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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551589/behavioral-change-in-response-to-a-statewide-tobacco-tax-increase-and-differences-across-socioeconomic-status
#1
Michael J Parks, John H Kingsbury, Raymond G Boyle, Kelvin Choi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a leading behavioral risk factor for morbidity and mortality, and the tobacco epidemic disproportionately affects low-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Taxation is effective for reducing cigarette use, and it is an effective population-based policy for reducing SES-related tobacco disparities. However, progress in implementing cigarette excise taxes has stalled across the United States, and there is a dearth of research on the full spectrum of behavioral shifts that result from taxes, particularly among low-SES populations...
May 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551495/capsular-specific-igm-enhances-complement-mediated-phagocytosis-and-killing-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-methamphetamine-treated-j774-16-macrophage-like-cells
#2
Lilit Aslanyan, Vaibhav V Ekhar, Carlos M DeLeon-Rodriguez, Luis R Martinez
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system of users in the United States and worldwide, and its consumption is associated to the acquisition of HIV and AIDS-related infections. METH enhances cryptococcosis in mice, an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Due to its ability to survive within macrophages, C. neoformans is an ideal model to study pathogen-macrophage interactions. METH abrogates normal macrophage function, which might contribute to the higher rate and more rapid progression of infections in drug abusers...
May 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551480/general-and-diabetes-specific-stress-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Kaitlyn Rechenberg, Robin Whittemore, Margaret Holland, Margaret Grey
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic health conditions in adolescents in the United States. Adherence to the recommended treatment regimen has been reported as a source of stress for adolescents. AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among general and diabetes-specific stress and glycemic control (HbA1c), self-management, and diabetes-specific quality of life (QOL) in adolescents with T1D. METHODS: A secondary analysis of baseline data (N=320) from a randomized controlled trial was conducted...
May 16, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551380/computed-tomography-measured-psoas-density-predicts-outcomes-in-trauma
#4
Taehwan Yoo, Wilson D Lo, David C Evans
BACKGROUND: Age-related loss of muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) is linked to poor outcomes after operation and trauma. Here we evaluate computed tomography measured psoas muscle density and area using quick and simple tools available to the bedside clinician. We hypothesize these measures will predict poor outcomes after blunt traumatic injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients ages ≥45 years in the Ohio State University Trauma Registry in 2008 that received a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and/or pelvis with intravenous contrast...
May 24, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551339/acr-radpeer-committee-white-paper-with-2016-updates-revised-scoring-system-new-classifications-self-review-and-subspecialized-reports
#5
Shlomit Goldberg-Stein, L Alexandre Frigini, Scott Long, Zeyad Metwalli, Xuan V Nguyen, Mark Parker, Hani Abujudeh
The ACR's RADPEER program is currently the leading method for peer review in the United States. To date, more than 18,000 radiologists and more than 1,100 groups participate in the program. The ABR accepted RADPEER as a practice quality improvement in 2009, which can be applied toward maintenance of certification; there are currently over 2,200 practice quality improvement participants. There have been ongoing deliberations regarding the utility of RADPEER, its goals, and its scoring system since the preceding 2009 white paper...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551285/insights-into-the-unique-torpor-of-botrylloides-leachi-a-colonial-urochordate
#6
Hyams Yosef, Paz Guy, Rabinowitz Claudette, Rinkevich Baruch
Rough environmental conditions make the survival of many multi-cellular organisms almost impossible, enforcing behavioral, morphological, physiological and reproductive rejoinders that can cope with harsh times and hostile environments, frequently through down-regulation of metabolism into basal states of dormancy, or torpor. This study examines one of the most unique torpor strategies seen within the phylum Chordata, exhibited by the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi, which enters a state of hibernation or aestivation in response to thermal stress, during which all of its functional colonial units (zooids) are entirely absorbed and the colony survives as small remnants of the vasculature, lacking both feeding and reproduction organs...
May 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551198/change-in-depression-across-adolescence-the-role-of-early-anger-socialization-and-child-anger
#7
Colleen R O'Neal, Lynsey C Weston, Xin He, Keng-Yen Huang, Daniel S Pine, Dimitra Kamboukos, Laurie Miller Brotman
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relations of early socialization of anger with change in adolescent depression, and moderation by child anger. Using a sample of low-income, ethnic minority children at familial risk for psychopathology in the United States (n = 92; ages 3-5; 53% female; 65% African American; 27% Latina/o), early anger socialization (i.e., parent response to child anger) was tested as a predictor of change in depression from preadolescence to adolescence [i.e., age 8 (n = 63), 11 (n = 58), and 13 (n = 44)]...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551184/the-effect-of-different-treatments-for-early-lactation-hyperketonemia-on-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-plasma-nonesterified-fatty-acids-glucose-insulin-and-glucagon-in-dairy-cattle
#8
S Mann, F A Leal Yepes, E Behling-Kelly, J A A McArt
Despite increased efforts in preventing the occurrence of metabolic disorders in transition cows, hyperketonemia remains a frequent early-lactation metabolic disease affecting an average of 40% of cows in herds in the United States. Despite the demonstrated economic effect of this disorder, controlled clinical trials comparing different treatment strategies in affected cows are lacking. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of treatment with intravenous glucose, oral propylene glycol, or a combination of both on the reduction in blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations of early-lactation hyperketonemic dairy cows...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550958/interprofessional-collaboration-to-improve-sepsis-care-and-survival-within-a-tertiary-care-emergency-department
#9
Elizabeth R Tedesco, Kimberly Whiteman, Melanie Heuston, Brenda Swanson-Biearman, Kimberly Stephens
PROBLEM: Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States; however, health care providers struggle with timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the National Quality Forum have identified this diagnosis as a priority. Presently, many patients with sepsis are identified late, resulting in significant morbidity and death. METHODS: In this project, a collaborative, interprofessional approach was created for screening and early identification of ED patients with possible sepsis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550744/evaluation-of-a-multi-site-program-designed-to-strengthen-relational-bonds-for-siblings-separated-by-foster-care
#10
Jeffrey Waid, Armeda Stevenson Wojciak
Sibling relationships in foster care settings have received increased attention in recent years. Despite growing evidence regarding the protective potential of sibling relationships for youth in care, some sibling groups continue to experience foster care related separation, and few programs exist to address the needs of these youth. This study describes and evaluates Camp To Belong, a multi-site program designed to provide short-term reunification to separated sibling groups through a week-long summer camp experience...
May 13, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550505/neuro-oncology-family-caregivers-view-on-keeping-track-of-care-issues-using-ehealth-systems-it-s-a-question-of-time
#11
Florien W Boele, Cornelia F van Uden-Kraan, Karen Hilverda, Jason Weimer, Heidi S Donovan, Jan Drappatz, Frank S Lieberman, Irma Verdonck-de Leeuw, Paula R Sherwood
Primary brain tumors (PBTs) are rare but have a great impact on both patient and family caregiver wellbeing. Supporting caregivers can help them to continue their caregiving activities to maintain the patients' best possible level of quality of life. Efforts to improve PBT caregiver wellbeing should take into account country- or culture-specific differences in care issues and supportive care needs to serve larger caregiver groups. We aimed to explore PBT caregivers' satisfaction with the current supportive care provision, as well as their thoughts on monitoring their care issues with both paper-based and digital instruments...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550377/acceptability-of-and-adherence-to-an-antiretroviral-based-vaginal-microbicide-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#12
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Lisa M Noguchi, James Y Dai, Jason Pan, Joseph Biggio, Craig Hendrix, Karen Isaacs, D Heather Watts, Jill L Schwartz, Jeanna Piper, Richard Beigi
The MTN-008 trial was the first multi-dose study conducted to evaluate the safety of a microbicide gel (2:1 randomized to tenofovir 1% or hydroxycellulose (HEC) placebo gel) during pregnancy. The study aim was to evaluate safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the study products. Procedures included daily gel administration, with Day 0 and Day 6 in clinic, and Days 1-5 at home. Because pregnancy may pose unique challenges to consistent gel use and acceptability, evaluation of adherence and acceptability was a secondary objective of the trial...
May 26, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550116/myeloid-derived-cells-in-prostate-cancer-progression-phenotype-and-prospective-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Zoila Lopez-Bujanda, Charles G Drake
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality in men in the United States. As is the case for other tumor types, accumulating evidence suggests an important role for myeloid-derived cells in the promotion and progression of prostate cancer. Here, we briefly describe myeloid-derived cells that interact with tumor cells and what is known about their immune suppressive function. We next discuss new evidence for tumor cell-mediated myeloid infiltration via the PI3K/PTEN/AKT signaling pathway and an alternative mechanism for immune evasion that may be regulated by an endoplasmic reticulum stress response...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550058/whole-genome-and-core-genome-multilocus-sequence-typing-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-analyses-of-listeria-monocytogenes-associated-with-an-outbreak-linked-to-cheese-united-states-2013
#14
Yi Chen, Yan Luo, Heather Carleton, Ruth Timme, David Melka, Tim Muruvanda, Charles Wang, George Kastanis, Lee S Katz, Lauren Turner, Angela Fritzinger, Terence Moore, Robert Stones, Joseph Blankenship, Monique Salter, Mickey Parish, Thomas S Hammack, Peter S Evans, Cheryl L Tarr, Marc W Allard, Errol A Strain, Eric W Brown
Epidemiological findings of a listeriosis outbreak in 2013 implicated Hispanic-style cheese produced by Company A, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed on clinical isolates and representative isolates collected from Company A cheese and environmental samples during the investigation. The results strengthened the evidence for cheese as the vehicle. Surveillance sampling and WGS three months later revealed that the equipment purchased by Company B from Company A yielded an environmental isolate highly similar to all outbreak isolates...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550057/prevalence-and-genomic-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-cow-calf-herds-throughout-california
#15
Jay N Worley, Kristopher A Flores, Xun Yang, Jennifer A Chase, Guojie Cao, Shuai Tang, Jianghong Meng, Edward R Atwill
Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is a zoonotic food- and waterborne bacterial pathogen that has a high hospitalization rate and can cause life-threatening complications. Increasingly, E. coli O157:H7 infections appear to originate from fresh produce. Ruminants, like cattle, are a prominent reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 in the United States. California is one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world for fresh produce, beef, and milk. The close proximity of fresh produce and cattle present food safety challenges on a uniquely large scale...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549856/three-decades-of-managing-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-in-peanut-in-southeastern-united-states
#16
REVIEW
R Srinivasan, M R Abney, A K Culbreath, R C Kemerait, R S Tubbs, W S Monfort, H R Pappu
Southeastern states namely Georgia, Florida, and Alabama produce two-thirds of the peanuts in the United States. Thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which causes spotted wilt disease, has been a major impediment to peanut production for the past three decades. The cultivars grown in the 1980s were extremely susceptible to TSWV. Early yield losses extended to tens of millions of dollars each year (up to 100% loss in many fields). This situation led to the creation of an interdisciplinary team known as "SWAT: Spotted Wilt Action Team"...
May 23, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549849/optimizing-glaucoma-screening-in-high-risk-population-design-and-1-year-findings-of-the-screening-to-prevent-stop-glaucoma-study
#17
Di Zhao, Eliseo Guallar, Prateek Gajwani, Bonnielin Swenor, John Crews, Jinan Saaddine, Lucy Mudie, Varshini Varadaraj, David S Friedman
PURPOSE: To develop, implement, and evaluate replicable community-based screening intervention designed to improve glaucoma and other eye disease detection and follow-up care in high-risk populations in the United States. We present the design of the study and describe the findings of the first year of the program. DESIGN: Prospective study to evaluate screening and follow-up. METHODS: This is an ongoing study to develop an eye screening program using trained personnel to identify individuals with ophthalmic needs, focusing on African Americans ≥50 years of age at multiple inner-city community sites in Baltimore, MD...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549847/trends-in-hospitalization-and-incidence-rate-for-syphilitic-uveitis-in-the-united-states-from-1998-2009
#18
Thomas Albini, Natalia F Callaway, Suzann Pershing, Sean K Wang, Andrew A Moshfeghi, Darius M Moshfeghi
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the annual incidence of syphilitic uveitis in the US and trends in hospital admissions over time. DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal incidence rate analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from 1998 to 2009. METHODS: The NIS is a de-identified, random sample dataset of inpatient hospitalizations from 46 states. The number of cases of syphilitic uveitis was defined: 1) ICD-9 code for syphilis and uveitis or 2) ICD-9 code for syphilitic uveitis...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549732/metachronous-colon-polyps-in-younger-versus-older-adults-a-case-control-study
#19
Sajan Jiv Singh Nagpal, Dhruvika Mukhija, Madhusudhan Sanaka, Rocio Lopez, Carol A Burke
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States has decreased substantially in individuals aged 50 and older. Contrariwise, it is increasing in young adults. The polyp characteristics on baseline and follow-up colonoscopy in young adults are not well characterized. We describe the polyp characteristics on baseline and follow-up colonoscopy in adults < 40 years and determined factors associated with the occurrence of metachronous, advanced neoplasia or high risk (HR) polyp features...
May 23, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549516/visual-acuity-change-over-12-months-in-the-prospective-progression-of-atrophy-secondary-to-stargardt-disease-progstar-study-progstar-report-number-6
#20
Xiangrong Kong, Rupert W Strauss, Artur V Cideciyan, Michel Michaelides, José-Alain Sahel, Beatriz Munoz, Mohamed Ahmed, Ann M Ervin, Sheila K West, Janet K Cheetham, Hendrik P N Scholl
PURPOSE: To estimate the yearly rate of change of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the risk of loss 1 line or more over 1 year and to identify risk factors for BCVA loss in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD1). DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-nine patients (489 eyes) with molecularly confirmed STGD1 enrolled at 9 centers in the United States and Europe. METHODS: Participants were followed up every 6 months, and data at the baseline and 6- and 12-month visits were analyzed...
May 23, 2017: Ophthalmology
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