to maintain their generations. Telomere length homeostasis is achieved via a balance between telomere lengthening by telomerase, and erosion over successive cell divisions. Impaired telomerase regulation leads to shortened telomeres and can cause defects in tissue maintenance. Telomeric DNA is composed of a repetitive sequence, which recruits the protective protein complex, shelterin. Shelterin, together with chromatin remodelling proteins, shapes the heterochromatic structure at the telomere and protects chromosome ends...
April 16, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662634/caloric-restriction-delays-yeast-chronological-aging-by-remodeling-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-altering-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-functionalities-and-postponing-the-onsets-of-apoptotic-and-liponecrotic-modes-of-regulated-cell-death
#2
Anthony Arlia-Ciommo, Anna Leonov, Adam Beach, Vincent R Richard, Simon D Bourque, Michelle T Burstein, Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Olivia Koupaki, Rachel Feldman, Vladimir I Titorenko
A dietary regimen of caloric restriction delays aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we assessed how caloric restriction influences morphological, biochemical and cell biological properties of chronologically aging yeast advancing through different stages of the aging process. Our findings revealed that this low-calorie diet slows yeast chronological aging by mechanisms that coordinate the spatiotemporal dynamics of various cellular processes before entry into a non-proliferative state and after such entry...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622660/rnase-h-eliminates-r-loops-that-disrupt-dna-replication-but-is-nonessential-for-efficient-dsb-repair
#3
Hongchang Zhao, Min Zhu, Oliver Limbo, Paul Russell
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , genome stability depends on RNases H1 and H2, which remove ribonucleotides from DNA and eliminate RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops). In Schizosaccharomyces pombe , RNase H enzymes were reported to process RNA-DNA hybrids produced at a double-strand break (DSB) generated by I-PpoI meganuclease. However, it is unclear if RNase H is generally required for efficient DSB repair in fission yeast, or whether it has other genome protection roles. Here, we show that S. pombe rnh1∆ rnh201∆ cells, which lack the RNase H enzymes, accumulate R-loops and activate DNA damage checkpoints...
April 5, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618061/histone-deacetylation-promotes-transcriptional-silencing-at-facultative-heterochromatin
#4
Beth R Watts, Sina Wittmann, Maxime Wery, Camille Gautier, Krzysztof Kus, Adrien Birot, Dong-Hyuk Heo, Cornelia Kilchert, Antonin Morillon, Lidia Vasiljeva
It is important to accurately regulate the expression of genes involved in development and environmental response. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, meiotic genes are tightly repressed during vegetative growth. Despite being embedded in heterochromatin these genes are transcribed and believed to be repressed primarily at the level of RNA. However, the mechanism of facultative heterochromatin formation and the interplay with transcription regulation is not understood. We show genome-wide that HDAC-dependent histone deacetylation is a major determinant in transcriptional silencing of facultative heterochromatin domains...
March 29, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610759/molecular-signature-of-the-imprintosome-complex-at-the-mating-type-locus-in-fission-yeast
#5
Célia Raimondi, Bernd Jagla, Caroline Proux, Hervé Waxin, Serge Gangloff, Benoit Arcangioli
Genetic and molecular studies have indicated that an epigenetic imprint at mat1 , the sexual locus of fission yeast, initiates mating type switching. The polar DNA replication of mat1 generates an imprint on the Watson strand. The process by which the imprint is formed and maintained through the cell cycle remains unclear. To understand better the mechanism of imprint formation and stability, we characterized the recruitment of early players of mating type switching at the mat1 region. We found that the switch activating protein 1 (Sap1) is preferentially recruited inside the mat1M allele on a sequence ( SS13 ) that enhances the imprint...
January 16, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596413/lack-of-2-o-methylation-in-the-trna-anticodon-loop-of-two-phylogenetically-distant-yeast-species-activates-the-general-amino-acid-control-pathway
#6
Lu Han, Michael P Guy, Yoshiko Kon, Eric M Phizicky
Modification defects in the tRNA anticodon loop often impair yeast growth and cause human disease. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the phylogenetically distant fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, trm7Δ mutants grow poorly due to lack of 2'-O-methylation of C32 and G34 in the tRNAPhe anticodon loop, and lesions in the human TRM7 homolog FTSJ1 cause non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability (NSXLID). However, it is unclear why trm7Δ mutants grow poorly. We show here that despite the fact that S...
March 29, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593117/genetic-defects-in-sapk-signalling-chromatin-regulation-vesicle-transport-and-coa-related-lipid-metabolism-are-rescued-by-rapamycin-in-fission-yeast
#7
Kenichi Sajiki, Yuria Tahara, Alejandro Villar-Briones, Tomáš Pluskal, Takayuki Teruya, Ayaka Mori, Mitsuko Hatanaka, Masahiro Ebe, Takahiro Nakamura, Keita Aoki, Yukinobu Nakaseko, Mitsuhiro Yanagida
Rapamycin inhibits TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase, and is being used clinically to treat various diseases ranging from cancers to fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. To understand rapamycin mechanisms of action more comprehensively, 1014 temperature-sensitive (ts) fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ) mutants were screened in order to isolate strains in which the ts phenotype was rescued by rapamycin. Rapamycin-rescued 45 strains, among which 12 genes responsible for temperature sensitivity were identified...
March 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576528/zufsp-deubiquitylates-k63-linked-polyubiquitin-chains-to-promote-genome-stability
#8
Peter Haahr, Nikoline Borgermann, Xiaohu Guo, Dimitris Typas, Divya Achuthankutty, Saskia Hoffmann, Robert Shearer, Titia K Sixma, Niels Mailand
Deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) enhance the dynamics of the versatile ubiquitin (Ub) code by reversing and regulating cellular ubiquitylation processes at multiple levels. Here we discovered that the uncharacterized human protein ZUFSP (zinc finger with UFM1-specific peptidase domain protein/C6orf113/ZUP1), which has been annotated as a potentially inactive UFM1 protease, and its fission yeast homolog Mug105 define a previously unrecognized class of evolutionarily conserved cysteine protease DUBs. Human ZUFSP selectively interacts with and cleaves long K63-linked poly-Ub chains by means of tandem Ub-binding domains, whereas it displays poor activity toward mono- or di-Ub substrates...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550859/genetic-interactions-between-the-chromosome-axis-associated-protein-hop1-and-homologous-recombination-determinants-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#9
Simon David Brown, Olga Dorota Jarosinska, Alexander Lorenz
Hop1 is a component of the meiosis-specific chromosome axis and belongs to the evolutionarily conserved family of HORMA domain proteins. Hop1 and its orthologs in higher eukaryotes are a major factor in promoting double-strand DNA break formation and inter-homolog recombination. In budding yeast and mammals, they are also involved in a meiotic checkpoint kinase cascade monitoring the completion of double-strand DNA break repair. We used the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks a canonical synaptonemal complex to test whether Hop1 has a role beyond supporting the generation of double-strand DNA breaks and facilitating inter-homolog recombination events...
March 17, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549582/the-conserved-histone-variant-h2a-z-illuminates-meiotic-recombination-initiation
#10
REVIEW
Shintaro Yamada, Kazuto Kugou, Da-Qiao Ding, Yurika Fujita, Yasushi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Murakami, Kunihiro Ohta, Takatomi Yamada
Meiotic recombination ensures faithful chromosome segregation and confers genetic diversity to gametes, and thus, is a key DNA-templated reaction not only for sexual reproduction, but also evolution. This recombination is initiated by programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are mainly formed at recombination hotspots. As meiotic DSB formation requires multiple proteins, it is regulated by chromatin structure. In particular, DSB occurs in a higher-order chromatin architecture termed "axis-loop", in which many loops protrude from proteinaceous axis...
March 16, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549126/the-major-facilitator-transporter-str3-is-required-for-low-affinity-heme-acquisition-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#11
Vincent Normant, Thierry Mourer, Simon Labbe
In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe , acquisition of exogenous heme is largely mediated by the cell membrane-associated Shu1. Here, we report that Str3, a member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters promotes cellular heme import. Using a strain that cannot synthesize heme de novo ( hem1Δ ) and lacks Shu1, we found that the heme-dependent growth deficit of this strain is rescued by hemin supplementation in the presence of Str3. Microscopic analyses of a hem1Δ shu1Δ str3Δ mutant strain in the presence of the heme analog zinc mesoporphyrin IX (ZnMP) revealed that ZnMP fails to accumulate within the mutant cells...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544993/combined-chemical-and-biotechnological-production-of-20%C3%AE-oh-nordhcmt-a-long-term-metabolite-of-oral-turinabol-dhcmt
#12
Jiaxin Liu, Lei Chen, Jan Felix Joseph, Alexandra Naß, Anna Stoll, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botrè, Gerhard Wolber, Maria Kristina Parr, Matthias Bureik
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are misused very frequently in sport competitions as performance enhancing agents. One of the doping compounds that has been detected with increased frequency in the last few years is dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (DHCMT, 4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one; brand name Oral Turinabol). The long-term DHCMT metabolite 20βOH-NorDHCMT (4-chloro-17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one) was reported earlier to be detectable in urine samples for more than 22 days after DHCMT administration; however, purified reference material was not available so far...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529046/zinc-transporters-belonging-to-the-cation-diffusion-facilitator-cdf-family-have-complementary-roles-in-transporting-zinc-out-of-the-cytosol
#13
Sangyong Choi, Ya-Mei Hu, Mark E Corkins, Amy E Palmer, Amanda J Bird
Zinc is an essential trace element that is required for the function of a large number of proteins. As these zinc-binding proteins are found within the cytosol and organelles, all eukaryotes require mechanisms to ensure that zinc is delivered to organelles, even under conditions of zinc deficiency. Although many zinc transporters belonging to the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) families have well characterized roles in transporting zinc into the lumens of intracellular compartments, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that maintain organelle zinc homeostasis...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514920/cell-size-dependent-regulation-of-wee1-localization-by-cdr2-cortical-nodes
#14
Corey A H Allard, Hannah E Opalko, Ko-Wei Liu, Uche Medoh, James B Moseley
Cell size control requires mechanisms that link cell growth with Cdk1 activity. In fission yeast, the protein kinase Cdr2 forms cortical nodes that include the Cdk1 inhibitor Wee1 along with the Wee1-inhibitory kinase Cdr1. We investigated how nodes inhibit Wee1 during cell growth. Biochemical fractionation revealed that Cdr2 nodes were megadalton structures enriched for activated Cdr2, which increases in level during interphase growth. In live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy videos, Cdr2 and Cdr1 remained constant at nodes over time, but Wee1 localized to nodes in short bursts...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502950/equatorial-assembly-of-the-cell-division-actomyosin-ring-in-the-absence-of-cytokinetic-spatial-cues
#15
Tzer Chyn Lim, Tomoyuki Hatano, Anton Kamnev, Mohan K Balasubramanian, Ting Gang Chew
The position of the division site dictates the size and fate of daughter cells in many organisms. In animal cells, division-site placement involves overlapping mechanisms, including signaling from the central spindle microtubules, astral microtubules, and spindle poles and through polar contractions [1-3]. In fission yeast, division-site positioning requires overlapping mechanisms involving the anillin-related protein Mid1 and the tip complex (comprising the Kelch-repeat protein Tea1, the Dyrk-kinase Pom1, and the SH3-domain protein Tea4) [4-11]...
February 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476094/a-family-of-unconventional-deubiquitinases-with-modular-chain-specificity-determinants
#16
Thomas Hermanns, Christian Pichlo, Ilka Woiwode, Karsten Klopffleisch, Katharina F Witting, Huib Ovaa, Ulrich Baumann, Kay Hofmann
Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) regulate ubiquitin signaling by trimming ubiquitin chains or removing ubiquitin from modified substrates. Similar activities exist for ubiquitin-related modifiers, although the enzymes involved are usually not related. Here, we report human ZUFSP (also known as ZUP1 and C6orf113) and fission yeast Mug105 as founding members of a DUB family different from the six known DUB classes. The crystal structure of human ZUFSP in covalent complex with propargylated ubiquitin shows that the DUB family shares a fold with UFM1- and Atg8-specific proteases, but uses a different active site more similar to canonical DUB enzymes...
February 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474927/post-meiotic-dna-double-strand-breaks-are-conserved-in-fission-yeast
#17
Tiphanie Cavé, Marie-Chantal Grégoire, Marc-André Brazeau, Guylain Boissonneault
In mammals, spermiogenesis is characterized by transient formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the whole population of haploid spermatids. DSB repair in such haploid context may represent a mutational transition. Using a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and specific labelling of DSBs at 3'OH DNA ends, we showed that post-meiotic, enzyme-induced DSBs are also observed in the synchronizable pat1-114 mutant of Shizosaccharomyces pombe as well as in a wild-type strain, while DNA repair is observed at later stages...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466359/cdk-activity-provides-temporal-and-quantitative-cues-for-organizing-genome-duplication
#18
Anthony Perrot, Christopher Lee Millington, Blanca Gómez-Escoda, Diane Schausi-Tiffoche, Pei-Yun Jenny Wu
In eukaryotes, the spatial and temporal organization of genome duplication gives rise to distinctive profiles of replication origin usage along the chromosomes. While it has become increasingly clear that these programs are important for cellular physiology, the mechanisms by which they are determined and modulated remain elusive. Replication initiation requires the function of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which associate with various cyclin partners to drive cell proliferation. Surprisingly, although we possess detailed knowledge of the CDK regulators and targets that are crucial for origin activation, little is known about whether CDKs play a critical role in establishing the genome-wide pattern of origin selection...
February 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464330/the-interplay-of-histone-h2b-ubiquitination-with-budding-and-fission-yeast-heterochromatin
#19
REVIEW
Alexis Zukowski, Aaron M Johnson
Mono-ubiquitinated histone H2B (H2B-Ub) is important for chromatin regulation of transcription, chromatin assembly, and also influences heterochromatin. In this review, we discuss the effects of H2B-Ub from nucleosome to higher-order chromatin structure. We then assess what is currently known of the role of H2B-Ub in heterochromatic silencing in budding and fission yeasts (S. cerevisiae and S. pombe), which have distinct silencing mechanisms. In budding yeast, the SIR complex initiates heterochromatin assembly with the aid of a H2B-Ub deubiquitinase, Ubp10...
February 20, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463658/functional-and-expression-analyses-of-the-pneumocystis-mat-genes-suggest-obligate-sexuality-through-primary-homothallism-within-host-lungs
#20
S Richard, J M G C F Almeida, O H Cissé, A Luraschi, O Nielsen, M Pagni, P M Hauser
Fungi of the genus Pneumocystis are obligate parasites that colonize mammals' lungs and are host species specific. Pneumocystis jirovecii and Pneumocystis carinii infect, respectively, humans and rats. They can turn into opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed hosts, causing severe pneumonia. Their cell cycle is poorly known, mainly because of the absence of an established method of culture in vitro It is thought to include both asexual and sexual phases. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that their mode of sexual reproduction is primary homothallism involving a single mating type ( MAT ) locus encompassing plus and minus genes ( matMc , matMi , and matPi ; Almeida et al...
February 20, 2018: MBio
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