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Skull base foramina

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224379/nerves-of-steel-a-low-cost-method-for-3d-printing-the-cranial-nerves
#1
Ramin Javan, Duncan Davidson, Afshin Javan
Steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate details down to the cranial nerve (CN) level. High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) visualization can now quickly be performed at the workstation. However, we are still limited by visualization on flat screens. The emerging technologies in rapid prototyping or 3D printing overcome this limitation. It comprises a variety of automated manufacturing techniques, which use virtual 3D data sets to fabricate solid forms in a layer-by-layer technique...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153164/growth-changes-in-the-anterior-and-middle-cranial-bases-assessed-with-cone-beam-computed-tomography-in-adolescents
#2
Mona Afrand, Heesoo Oh, Carlos Flores-Mir, Manuel O Lagravère-Vich
INTRODUCTION: Initially, cone-beam computed tomography images from dry skulls were used to 3 dimensionally evaluate intrarater and interrater reliabilities and accuracy of selected 3-dimensional landmarks located in the anterior and middle cranial bases. Thereafter, dimensional changes of the anterior and middle cranial bases with growth were evaluated by using the previously selected landmarks. METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography images of 10 dry skulls were used to identify useful landmarks from different areas of the anterior and middle cranial bases based on their reliability and accuracy...
February 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977492/analysis-of-anatomical-characteristics-and-morphometric-aspects-of-infraorbital-and-accessory-infraorbital-foramina
#3
Paulo Antônio Martins-Júnior, Cristiano Pereira Rodrigues, Marilda Luz de Andrade De Maria, Larissa Matias Nogueira, Janice Henriques da Silva, Micena Roberta Miranda Alves E Silva
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform a morphological and morphometric study of the characteristics of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) and accessory infraorbital foramen (AIOF) in Brazilian skulls. METHODS: A sample calculation determined a total of 94 human skulls to be evaluated by a trained examiner for number, shape, diameters, and location of IOF in relation to anatomical landmarks. Number, size, shape, diameters, location, orientation, position, and distances in relation to anatomical landmarks were evaluated for the AIOF...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932266/pterygopalatine-fossa-not-a-mystery
#4
Betul Emine Derinkuyu, Oznur Boyunaga, Cigdem Oztunali, Ayse Gul Alimli, Murat Ucar
The pterygopalatine fossa is an important anatomic crossroads that is connected with numerous intra- and extracranial spaces via foramina and fissures. Although this fossa is small, its central location in the skull base and its communications provide clinical, radiological, and anatomical significance. In this pictorial review, we aimed to describe the radiologic anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa, as well as to give some pathologic examples to better understand this major conduit.
December 6, 2016: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884603/cranial-nerve-involvement-in-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#5
Nirav Das, Savannah Kandalaft, Xiao Wu, Ajay Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is a rare disorder with less than 200,000 cases reported in the US every year, making diagnosis challenging. MR and CT imaging has become more common in the evaluation of CMT to identify areas of disease involvement. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old female from Guatemala with a past history of polio initially presented to the emergency room for necrotizing pneumonia. MRI images demonstrated smoothly enlarged, mildly enhancing trigeminal nerves...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860392/novel-ct-guided-biopsy-of-isolated-perineural-spread-of-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-along-the-trigeminal-nerve-masquerading-as-chronic-trigeminal-neuropathy
#6
Xian Zhang Eric Yong, Jonathan Dillon, Paul Smith, Cesar Salinas-La Rosa, Ashu Jhamb
The differential diagnoses for chronic peripheral neuropathy are broad and diagnosing a cause can be challenging. We present a case of isolated perineural spread of adenoid cystic carcinoma to the trigeminal nerve involving skull base foramina and Meckel's cave in the setting of chronic trigeminal neuropathy and no known prior malignancy. Computed tomography-guided core (CT) needle biopsy was needed to arrive at a diagnosis and a novel approach was required to obtain tissue from the trigeminal nerve lesion at foramen ovale...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837265/unusual-foramen-in-the-middle-cranial-fossae-of-adult-black-south-african-skull-specimens
#7
Pedzisai Mazengenya, Okobi Ekpo
Variations of the skull base foramina are quite common and often cause surgical confusion during surgical intervention of the region. The unusual foramen was observed in five (0.98%) adult skulls of black South Africans obtained from the Raymond A Dart collection of human specimens housed in the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand. Three of the five specimens were females while the remaining two were males. In four of the five skulls, the unusual foramen was located anterolateral to the foramen rotundum both on the left and right sides...
November 11, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594963/craniometaphyseal-dysplasia-in-a-14-month-old-a-case-report-and-review-of-imaging-differential-diagnosis
#8
Sumit Singh, Curtis Qin, Srikanth Medarametla, Shilpa V Hegde
We report a 14-month-old male with craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD). The patient presented with a history of diminishing vision and hearing loss. Cranial computed tomography scan showed diffuse calvarial and skull base hyperostosis with excessive bone narrowing the internal auditory canals and skull base foramina. A subsequent skeletal survey revealed other skeletal abnormalities, which led to the diagnosis of CMD. This was later confirmed by ANKH mutation. CMD is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to the group of craniotubular bone dysplasias...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588370/combined-approaches-to-the-skull-base-for-intracranial-extension-of-tumors-via-perineural-spread-can-improve-patient-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Sheri K Palejwala, Jonnae Y Barry, Crystal N Rodriguez, Chandni A Parikh, Stephen A Goldstein, G Michael Lemole
Many neoplasms of the head and neck extend centripetally, gaining access to the central nervous system via nerves through the skull base foramina. Often patients with perineural spread have been excluded from aggressive interventions given the overall poor prognosis and technical difficulty when addressing the perineural components. However, in carefully selected patients combined surgical approaches can provide the greatest potential for disease control as well as neural decompression for symptom relief. We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients who underwent skull base approaches for resection of tumors with intracranial extension via perineural spread from 2011 to 2014...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541436/cranial-nerve-schwannomas-diagnostic-imaging-approach
#10
Aaron D Skolnik, Laurie A Loevner, Deepak M Sampathu, Jason G Newman, John Y Lee, Linda J Bagley, Kim O Learned
Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors that may arise along the complex course of the cranial nerves (CNs), anywhere in the head and neck. Sound knowledge of the CN anatomy and imaging features of schwannomas is paramount for making the correct diagnosis. In this article, we review approaches to diagnosing CN schwannomas by describing their imaging characteristics and the associated clinical presentations. Relevant anatomic considerations are highlighted by using illustrative examples and key differential diagnoses categorized according to regions, which include the anterior skull base, orbit, cavernous sinus, basal cisterns, and neck...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432686/imaging-of-skull-base-lesions
#11
REVIEW
Hillary R Kelly, Hugh D Curtin
Skull base imaging requires a thorough knowledge of the complex anatomy of this region, including the numerous fissures and foramina and the major neurovascular structures that traverse them. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play complementary roles in imaging of the skull base. MR is the preferred modality for evaluation of the soft tissues, the cranial nerves, and the medullary spaces of bone, while CT is preferred for demonstrating thin cortical bone structure. The anatomic location and origin of a lesion as well as the specific CT and MR findings can often narrow the differential diagnosis to a short list of possibilities...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26856357/intracranial-spread-of-igg4-related-disease-via-skull-base-foramina
#12
C M Rice, T Spencer, G Bunea, N J Scolding, P Sloan, U Nath
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognised, multiorgan, inflammatory disease, and its full clinical spectrum remains undefined. We present a biopsy-proven case of IgG4-RD presenting with a parapharyngeal mass with intracranial extension and possible involvement of the brain parenchyma. We highlight the importance of considering the diagnosis in those presenting with tumefactive lesions, leptomeningitis or pachymeningitis and emphasise the value of securing a tissue diagnosis so that appropriate long-term treatment can be instigated and complications avoided...
June 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617131/the-paracondylar-skull-base-anatomical-variants-and-their-clinical-implications
#13
B V Murlimanju, Ganesh Kumar Chettiar, Ashwin Krishnamurthy, Mangala M Pai, Vasudha V Saralaya, Latha V Prabhu, Rajanigandha Vadgaonkar
AIM: The knowledge of the vasculature around the paracondylar region is important in neurosurgical procedures such as the paracondylar and lateral supracondylar approaches. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of paracondylar emissary foramina in the adult skull bases and to study the morphology of condylar canals and hypoglossal canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study included 48 adult human skulls that were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution...
2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26522199/oral-manifestations-of-osteopetrosis
#14
Ahsan Ullah, Namal Pervez, Shammas Raza Khan, Muhammad Ishfaq, Sehrish Liaqat
Osteopetrosis is a hereditary disorder of bone characterized by sclerosis of bone and decreased marrow spaces. Due to depressed marrow function, this disorder can cause anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, recurrent infections and osteomyelitis of jaw. Excessive bone deposition in skull base leads to narrowing of foramina and cranial nerve compression. Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative treatment. Other treatments, like interferon gamma, corticosteroids, parathormone and erythropoietin are also used for management...
October 2015: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401479/computed-tomographic-exploration-of-the-middle-ethmoidal-artery
#15
Eric Mason, C Arturo Solares, Ricardo L Carrau, Ramon Figueroa
Objectives The integral involvement of sinus and skull base surgeries in the field of otolaryngology makes the endonasal vasculature including the ethmoidal arteries important to consider. The anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) and posterior ethmoidal artery (PEA) are well-known entities, yet the relatively recent notion of accessory or middle ethmoidal vessels complicates our understanding of this arterial system. Study Design Radiographic study. Methods Fifty computed tomographic angiographies were studied for the presence of accessory/middle ethmoidal arteries (MEAs)...
September 2015: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26077718/a-dural-lymphatic-vascular-system-that-drains-brain-interstitial-fluid-and-macromolecules
#16
Aleksanteri Aspelund, Salli Antila, Steven T Proulx, Tine Veronica Karlsen, Sinem Karaman, Michael Detmar, Helge Wiig, Kari Alitalo
The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull...
June 29, 2015: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26076463/a-20-bp-duplication-in-exon-2-of-the-aristaless-like-homeobox-4-gene-alx4-is-the-candidate-causative-mutation-for-tibial-hemimelia-syndrome-in-galloway-cattle
#17
Bertram Brenig, Ekkehard Schütz, Michael Hardt, Petra Scheuermann, Markus Freick
Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26066535/microsurgical-and-histological-identification-and-definition-of-an-interdural-incision-zone-in-the-dorsolateral-cavernous-sinus
#18
Adrian Kinzel, Peter Spangenberg, Schreiber Lutz, Sebastian Lücke, Albrecht Harders, Martin Scholz, Athanasios K Petridis
OBJECTIVES: The anatomy of the cavernous sinus is described controversially in a number of publications. In the present cadaveric study, the architecture of the dorsolateral wall of the cavernous sinus is studied microsurgically and histologically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cadaveric skulls have been dissected through a classical surgical frontotemporal approach. The temporal skull base was flattened and anatomical landmarks like the meningo-orbital band, superior orbital fissure, foramina rotundum, ovale, and spinosum were identified...
September 2015: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26018729/genetically-induced-abnormal-cranial-development-in-human-trisomy-18-with-holoprosencephaly-comparisons-with-the-normal-tempo-of-osteogenic-neural-development
#19
Shaina N Reid, Janine M Ziermann, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis
Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE...
July 2015: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25994127/occipital-foramina-development-involves-localised-regulation-of-mesenchyme-proliferation-and-is-independent-of-apoptosis
#20
Sophia E Akbareian, Andrew A Pitsillides, Raymond G Macharia, Imelda M McGonnell
Cranial foramina are holes within the skull, formed during development, allowing entry and exit of blood vessels and nerves. Once formed they must remain open, due to the vital structures they contain, i.e. optic nerves, jugular vein, carotid artery, and other cranial nerves and blood vessels. Understanding cranial foramina development is essential as cranial malformations lead to the stenosis or complete closure of these structures, resulting in blindness, deafness, facial paralysis, raised intracranial pressure and lethality...
June 2015: Journal of Anatomy
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