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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340502/trends-in-alcohol-consumption-among-older-americans-national-health-interview-surveys-1997-to-2014
#1
Rosalind A Breslow, I-Jen P Castle, Chiung M Chen, Barry I Graubard
BACKGROUND: The majority of U.S. older adults consume alcoholic beverages. The older population is projected to almost double by 2050. Substantially more drinkers are likely. PURPOSE: To describe gender-specific trends (1997 to 2014) in prevalence of drinking status (lifetime abstention, former drinking, current drinking [including average volume], and binge drinking) among U.S. adults ages 60+ by age group and birth cohort. METHODS: In the 1997 to 2014 National Health Interview Surveys, 65,303 respondents ages 60+ (31,803 men, 33,500 women) were current drinkers; 6,570 men and 1,737 women were binge drinkers...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340462/assessment-of-arsenic-and-fluorine-in-surface-soil-to-determine-environmental-and-health-risk-factors-in-the-comarca-lagunera-mexico
#2
Yareli A Sariñana-Ruiz, Jorge Vazquez-Arenas, Fabiola S Sosa-Rodríguez, Israel Labastida, Ma Aurora Armienta, Antonio Aragón-Piña, Miguel A Escobedo-Bretado, Laura S González-Valdez, Patricia Ponce-Peña, Hugo Ramírez-Aldaba, René H Lara
Total, bioaccessible and mobile concentrations of arsenic and fluorine are determined in polluted surface soil within the Comarca Lagunera region using standardized protocols to obtain a full description of the environmental behavior for these elements. The composition of mineral phases associated with them is evaluated with microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Mineralogical characterizations indicate that ultra-fine particles (<1-5 μm) including mimetite-vanadite (Pb5(AsO4)3Cl, Pb5(AsO4, VO4)3Cl)-like, lead arseniate (Pb3(AsO4)2)-like and complex arsenic-bearing compounds are main arsenic-bearing phases, while fluorite (CaF2) is the only fluorine-bearing phase...
March 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340442/neurocognitive-performance-as-an-endophenotype-for-mood-disorder-subgroups
#3
Alison K Merikangas, Lihong Cui, Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Kathleen R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that neurocognitive function may be an endophenotype for mood disorders. The goal of this study is to examine the specificity and familiality of neurocognitive functioning across the full range of mood disorder subgroups, including Bipolar I (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II), Major Depressive Disorders (MDD), and controls in a community-based family study. METHODS: A total of 310 participants from 137 families with mood spectrum disorders (n=151) and controls (n=159) completed the University of Pennsylvania's Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) that assessed the accuracy and speed of task performance across five domains...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340349/structure-reveals-mechanisms-of-viral-suppressors-that-intercept-a-crispr-rna-guided-surveillance-complex
#4
Saikat Chowdhury, Joshua Carter, MaryClare F Rollins, Sarah M Golden, Ryan N Jackson, Connor Hoffmann, Lyn'Al Nosaka, Joseph Bondy-Denomy, Karen L Maxwell, Alan R Davidson, Elizabeth R Fischer, Gabriel C Lander, Blake Wiedenheft
Genetic conflict between viruses and their hosts drives evolution and genetic innovation. Prokaryotes evolved CRISPR-mediated adaptive immune systems for protection from viral infection, and viruses have evolved diverse anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that subvert these immune systems. The adaptive immune system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (type I-F) relies on a 350 kDa CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided surveillance complex (Csy complex) to bind foreign DNA and recruit a trans-acting nuclease for target degradation. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Csy complex bound to two different Acr proteins, AcrF1 and AcrF2, at an average resolution of 3...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340337/structural-basis-of-rna-polymerase-i-transcription-initiation
#5
Christoph Engel, Tobias Gubbey, Simon Neyer, Sarah Sainsbury, Christiane Oberthuer, Carlo Baejen, Carrie Bernecky, Patrick Cramer
Transcription initiation at the ribosomal RNA promoter requires RNA polymerase (Pol) I and the initiation factors Rrn3 and core factor (CF). Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to obtain a molecular model for basal Pol I initiation. The three-subunit CF binds upstream promoter DNA, docks to the Pol I-Rrn3 complex, and loads DNA into the expanded active center cleft of the polymerase. DNA unwinding between the Pol I protrusion and clamp domains enables cleft contraction, resulting in an active Pol I conformation and RNA synthesis...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339772/heterologous-desensitization-of-cardiac-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signal-via-hormone-induced-%C3%AE-ar-arrestin-pde4-complexes
#6
Qian Shi, Minghui Li, Delphine Mika, Qin Fu, Sungjin Kim, Jason Phan, Ao Shen, Gregoire Vandecasteele, Yang K Xiang
Aims: Cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling is susceptible to heterologous desensitization by different neurohormonal stimuli in clinical conditions associated with heart failure. We aim to examine the underlying mechanism of cross talk between βARs and a set of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by hormones/agonists. Methods and results: Rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were used to determine heterologous phosphorylation of βARs under a series of GPCR agonists...
February 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339601/characterization-and-consistency-of-interactions-of-triggers-and-substrate-at-the-onset-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#7
David G Jones, Vias Markides, Anthony W C Chow, Richard J Schilling, Prapa Kanagaratnam, Tom Wong, D Wyn Davies, Nicholas S Peters
Aims: Initiating mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) remain poorly understood, involving complex interaction between triggers and the atrial substrate. This study sought to classify the transitional phenomena, hypothesizing that there is consistency within and between patients in trigger-substrate interaction during transition to AF. Methods and results: Non-contact left atrial (LA) mapping was performed in 17 patients undergoing ablation for paroxysmal AF. All had spontaneous ectopy...
January 25, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339518/pain-interference-and-incident-medical-disorders-in-the-general-population
#8
Declan T Barry, Corey E Pilver Glenn, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza
Objective. : To investigate the longitudinal relationship between pain interference and incident general medical conditions in a nationally representative sample. Methods. : Secondary data analysis comprising chi-square tests and binomial logistic regression analyses were performed on data obtained from the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions from 34,465 adult respondents who completed wave 1 (2000-2001) and wave 2 (2004-2005) data collection...
October 20, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339510/3d-dentofacial-photogrammetry-reference-values-a-novel-approach-to-orthodontic-diagnosis
#9
Mohamed I Masoud, Neetu Bansal, Jose C Castillo, Amornrut Manosudprasit, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Arshan Haghi, Hannah C Hawkins, Erik Otárola-Castillo
Background: Orthodontic diagnostic standards generally use the cranial base as a reference and rely on samples selected by orthodontists. Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide male and female standards for a novel non-radiographic approach for orthodontic diagnosis that utilizes 3D dentofacial photogrammetry using the eyes and natural head orientation as references instead of the cranial base. Methods: One hundred and eighty females and 200 males between the ages of 18 and 35 years from 2 modeling agencies were orthodontically screened for near ideal occlusion...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339247/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-fragility-of-freon-113-the-most-fragile-plastic-crystal
#10
A Vispa, M Romanini, M A Ramos, L C Pardo, F J Bermejo, M Hassaine, A I Krivchikov, J W Taylor, J Ll Tamarit
We present a dynamic and thermodynamic study of the orientational glass former Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CCl_{2}F-CClF_{2}) in order to analyze its kinetic and thermodynamic fragilities. Freon 113 displays internal molecular degrees of freedom that promote a complex energy landscape. Experimental specific heat and its microscopic origin, the vibrational density of states from inelastic neutron scattering, together with the orientational dynamics obtained by means of dielectric spectroscopy have revealed the highest fragility value, both thermodynamic and kinetic, found for this orientational glass former...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339226/percolation-via-combined-electrostatic-and-chemical-doping-in-complex-oxide-films
#11
Peter P Orth, Rafael M Fernandes, Jeff Walter, C Leighton, B I Shklovskii
Stimulated by experimental advances in electrolyte gating methods, we investigate theoretically percolation in thin films of inhomogeneous complex oxides, such as La_{1-x}Sr_{x}CoO_{3} (LSCO), induced by a combination of bulk chemical and surface electrostatic doping. Using numerical and analytical methods, we identify two mechanisms that describe how bulk dopants reduce the amount of electrostatic surface charge required to reach percolation: (i) bulk-assisted surface percolation and (ii) surface-assisted bulk percolation...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339214/muscle-protein-signaling-in-c2c12-cells-is-stimulated-to-a-similar-degree-by-diverse-commercial-food-protein-sources-and-experimental-soy-protein-hydrolysates
#12
David A Roeseler, Nancy J McGraw, Dustie N Butteiger, Naina Shah, Janine Hall-Porter, Ratna Mukherjea, Elaine Susan Krul
Dietary protein stimulates muscle protein synthesis and is essential for muscle health. We developed a screening assay using C2C12 mouse muscle cells to assess the relative abilities of diverse commercial proteins sources and experimental soy protein hydrolysates (ESH), after simulated gut digestion (SGD), to activate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) muscle protein synthesis signaling pathway (p70S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation). Activation of mTORC1 was expressed as a percentage of a maximal insulin response...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335483/land-use-for-edible-protein-of-animal-origin-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Gerhard Flachowsky, Ulrich Meyer, Karl-Heinz Südekum
The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F's). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions...
March 18, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335462/therapeutic-potentials-of-microalgae-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Tosin A Olasehinde, Ademola O Olaniran, Anthony I Okoh
Current research is geared towards the discovery of new compounds with strong neuroprotective potential and few or no side effects compared to synthetic drugs. This review focuses on the potentials of extracts and biologically active compounds derived from microalgal biomass for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microalgal research has gained much attention recently due to its contribution to the production of renewable fuels and the ability of alga cells to produce several secondary metabolites such as carotenoids, polyphenols, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polysaccharides...
March 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335454/porcine-rotaviruses-epidemiology-immune-responses-and-control-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Anastasia N Vlasova, Joshua O Amimo, Linda J Saif
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335447/transcriptomic-complexity-of-aspergillus-terreus-velvet-gene-family-under-the-influence-of-butyrolactone-i
#16
Elina K Palonen, Sheetal Raina, Annika Brandt, Jussi Meriluoto, Tajalli Keshavarz, Juhani T Soini
Filamentous fungi of the Ascomycota phylum are known to contain a family of conserved conidiation regulating proteins with distinctive velvet domains. In Aspergilli, this velvet family includes four proteins, VeA, VelB, VelC and VosA, and is involved in conidiation and secondary metabolism along with a global regulator LaeA. In A. terreus, the overexpression of LaeA has been observed to increase the biogenesis of the pharmaceutically-important secondary metabolite, lovastatin, while the role of the velvet family has not been studied...
March 14, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335035/a-novel-cisd2-mutation-associated-with-a-classical-wolfram-syndrome-phenotype-alters-ca2-homeostasis-and-er-mitochondria-interactions
#17
Cécile Rouzier, David Moore, Cécile Delorme, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Samira Ait-El-Mkadem, Konstantina Fragaki, Florence Burté, Valérie Serre, Sylvie Bannwarth, Annabelle Chaussenot, Martin Catala, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Véronique Paquis-Flucklinger
Wolfram syndrome (WS) is progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by early-onset optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus, which can be associated with more extensive central nervous system and endocrine complications. The majority of patients harbour pathogenic WFS1 mutations, but recessive mutations in a second gene, CISD2, have been described in a small number of families with Wolfram syndrome type 2 (WFS2). The defining diagnostic criteria for WFS2 also consist of optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus, but unlike WFS1, this phenotypic subgroup has been associated with peptic ulcer disease and an increased bleeding tendency...
March 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334999/rewiring-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-with-acupuncture
#18
Yumi Maeda, Hyungjun Kim, Norman Kettner, Jieun Kim, Stephen Cina, Cristina Malatesta, Jessica Gerber, Claire McManus, Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Pia Mezzacappa, Alexandra Libby, Ishtiaq Mawla, Leslie R Morse, Ted J Kaptchuk, Joseph Audette, Vitaly Napadow
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49...
March 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334984/interdisciplinary-working-in-public-health-research-a-proposed-good-practice-checklist
#19
L Gavens, J Holmes, G Bühringer, J McLeod, M Neumann, A Lingford-Hughes, E S Hock, P S Meier
Background: Guidance on how different disciplines from the natural, behavioural and social sciences can collaborate to resolve complex public health problems is lacking. This article presents a checklist to support researchers and principle investigators to develop and implement interdisciplinary collaborations. Methods: Fourteen individuals, representing 10 disciplines, participated in in-depth interviews to explore the strengths and challenges of working together on an interdisciplinary project to identify the determinants of substance use and gambling disorders, and to make recommendations for future interdisciplinary teams...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334922/scn2a-deletion-improves-survival-and-brain-heart-dynamics-in-the-kcna1-null-mouse-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep
#20
Vikas Mishra, Bharat K Karumuri, Nicole M Gautier, Rui Liu, Timothy N Hutson, Stephanie L Vanhoof-Villalba, Ioannis Vlachos, Leonidas Iasemidis, Edward Glasscock
People with epilepsy have greatly increased probability of premature mortality due to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Identifying which patients are most at risk of SUDEP is hindered by a complex genetic etiology, incomplete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, and lack of prognostic biomarkers. Here we evaluated heterozygous Scn2a gene deletion (Scn2a+/-) as a protective genetic modifier in the Kcna1 knockout mouse (Kcna1-/-) model of SUDEP, while searching for biomarkers of SUDEP risk embedded in electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recordings...
March 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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