Read by QxMD icon Read

Skull base foramina

Sumit Singh, Curtis Qin, Srikanth Medarametla, Shilpa V Hegde
We report a 14-month-old male with craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD). The patient presented with a history of diminishing vision and hearing loss. Cranial computed tomography scan showed diffuse calvarial and skull base hyperostosis with excessive bone narrowing the internal auditory canals and skull base foramina. A subsequent skeletal survey revealed other skeletal abnormalities, which led to the diagnosis of CMD. This was later confirmed by ANKH mutation. CMD is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to the group of craniotubular bone dysplasias...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
Sheri K Palejwala, Jonnae Y Barry, Crystal N Rodriguez, Chandni A Parikh, Stephen A Goldstein, G Michael Lemole
Many neoplasms of the head and neck extend centripetally, gaining access to the central nervous system via nerves through the skull base foramina. Often patients with perineural spread have been excluded from aggressive interventions given the overall poor prognosis and technical difficulty when addressing the perineural components. However, in carefully selected patients combined surgical approaches can provide the greatest potential for disease control as well as neural decompression for symptom relief. We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients who underwent skull base approaches for resection of tumors with intracranial extension via perineural spread from 2011 to 2014...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Aaron D Skolnik, Laurie A Loevner, Deepak M Sampathu, Jason G Newman, John Y Lee, Linda J Bagley, Kim O Learned
Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors that may arise along the complex course of the cranial nerves (CNs), anywhere in the head and neck. Sound knowledge of the CN anatomy and imaging features of schwannomas is paramount for making the correct diagnosis. In this article, we review approaches to diagnosing CN schwannomas by describing their imaging characteristics and the associated clinical presentations. Relevant anatomic considerations are highlighted by using illustrative examples and key differential diagnoses categorized according to regions, which include the anterior skull base, orbit, cavernous sinus, basal cisterns, and neck...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Hillary R Kelly, Hugh D Curtin
Skull base imaging requires a thorough knowledge of the complex anatomy of this region, including the numerous fissures and foramina and the major neurovascular structures that traverse them. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play complementary roles in imaging of the skull base. MR is the preferred modality for evaluation of the soft tissues, the cranial nerves, and the medullary spaces of bone, while CT is preferred for demonstrating thin cortical bone structure. The anatomic location and origin of a lesion as well as the specific CT and MR findings can often narrow the differential diagnosis to a short list of possibilities...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
C M Rice, T Spencer, G Bunea, N J Scolding, P Sloan, U Nath
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognised, multiorgan, inflammatory disease, and its full clinical spectrum remains undefined. We present a biopsy-proven case of IgG4-RD presenting with a parapharyngeal mass with intracranial extension and possible involvement of the brain parenchyma. We highlight the importance of considering the diagnosis in those presenting with tumefactive lesions, leptomeningitis or pachymeningitis and emphasise the value of securing a tissue diagnosis so that appropriate long-term treatment can be instigated and complications avoided...
June 2016: Practical Neurology
B V Murlimanju, Ganesh Kumar Chettiar, Ashwin Krishnamurthy, Mangala M Pai, Vasudha V Saralaya, Latha V Prabhu, Rajanigandha Vadgaonkar
AIM: The knowledge of the vasculature around the paracondylar region is important in neurosurgical procedures such as the paracondylar and lateral supracondylar approaches. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of paracondylar emissary foramina in the adult skull bases and to study the morphology of condylar canals and hypoglossal canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study included 48 adult human skulls that were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution...
2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
Ahsan Ullah, Namal Pervez, Shammas Raza Khan, Muhammad Ishfaq, Sehrish Liaqat
Osteopetrosis is a hereditary disorder of bone characterized by sclerosis of bone and decreased marrow spaces. Due to depressed marrow function, this disorder can cause anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, recurrent infections and osteomyelitis of jaw. Excessive bone deposition in skull base leads to narrowing of foramina and cranial nerve compression. Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative treatment. Other treatments, like interferon gamma, corticosteroids, parathormone and erythropoietin are also used for management...
October 2015: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Eric Mason, C Arturo Solares, Ricardo L Carrau, Ramon Figueroa
Objectives The integral involvement of sinus and skull base surgeries in the field of otolaryngology makes the endonasal vasculature including the ethmoidal arteries important to consider. The anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) and posterior ethmoidal artery (PEA) are well-known entities, yet the relatively recent notion of accessory or middle ethmoidal vessels complicates our understanding of this arterial system. Study Design Radiographic study. Methods Fifty computed tomographic angiographies were studied for the presence of accessory/middle ethmoidal arteries (MEAs)...
September 2015: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
Aleksanteri Aspelund, Salli Antila, Steven T Proulx, Tine Veronica Karlsen, Sinem Karaman, Michael Detmar, Helge Wiig, Kari Alitalo
The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull...
June 29, 2015: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Bertram Brenig, Ekkehard Schütz, Michael Hardt, Petra Scheuermann, Markus Freick
Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene...
2015: PloS One
Adrian Kinzel, Peter Spangenberg, Schreiber Lutz, Sebastian Lücke, Albrecht Harders, Martin Scholz, Athanasios K Petridis
OBJECTIVES: The anatomy of the cavernous sinus is described controversially in a number of publications. In the present cadaveric study, the architecture of the dorsolateral wall of the cavernous sinus is studied microsurgically and histologically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cadaveric skulls have been dissected through a classical surgical frontotemporal approach. The temporal skull base was flattened and anatomical landmarks like the meningo-orbital band, superior orbital fissure, foramina rotundum, ovale, and spinosum were identified...
September 2015: Acta Neurochirurgica
Shaina N Reid, Janine M Ziermann, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis
Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE...
July 2015: Journal of Anatomy
Sophia E Akbareian, Andrew A Pitsillides, Raymond G Macharia, Imelda M McGonnell
Cranial foramina are holes within the skull, formed during development, allowing entry and exit of blood vessels and nerves. Once formed they must remain open, due to the vital structures they contain, i.e. optic nerves, jugular vein, carotid artery, and other cranial nerves and blood vessels. Understanding cranial foramina development is essential as cranial malformations lead to the stenosis or complete closure of these structures, resulting in blindness, deafness, facial paralysis, raised intracranial pressure and lethality...
June 2015: Journal of Anatomy
Claudia F E Kirsch
Introduction Over the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced due to new techniques involving increased magnetic field strength and developments in coils and pulse sequences. These advances allow increased opportunity to delineate the complex skull base anatomy and may guide the diagnosis and treatment of the myriad of pathologies that can affect the skull base. Objectives The objective of this article is to provide a brief background of the development of MRI and illustrate advances in skull base imaging, including techniques that allow improved conspicuity, characterization, and correlative physiologic assessment of skull base pathologies...
October 2014: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Yeliz Pekcevik, Ilker Burak Arslan, Yildiz Arslan
BACKGROUND: Intraosseous lipomatous lesions of the sphenoid bone and skull base are increasingly seen and cause a diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this study was to present the imaging findings of 4 patients with incidentally identified intraosseous lipomatous lesions within the sphenoid bone. METHODS: CT scans and MR images of 4 patients are shown. Macroscopic fat content of the lesions were evaluated by fat-saturated sequences on MRI and by measuring fat density in Hounsfield Units on CT...
February 2016: Head & Neck
Tobias Boppel, Martin Bendszus, Andreas J Bartsch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cavum-trigeminale-cephaloceles (CTCs) are rare lesions of Meckel's cave and the petrous apex. Despite distinctive imaging features, they are frequently mistaken for other petrous apex lesions. In contrast to many of these entities, CTCs do--when asymptomatic--not require any invasive work-up or even surgical excision. Since correct diagnosis has profound impact on clinical decision-making, we report on a series of CTCs with distinct imaging features and their important differential diagnoses...
June 2015: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Vincent Patron, Julie Berkaoui, Roger Jankowski, Emmanuelle Lechapt-Zalcman, Sylvain Moreau, Martin Hitier
PURPOSE: The olfactory cleft has garnered interest since the advent of endoscopic skull base surgery. Its precise anatomy, however, is still partially unknown. According to Rouvière, an "ethmoidal foramen" is located in its antero-medial part and contains a process of the dura mater. In a more lateral and anterior location, a second foramen, the "cribroethmoidal foramen", contains the anterior ethmoidal nerve. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of these elements and to establish landmarks for surgery...
September 2015: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Young Bae Sohn, Shin-Young Yim, Eun-Hae Cho, Ok-Hwa Kim
Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS, OMIM #601224) is a rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of genes located on the 11p11.2p12. Affected individuals have a number of characteristic features including multiple exostoses, biparietal foramina, abnormalities of genitourinary system, hypotonia, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. We report here on the first Korean case of an 8-yr-old boy with PSS diagnosed by high resolution microarray. Initial evaluation was done at age 6 months because of a history of developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic face...
February 2015: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Rebecca Woodford, Navjot Chaudhary, Amparo Wolf, Stephen Lownie, Jerrold E Armstrong
The infratemporal fossa (ITF) is an anatomically complex region with multiple neural and vascular structures entering and exiting through foramina in the skull base. The main obstacles to approaching the ITF are the zygomatic arch, the parotid gland, the facial nerve, and the ascending ramus AND condylar head of the mandible. Different surgical approaches to the ITF exist and the best approach should provide optimal visibility, minimal impairment of temporomandibular joint function, and preservation of motor and sensory nerve integrity...
April 2015: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Rajanigandha Vadgaonkar, Rajalakshmi Rai, Latha V Prabhu, Ashwin R Rai, Mamatha Tonse, P C Vani
PURPOSE: Ethmoidal foramina on the medial orbital wall show a higher incidence of variation. Surgeons performing endonasal, anterior cranial fossa and medial orbital wall surgeries must be aware of these variations as they are a source of hemorrhage and also serve as landmark in proximity to the orbital apex. AIM: The present study aims to describe the morphometric distances of various ethmoidal foramina between anterior lacrimal crest to optic canal in south Indian dry human skulls...
September 2015: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"